Skills for Work: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction Support Material

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Skills for Work:
Rural Skills
Intermediate 1
Soft Landscaping:
An Introduction
Support Material
September 2006
Scottish Further Education Unit
Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Acknowledgements
SFEU is grateful to the subject specialists in Scotland’s Colleges and other
agencies and industry bodies who have been involved in the writing of this and
other support materials in the Skills for Work series.
SFEU is also grateful for the contribution of the Scottish Qualifications Authority in
the compilation of these materials, specifically for its permission to reproduce
extracts from Course and Unit Specifications and the Skills for Work Rationale,
and to LANTRA for help and advice.
• Scottish Further Education Unit 2006
Scottish Further Education Unit
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
Intermediate 1
DX13 10
Introduction
These notes are provided to support teachers and lecturers presenting the
Scottish Qualifications Authority Unit DX13 10 Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An
Introduction. Copyright for this pack is held by the Scottish Further Education Unit
(SFEU). However, teachers and lecturers have permission to use the pack and
reproduce items from the pack provided that this is to support teaching and
learning processes and that no profit is made from such use. If reproduced in
part, the source should be acknowledged.
Enquiries relating to this Support Pack or issues relating to copyright should be
addressed to:
Marketing Officer - Communications
The Scottish Further Education Unit
Argyll Court
Castle Business Park
Stirling
FK9 4TY
Website: www.sfeu.ac.uk
Further information regarding this Unit including Unit Specification, National
Assessment Bank materials, Centre Approval and certification can be obtained
from:
The Scottish Qualifications Authority
Optima Building
58 Robertson Street
Glasgow
G2 8DQ
Website: www.sqa.org.uk
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this Support Pack,
teachers and lecturers should satisfy themselves that the information passed to
candidates is accurate and in accordance with the current SQA arrangements
documents. SFEU will accept no responsibility for any consequences deriving
either directly or indirectly from the use of this Pack.
Scottish Further Education Unit
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Contents
Reference Section
7
What are Skills for Work Courses all about?
8
The Course in Rural Skills (Intermediate 1)
11
Unit Outcomes, PCs and Evidence Requirements
13
Employability Skills Profile
15
Tutor Support Section
16
How to use this pack
17
Guidance on Delivery of Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
19
Employability Skills
21
Integrating the Content of the Employability Skills Unit
21
Generating Evidence and Assessment Opportunities for Employability Skills 24
Resources
26
Suggested Learning Programme
28
Learning and Teaching with Under 16s
30
Skills for Work Workshops
33
Student Support Section
34
Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
35
Health and Safety Matters
37
Hedges
38
Trees and Shrubs
44
Root-balled Plants
46
Container Grown Trees and Shrubs
47
Plant Protection
48
Trees and Shrubs commonly used in Landscaping
50
Bedding Plants
51
Herbaceous Perennials
56
Weeding
59
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Mulching
60
Watering
60
Self-assessment
61
Glossary of Terms
64
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Reference Section
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
What are Skills for Work Courses all about?
Skills for Work Courses are designed to help candidates to develop:
 skills and knowledge in a broad vocational area
 Core Skills
 an understanding of the workplace
 positive attitudes to learning
 skills and attitudes for employability
A key feature of these Courses is the emphasis on experiential learning. This
means learning through practical experience and learning by reflecting on
experience.
Learning through practical experience
Teaching/learning programmes should include some or all of the following:
 learning in real or simulated workplace settings
 learning through role play activities in vocational contexts
 carrying out case study work
 planning and carrying out practical tasks and assignments
Learning through reflecting at all stages of the experience
Teaching/learning programmes should include some or all of the following:
 preparing and planning for the experience
 taking stock throughout the experience
 reviewing and adapting as necessary
 reflecting after the activity has been completed
 evaluating, self-assessing and identifying learning points
The Skills for Work Courses are also designed to provide candidates with
opportunities for developing Core Skills and enhancing skills and attitudes for
employability.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Core Skills
The five Core Skills are:
 Communication
 Numeracy
 Information Technology
 Problem Solving
 Working with Others
Employability
The skills and attitudes for employability, including self-employment, are outlined
below:
 generic skills/attitudes valued by employers
 understanding of the workplace and the employee’s responsibilities, for
example time-keeping, appearance, customer care
 self-evaluation skills
 positive attitude to learning
 flexible approaches to solving problems
 adaptability and positive attitude to change
 confidence to set goals, reflect and learn from experience
 specific vocational skills/knowledge
 Course Specifications highlight the links to National Occupational
Standards in the vocational area and identify progression opportunities.
Opportunities for developing these skills and attitudes are highlighted in each of
the Course and Unit Specifications. These opportunities include giving young
people direct access to workplace experiences or, through partnership
arrangements, providing different learning environments and experiences which
simulate aspects of the workplace. These experiences might include visits,
visiting speakers, role play and other practical activities.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
A Curriculum for Excellence (Scottish Executive 2004) identifies aspirations for
every young person. These are that they should become:
 successful learners
 confident individuals
 responsible citizens
 effective contributors
The learning environments, the focus on experiential learning and the
opportunities to develop employability and Core Skills in these Courses contribute
to meeting these aspirations.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
The Course in Rural Skills (Intermediate 1)
Course Rationale
The land-based sector is very diverse and includes a wide number of disciplines
that share a common element of being active, practical and mainly based
outdoors. The major disciplines that are recognised as land-based by the sector
skills council for the area include the following: agricultural crops; fencing
industries; land-based engineering industries; production horticulture industries;
tree and timber related industries; environmental conservation industries;
landscaping industries; agricultural livestock; animal care industries; aquaculture;
equine industries; farriery; fisheries management; game and wildlife management
and veterinary industries.
There is a very wide range of land-based businesses in Scotland with a great
variety of job roles. Changes in rural land use, including the decline and change of
traditional agriculture, have created a knowledge gap. Research has indicated that
fewer people are likely to contribute to the rural economy and its development
unless more individuals are introduced to the possible opportunities in land-based
industries in the UK.
This Rural Skills Course has been designed to provide a broad basis for
progression into further education and training in the land-based sector. It allows
candidates to begin to develop some of the basic practical skills necessary to
work in most of these disciplines as well as an opportunity to explore the very
diverse employment prospects that exist.
The primary target group for the course is school candidates in S3 and S4. It is
anticipated that, for this group of candidates, the course will rely on and build on
existing partnerships between schools and further education colleges delivering
specialisms in land-based industries. It may also be delivered in conjunction with
training providers or employers specialising in the land-based industries. These
partnerships will enable the course to be delivered in a variety of appropriate
learning environments with access to relevant teaching expertise.
The course has been designed with a common core that allows candidates to
develop an insight into the numerous opportunities of the land-based industries
and to develop the basic common skills of the sector. It also allows candidates to
choose a route that is related to either animals or plants where they can develop
specific basic practical skills in that general category.
The general aims of the course are to:
 widen participation in vocationally-related learning for 14–16 year olds
 allow candidates to experience vocationally-related learning
 provide candidates with a broad introduction to the land-based sector
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
 encourage candidates to develop a good work ethic including reliability,
flexibility and a positive attitude to work
 provide opportunities to develop Core Skills in a realistic context
 encourage candidates to take charge of their own learning and development
 provide a range of teaching, learning and assessment styles to motivate
candidates to achieve their full potential
 facilitate progression to further education and/or training
The specific aims of this course are to:
 introduce candidates to the various disciplines of the land-based sector
 allow candidates to develop a basic knowledge of a selection of land-based
industries and related job roles
 allow candidates to experience an outdoor working environment
 allow candidates to develop an understanding of the very flexible requirements
of the individual who works with plants and/or animals
 allow candidates to develop an awareness of health and safety issues that are
integral to a career in a land-based industry
 allow candidates to develop the technical knowledge, skills and understanding
of some of the commonly used practical skills associated with land-based
industries at this level
 introduce candidates to the technical knowledge, skills and understanding of
some specific practical skills associated with a selection of land-based
industries at this level
 prepare candidates for more focused further learning opportunities, study and
training for employment in land-based industries
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Unit Outcomes, PCs and Evidence Requirements
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
Unit: Animal Husbandry: An Introduction (Intermediate 1)
Acceptable performance in this Unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the
standards set out in this part of the Unit specification. All sections of the
statement of standards are mandatory and cannot be altered without reference to
the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
Outcome 1
Assist with the establishment of a soft landscaped area.
Performance Criteria
a) Assist with the preparation of a soft landscaped area.
b) Give a reason for choosing the selected plants.
c) Assist with the planting of a soft landscaped area.
d) Assist with post-planting activities.
e) Demonstrate safe working practices
Outcome 2
Assist with the maintenance of soft landscaped areas.
Performance Criteria
a) Assist with control measures for weeds.
b) Assist with pruning and/or deadheading plants.
c) Demonstrate safe working practices.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Evidence Requirements For This Unit
Performance evidence supported by an assessor observation checklist together
with additional evidence is required to show that all Outcomes and Performance
Criteria have been achieved.
Evidence must be gathered in a context of soft landscaping projects being
implemented by an employer, voluntary organisation, training organisation or
college. Examples of appropriate landscape projects can be found in ‘Guidance
on Content and Context for this Unit’, in the support notes of this Unit
specification.
The assessor observation checklist confirms that the candidate has:
 helped to clear the site
 helped to cultivate the site
 helped to improve the soil of the site
 correctly spaced the plants
 planted the plants to the correct depth with the correct diameter of hole
 added soil improver or fertiliser when necessary
 placed, back filled and firmed-in the plants
 carried out two post-planting activities (selected from staking, placing in grotubes, shelter provision, guard provision, water provision, mulching)
 carried out two different methods of weed control
 carried out deadheading and/or pruning
 demonstrated safe working practices throughout
Additional evidence will also be recorded. This additional evidence will confirm
that the candidate can give one reason for choosing the selected plants.
The item for this Unit contains an assessor observation checklist, with a section to
record the additional evidence. The NAB illustrates the national standard required
for this Unit. Centres who wish to devise their own assessments should refer to
the NAB to ensure a comparable standard.
NB
Centres must refer to the full Unit Specification for detailed
information related to this Unit.
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Scottish Further Education Unit
=B
=C
=D
=E
=F
=G
Estate Maintenance: An Introduction
Employability Skills for land based industries
Animal Husbandry: An Introduction
Animal Handling: An Introduction
Crop Production: An Introduction
Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
Employability skill/attitude
acceptable time keeping and attendance
understanding roles and responsibilities in the workplace
planning and preparing for work
working co-operatively with others
awareness of efficient resource use
ability to follow instructions
health and safety awareness
self review and evaluation
positive attitude to learning
G = Assessor checklists and candidate log sheets of practical tasks undertaken
Assessment evidence:
A = Portfolio containing candidate planning and review sheets and assessor checklists
B = Assessor checklists of practical tasks undertaken
C = Candidate/assessor review sheets, risk examination log
D = Assessor checklists and candidate log sheets of practical tasks undertaken
E = Assessor checklists and candidate log sheets of practical tasks undertaken
F = Assessor checklists and candidate log sheets of practical tasks undertaken









C
A
A, C
A, C, D, E, F, G
C
A,B,C, D, E, F, G
B, C, D, E, F, G
A, C
C
Evidence
In addition to the specific, vocational skills developed and assessed in this Course, employability skills are addressed as
detailed below:
=A
Land Based Industries: An Introduction
Employability Skills Profile: Rural Skills (Intermediate 1)
Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Employability Skills Profile
15
Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Tutor Support Section
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
How to use this pack
This pack comes in two sections.
In the first section advice is given to tutors on the following:
 general Guidance on delivery specifically in soft landscaping
 signposting of Employability Skills as they occur within the Unit
 guidance on Integrating the Employability Skills for Land-based Industries Unit
as well as generic employability skills, qualities and attitudes throughout the
Unit
 advice on where it would be appropriate to collect evidence for the assessment
of employability skills
 resource requirements in terms of physical resources and recommended texts
or supplementary resources
 a suggested learning programme
 guidance on Learning and Teaching with under 16s
In the second section, student support notes are provided which include the
following:
 a general introduction to the content and format of the Unit
 materials relating to the knowledge, understanding and practical skills of the
Unit
 guidance on likely practical activities that the student will be assessed on
 some worksheets that may support practical activities
 a self-assessment area for students to test their own knowledge and
understanding (for use when the student is familiar with both all of the practical
and knowledge aspects of the Unit)
 a glossary of topic specific terminology for student referral
Tutors should note that this is not designed as a complete teaching pack.
The student notes are intended to support the teaching process, give
guidance as to the level of knowledge and understanding that is expected
and give the student opportunity to reinforce and self-review what they have
learnt. They are not designed to be a substitute for practical activity but are
a useful adjunct to it. Use of the materials and activities is not mandatory
but they will provide centres with a flexible set of materials which can be
selected, adapted and used in an order that best suits their situation. Tutors
are encouraged to use the materials creatively in ways which will engage
the younger student.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
You may wish to place the student notes on your own Intranet by downloading this
pack from the Skills for Work section of the SFEU website www.sfeu.ac.uk. On the
web-based version, the hyperlinks are live and there is a link between
emboldened terms to the Glossary of terms, which may be useful for the learner.
If printing out the student notes, please note that the photographs should be
in colour.
The use of textbooks is only appropriate as an introduction to soft landscaping.
Activities are identified with the
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Guidance on Delivery of Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
It is important that the majority of learning activity takes place involving live plant
material in either a work setting or simulated work setting. Partnerships with landbased colleges, training providers or employers are likely to provide the most
appropriate settings. Students should ideally work with a variety of plant material
and through practical work recognise the associated effects of seasonality in
relation to plants.
It is important that the deployment of appropriate learning environments is
preceded by a valid risk assessment by the Centre, particularly identifying
any protective clothing and equipment (PPE) that the student may require
and any regulations applying to work with plants. Students must be supplied
with correctly fitting PPE prior to the undertaking of any of the practical activity.
Centres delivering this learning programme in the context of soft landscaping
should pay particular attention to the risk assessment of sizes of student groups in
relation to the number of supervisors available. A maximum group size of 8
students per supervisor is recommended.
Students should gain an understanding about what is involved in planting up and
maintaining an area of soft landscaping. Ideally the centre delivering the award
should have access to some of the following facilities: hedges, woodland, shrub
beds, herbaceous borders and floral display beds.
It would be useful for both Outcomes 1 and 2 to have some classroom theoretical
and interactive input prior to undertaking the practical activities.
In relation to Outcome 1 of the Unit:
In relation to assisting with the establishment of a soft landscaping area, students
should demonstrate safe working practice of tools and equipment.
Particular operations will vary according to the plants and the site selected.
For instance in relation to planting up a herbaceous border it may involve
preparing the site and dividing the plants whereas planting amenity trees will
involve digging single holes and securing the tree to stakes.
Establishing soft landscaping areas may include establishing hedges, trees,
shrubs, herbaceous borders or bedding plant displays.
In relation to Outcome 2 of the Unit:
This outcome should be delivered in the context of maintaining soft landscaped
areas. Students should wherever possible be involved in a range of maintenance
tasks such as watering, pruning, dead heading, mulching, weeding and staking.
They should be aware of the benefits of chemical control of weeds but not actively
involved in carrying it out. Many tasks will be affected by seasonal constraints.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
It is important that throughout practical tasks that students are made aware
of:
 the importance of safe working practices
 individual responsibility for safe working and adherence to legislation
governing health and safety and use of chemicals, paying particular
attention to COSHH Regulations.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Employability Skills
2, 3, 4,
5, 6
Signposting of Employability Skills
in Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
Throughout the unit students will have the opportunity to develop the following
employability skills. Where opportunities to integrate and embed these through the
activities suggested in this pack, they are highlighted with a flag numbered as
shown here:
1
Timekeeping and
attendance
4
Working
cooperatively with
others
7
Health and safety
awareness
2
Understanding
roles and
responsibilities in
the workplace
5
Awareness of
efficient resource
use
8
Review and self
evaluation
3
Planning and
preparing for work
6
Following
Instructions
9
Positive attitude to
learning
There are opportunities in the Unit to all these skills during practical sessions,
particularly if learning activity encompasses recommendations below.
Integrating the Content of the Employability Skills Unit
and other generic employability skills
It is important to adopt a delivery approach of emphasising not only the vocational
skills development but also the development of employability skills and attitudes in
this Unit. This could be done by:
 setting particular start times for practical activities
 setting incremental targets for students in terms of mock deadlines for given
practical activities (once they have developed reasonable competence)
 monitoring the preparation and planning of the students for practical activities
 setting students a task as a group and allowing them to be responsible for the
allocation of subsets of tasks to encourage team working
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
In relation to Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, the following examples of learning
activity may be appropriate. (Note that some of these activities require the
student to have developed some familiarity with the vocational task and the work
setting):
1
 Set a time limit on a task that they have practised such as
pruning a specific number of plants.
1&2
 Set a specific time when students are to be prepared for a given
work task, wearing the appropriate PPE and armed with the
appropriate tools or aids.
2, 3, 4,
5, 6
 Instruct a group of students on an overall activity such as planting
out bedding plants and allow the group to distribute related
activities amongst themselves.
7
 Students could discuss the hazards for the tasks that they are
about to undertake and how they can be minimised.
8&9
 Students could be encouraged to participate in self and peer
review and evaluation of tasks undertaken.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
As much of the activity in this course is practical, group-related and hands-on, it
fits well with this simple review model:
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Generating Evidence and Assessment Opportunities for
Employability Skills
In addition to developing the student’s employability skills throughout the delivery
of the Unit, there are specific opportunities to generate evidence for assessment
of employability skills. You should refer to the employability skills profile in the
reference section at the front of this pack to familiarise yourself with these skills.
You should also familiarise yourself with the National Assessment Bank (NAB)
material for the Employability Unit.
There are particular opportunities to complete the review sheets of the
Employability Skills for Land-based Industries Unit (Outcomes 1 and 2) when
carrying out tasks related to Outcomes 1 and 2 of this Unit (assist with the
establishment and maintenance of soft landscaped areas). Note that it would be
easier for the activity to relate to all of the self-assessment areas for ease of
administration. If course teams choose to adopt this method of assessment they
should consider the following:
 Design the activity in a manner that will make it clear to the students that they
have been given the opportunity to demonstrate all of the employability skills
by beginning with a short briefing.
 Pay particular attention to the inclusion of awareness of efficient use of
resources: choose an activity where the student has to, for example, plant a
defined number of plants in a planting scheme.
Example
“Today we are going to work in small groups and plant a boundary hedge. You
must:
 form groups
 decide what tools are required
 decide who is doing what between yourselves
 carry out your part of the activity
 tidy up after yourselves
 report back to [the tutor] when completed
 return to [the classroom] and complete section 1 of the review sheet and bring
it to [the tutor] for their section to be completed
You’ll be assisted with tasks when required and you can ask for help whenever
you need it.”
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Students should be briefed, prior to commencement of a planned task, that they
will be assessed on the main employability skills identified in the review sheet
which are:
 acceptable time keeping and attendance
 understanding roles and responsibilities in the workplace
 planning and preparing for work
 working co-operatively with others
 awareness of efficient resource use
 following instructions
 health and safety awareness
 review and self evaluation
 positive attitude to learning
The students can then be briefed on the second section of the review sheet
(strengths, weaknesses and action plan). They should then be asked to complete
this prior to the next session planned with the tutor.
Almost all of the practical activities involved in the delivery of this Unit give the
student the opportunity to complete the assessment of Outcome 3 of the
Employability for Land-based Industries Unit.
Carrying out simple risk assessment prior to practical activities is an excellent way
to raise student safety awareness of tasks that they are about to undertake as
suggested above and could become a regular feature of the delivery of all
practical activity in this Unit. This would make the formal assessment activity
familiar to the student, allowing several opportunities to complete the pro-forma
assessment for Outcome 3 of the Employability Unit.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Resources
Resource Requirements for Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
Physical Resources:
 classroom or workroom facilities to deliver theory aspects of the course: should
include presentation facility, whiteboard or flipcharts
 library and access to computers
 access to a site or sites where plants are grown in a work setting or simulated
work setting; (this should ideally be a large garden, estate, farm or land-based
college)
Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment (PPE):
Centres should provide PPE for all students as deemed necessary in accordance
with risk assessment of tasks to be undertaken. This is likely to include the
following items:
 steel-toe capped Wellingtons or boots
 boiler suit or warm, washable clothing
 waterproof jacket
 gloves
 protective goggles
Recommended Supplementary Learning Resources
Websites:
The Royal Horticultural Society
website is useful:
http://www.rhs.org.uk
Other websites that can provide useful
information include:
British Trust Conservation
Volunteers
http://www.btcv.org.uk
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Books
 The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) have an online
bookshop with several good resources on growing a
wide range of plants. (URL:
http://www.rhs.org.uk/learning/publications/pubs_libr
ary_books.asp)
 RHS Encyclopedia of Gardening, ed. Christopher
Brickell (ISBN 0751308625)
 Gardening Techniques, Alan Titchmarsh, Mitchell
Beazley (1985) (ISBN 0855332921)
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Suggested Learning Programme
for Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
Chunks of learning activity are suggested for this Unit. The order, grouping and
timing of these sessions are at the discretion of individual centres and will depend
on factors such as timetabling, class size etc. Classroom activities may be best
grouped together and carried out before the practical activity. However, the
emphasis is on practical experiential learning and not on didactic delivery of
information and most of the allocated time should be dedicated to practical
demonstration of correct practice with the students’ involvement in assisting with
crop establishment and maintenance.
All practical activities should be preceded by an inspection
of students to ensure the correct fitting of PPE.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
The following chunks may be appropriate:
Class Based Activity
Practical Activity
The classroom sessions are designed
to be short and interactive
Practical worksheets to support tasks
are included in the Student Support
Section
 site preparation: classroom
presentation
 practical exercise on planting out a
hedge
 soil cultivation using a rotary cultivator
 practical session on planting out trees
 practical on adjusting soil pH and
applying fertiliser
 practical session on planting up a
shrub border
 practical session on single digging a
herbaceous border
 group discussion on hazards
associated with tools, plants and
machinery and how to minimise the
risk of these
 practical session on weeding an area
using a variety of hand tools
 set practical session for groups to
plant out bedding plants given a
generous timeframe
 group /peer review of performance of
planting out bedding plants
 set practical session for groups to
plant out bedding plants given a
slightly tighter timeframe
 group/peer review of performance of
planting out including discussion of
how resources could be used
efficiently
 repeat above practical to ensure
competence
 practical session on pruning and
supporting plants
 summative assessment session for
each Outcome when learner ready for
assessment
 seeds and the stages of germination
(classroom session)
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Learning and Teaching with Under 16s
Scotland’s Colleges have made significant progress in meeting the needs of
young learners. Our knowledge of the learning process has increased significantly
and provides a range of strategies and approaches which gives us a clear steer
on how lecturers can add to their skill repertoire. Lecturers can, and do, provide a
stable learning environment where young students develop a sense of selfrespect, learn from appropriate role models and see an opportunity to progress.
There are basic enabling skills for practical application which can further develop
the learning process for this group of students. So what are the characteristics of
effective learning and teaching which will help to engage young learners?
Ten ways to improve the learning process for Under 16s
(This list is not exhaustive!)
1. Activate prior knowledge and learning – ascertain what the learner knows
already and teach accordingly. Young people do have life experience but it is
more limited than adult learners and they may not always be aware of how it
will assist them in their current learning.
Tips - Question and answer; Quick Quiz; Quick diagnostic assessment on
computer; present key words from the course or unit and see how many they
recognise or know something about.
2. Tune learners into the Big Picture – the lecturer knows the curriculum inside
out and why each lesson follows a sequence, however the young learner does
not have this information and is re-assured by being given the Big Picture.
Tips – Mind map or concept map; use visuals, for example wall displays of
diagrams, photographs, flow charts; explain the learning outcomes in language
they will understand; We Are Learning Today (WALT) targets and What I‘m
Looking For (WILF) targets; give clear and visible success criteria for tasks.
3. Use Advance Organisers – these are lists of the key concept words that are
part of the course or unit.
Tip – Highlight on any text the concept words that you will be using; make a
visible list and put it on display – concept words can be struck off or referred to
as they occur (NB this helps with spelling and independent learning as they do
not have to keep checking meaning); highlight essential learning and action
points.
4. Vary the teaching approaches. The two main approaches are instructing
and demonstrating, however try to provide opportunities to facilitate learning.
Tips – Ask students what they know now that they did not know before, or
what they can do now they could not do before, at appropriate points in the
lesson or teaching block; ensure there are problem solving activities that can
be done individually or in groups; ask students to demonstrate what they have
learned; use a range of question and answer techniques that allow
participation and dialogue, eg. provide hints and cues so that they can arrive at
answers themselves.
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5. Preview and review of learning. This helps to embed previous learning and
listening skills and provides another opportunity to elicit learner understanding.
Consolidates and reinforces learning.
Tips – At the beginning of each lesson, or session, review previous learning
and preview what is coming up; at the end of each lesson or session, review
what has taken place and what will be focussed on next time – these can both
be done through question and answer, quizzes and mind mapping activities.
6. Language in the learning environment. Do not assume that the language
which is used in the learning environment is always understood by young
learners, some words may be familiar but do not have the same meaning when
used vocationally.
Tips - At appropriate points ask students what words mean; explore the
various meanings of words to find out if they may have come across this
language in another context; by looking at the structure and meaning of words
there is an opportunity for dialogue about learning and to build vocabulary.
7. Giving instructions in the learning environment. This is one of the most
difficult tasks a lecturer has to do whatever the curriculum area. With young
learners this may have to be repeated several times.
Tips – Ask a student to repeat back what you have asked them to do before
beginning a task; ask them to explain the task to one of their peers; use the
KISS principle – Keep It Short and Simple so that they can absorb and process
the information.
8. Effective feedback. Feedback is very important for the learner to assess their
progress and to see how and what they can improve. Provide opportunities to
engage in dialogue about the learning function of assessment – provide details
of the learner’s strengths and development needs either in written or spoken
form. With younger learners identifying one or two areas for development is
sufficient along with acknowledgement of what has been done well.
Essentially, learners are helped by being given a specific explanation of how
work can be improved. You can also use summarise assessment formatively,
ie. as an opportunity to identify strengths, development needs and how to
improve.
Tips – Ask students themselves to identify their own strengths and
development needs – self evaluation; peer evaluation of work can be
successful once they have been taught how to do it; the lecturer can produce a
piece of work and ask students to assess it anonymously; have a discussion
about the success criteria for the task and ensure the students are clear about
them; allow learners to set criteria for success and then measure their
achievements against these.
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9. Managing the learning behaviour. Under 16s are coming into Scotland’s
Colleges and training establishments from largely structured and routine-driven
environments in schools and early feedback from those undertaking Skills for
Work courses indicates that they very much enjoy the different learning
environment that colleges and other training providers offer. Remember
though that these are still young learners. They will still expect lecturers to
provide structure and routine and will perform best in a calm orderly learning
environment. Young students will respond to firm, fair and consistent
management. Such routines have to be established quickly and constantly
reinforced.
Tips – Health and safety is non-negotiable and consequences of noncompliance with the regulations should be made clear and adhered to at all
times; set out your expectations from day one and provide a consistent
message; have clear beginnings, middles and endings for each session; be a
positive role model for your students, i.e. be there before they are and manage
the learners with respect; always deliver what you promise; build up good
relationships and get to know the learners, make the curriculum interesting and
stress the relevance of the learning; set up a positive behaviour management
system. By following these guidelines you will build up two-way respect, which,
while sometimes challenging to achieve, can be very powerful and work to
everyone’s benefit.
10. Care and welfare issues. School/college partnerships mean increasing
numbers of young learners in college. Lecturers have to be aware of their
professional responsibilities and mindful of young people’s rights. However
lecturers have rights too, in terms of feeling safe and secure in working with
young people and there are basic steps staff can take to minimise risks. It is
essential that colleges ensure that lecturers have a working knowledge of the
Child Protection policies (local authority and college documentation) and to
follow procedures and policies diligently. School/College Liaison Officers will
be familiar with these documents and can provide support and advice. There
are also training sessions on Child Protection available from SFEU (see
below).
Tips – Avoid one-to-one situations with young students in a closed area; do not
do or say anything that could be misinterpreted; if the opportunity arises, do
some observation in schools to see and discuss how teachers use the
guidelines for their own protection as well as the young person’s.
Most young people are a delight to work with and they will positively enjoy the
experience of learning in college. However, there will inevitably be some who are
disengaged, disaffected and who have not yet had an opportunity to experience
success. ‘Skills for Work’ is a unique educational initiative that young people can
be motivated to buy into - you as the lecturer are key to the success of these
programmes.
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Skills for Work Workshops
To take this 10 point plan forward and to add to it, you can attend one of SFEU’s
‘Get Skilled Up’ half day workshops for lecturers delivering Skills for Work
Courses, when we explore further the learning process and look at a range of
specific teaching and learning techniques to use with the under 16 age group. To
find out when the next event is visit our website www.sfeu.ac.uk or contact the
Learning Process team at SFEU on 01786 892000.
Child Protection Workshops
These are run on a regular basis by staff at SFEU in Stirling and also in colleges.
For more information on these workshops please contact members of the Access
and Inclusion team at www.sfeu.ac.uk or contact the team at SFEU on 01786
892000.
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Student Support Section
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Soft Landscaping: An Introduction
An example of soft landscaping using plants and stone
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Welcome to Soft Landscaping
The notes that you’ll be given as you progress through the course help you with
the background knowledge for the skills that you’ll learn in your practical tasks.
This is a hands-on course where you’ll be assessed mainly on your practical and
employability skills. The notes and exercises you’re given are to help you to
understand the important aspects of soft landscaping and to support your practical
studies.
If you want to find out more information there are several web links and book
references that you can look at. You can also go to the following web link, which
may help you to find out how to take your interest further:
http://www.rhs.org.uk/
However, your tutors are there to support and help you. If you want to find out
more - just ask!
Tree ferns growing at Logan Botanical Gardens, near Stranraer
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Health and Safety Matters
Health and safety is an important part of everyday life whether at
home or work in order to protect individuals and work
colleagues.
It’s important in this course that, during all activities, you recognise the limits of
your abilities and that you ask for help or advice whenever you need it – we don’t
expect you to be Superman or Superwoman!
This unit will mainly be based outdoors and there are a number of Health and
Safety codes of practice and guidelines that you need to stick to during any
practical sessions.
1. Always wear and make use of the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE).
2. Always keep your work area tidy and free from obstructions.
3. Act responsibly and don’t ‘fool around’.
4. Make sure that you fully understand the task that you are about to undertake
before you start it. If you are unsure about any part of it……………Ask!
5. Check tools and equipment before you use them to make sure that they are in
good working order.
6. When you have completed a task always remember to tidy up the work site
and store all tools and equipment in their appropriate storage areas.
Remember to leave the work area the way that you would like to find it!!!
7. Always identify potential hazards and risks before starting a job. This is called
Risk Assessment.
8. It is important that safe lifting and handling techniques are used.
Remember - you need to pay attention and take
responsibility for your own safety and the safety of the
people working around you.
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Hedges
Purpose of Hedge Planting
There are many reasons for, and benefits of, planting hedges on farms, estates
and gardens.
 Providing privacy and screening
 Providing shelter
 Providing a corridor for wildlife
 Reducing noise pollution
 Acts as a boundary
Before planting any hedging plants it is important that the correct ground
preparation is carried out to give the plants the best possible start.
Site Clearance
Before any digging or rotovating takes place it is important that all debris and
unwanted plant material is cleared from the site. This is usually done using a
wheelbarrow and hand tools such as spades and forks.
It’s also important at this stage that the planting site is reasonably level.
Any debris such as glass or metal should be removed from the site and disposed
of in an environmentally friendly manner. Any plants or annual weeds can be
composted on a heap.
Cultivation
The type of cultivation carried out will depend on the situation and the type of
hedge being planted. It will benefit the hedge if the area is dug over either by hand
or using a rotavator.
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Rotary Cultivator
A rotavator is a fast and effective way of loosening up the soil and producing a
fine tilth. It’s important to check the Operator’s Manual before using the machine.
This will tell you all the things that should be checked and how to use the
machine.
Soil with a fine tilth has particles that are fine, easily worked and
ideal for establishing plants in.
If possible, some organic matter should be added to the soil. This comes in many
forms such as farmyard manure, garden compost, leaf mould, etc. It can be mixed
in with the soil or used as a mulch.
A mulch is a material that is placed on the surface of the soil around
the plants. It helps conserve moisture and can often add nutrients.
It is important that the soil is worked when it is in the correct condition. Soil should
not be worked when it is excessively wet or frozen. If the ground is cultivated prior
to frost, the frost action will help break down the clods of soil.
Before any cultivation is carried out it is important that all existing
structures and services are identified. This information should be
available from the site plan or your tutor.
Services are things such as water pipes, electric
cables, telephone wires and drains.
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Consolidation
The benefits of tramping the soil are that it:
 breaks down any large clods of soil
 levels the surface
 removes air pockets that will create dry spots in the soil
On a small site this is achieved by treading the area with short overlapping steps
with all the weight of your heels. On larger sites this is achieved by using a roller.
Producing a fine tilth
A fine tilth is achieved by raking over the site that has been tramped, levelling off
any humps or hollows. It is important to remove stones during raking. Raking
should continue until the soil crumbs are fine and well broken down.
Fertilisers
Fertilisers are needed by plants for balanced and healthy growth.
Fertilisers supply nutrients to the soil which in turn are used by the plant.
Most hedges are planted in the dormant season (October to March).
Generally a slow release fertiliser is used on the planting site as this supplies
nutrients over a long period of time e.g. 12 months to 2 years.
Examples of slow release fertilisers are Osmocote, Ficote and Enmag.
Activity
Can you think of any reasons why slow release fertilisers are better than quick
release fertilisers for hedging plants? Discuss this with your tutor and write the
answer here:
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Plant types
Hedging plants can be purchased as bare-rooted, container grown or rootballed.
Bare-rooted plants are transplanted during the dormant season
and are delivered with no soil attached to the roots. It is very
important that the roots do not dry out.
Container grown plants have been grown in pots or root-trainers
and can be planted at any time of year provided that they are
watered. They are more expensive than bare-rooted plants.
Root-balled plants are plants with a ball of soil attached to their
roots that is generally held together with hessian. This method is
often used for conifers and evergreens.
Planting Method
The planting site is usually marked using a garden line. It is important that this is
tight and that it is situated on the surface of the soil.
Most hedging plants are planted at 300 mm centres either in single rows or double
rows.
It’s important that they are planted to the depth of their nursery mark. This is the
dark mark on the stem that was previously the soil level.
After planting, the plants should be protected from rabbits, hares and deer by
either erecting a fence around the hedge or using rabbit spirals that are placed
around the stem of the plant.
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The table below lists a range of hedges that are commonly planted and whether
they are evergreen (keep their leaves throughout the year) or deciduous (lose
their leaves in autumn) along with the reason for planting.
Common name
Evergreen or deciduous
Reason for planting
Boxwood
Evergreen
Used for creating miniature
hedging often in formal gardens.
Beech
Deciduous
Often used as a boundary
hedge. Excellent in winter as it
retains its leaves.
Yew
Evergreen
Slow growing evergreen hedge
that is often used for topiary
(creating shapes from plants).
Privet
Deciduous
Hawthorn
Deciduous
Quick growing hedge that is
often used as a perimeter in
small gardens. A heavy feeder
that requires a lot of nutrients.
A spiny, deciduous plant that is
often used around the perimeter
of fields to contain animals.
Holly
Evergreen
An evergreen hedge that is ideal
for encouraging wildlife due to
its berries.
Berberis
Deciduous
An evergreen spiny shrub that
produces an abundance of
berries in autumn.
Escallonia
Evergreen
An evergreen plant than is ideal
for planting around the coast
due to its salt tolerance.
Laurel
Evergreen
A fast growing evergreen that
eventually grows into a tall
hedge. It is ideal for providing
shelter from the wind due to its
large leaves.
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Styles of hedge
Hedges can be formal or informal.
Formal hedges are generally cut twice
a year, in June and September, and
are clipped to a regular shape.
 Plants used for formal hedges
include: beech and privet
Beech hedge
Privet hedge
Informal hedges are generally cut once a
year and are clipped to a less formal shape.
 Plants used for informal hedges include:
Olearia and Escallonia.
Box hedging –
used for formal ‘miniature’ hedging
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Trees and Shrubs
Trees are perennial woody plants that can be divided into two groups - deciduous
and evergreen.
Evergreen plants retain their leaves throughout the year e.g. Eucalyptus
Deciduous plants loose their leaves each year in autumn e.g. Oak
A shrub is a woody plant that lives for more than three years. It differs from a tree
in that it is multi-stemmed at ground level.
Trees and shrubs can be purchased in different forms.
1. Bare-rooted plants
These are lifted from the nursery with no soil attached to their roots during the
dormant season (November – March).
They are cheap to buy but care must be taken to ensure that their roots are not
allowed to dry out. It is very important that they are heeled in as soon as they
arrive.
They are usually protected against pests after planting using a tube or rabbit
spiral.
Whips and feathers are often used for establishing woodland areas e.g. Oak and
Ash trees.
 Whips are young trees, generally 60-100 cm tall with a single clean stem
 Feathers are young trees, generally 100-200 cm tall with small branches along
the main stem
Whip
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Standard trees are generally used where a larger tree is required. They are
widely used in parks and gardens to give the garden an immediate structure. They
are more expensive than whips and feathers as they are older and larger plants.
‘Standards’ are trees that are generally 300-400 cm tall with a clear stem for the
bottom 170 cm.
Standard tree
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Root-balled Plants
Root-balled plants are lifted from the ground with a ball of soil still attached to their
roots. The soil must be kept moist to prevent it falling away from the hessian sack
that is used to contain the soil. The hessian/plastic sack is removed from the roots
prior to planting.
Root balling is commonly used for evergreen plants, rhododendrons and large
conifers.
The best time for transplanting root-balled plants is in early spring or autumn.
During both of these times the soil is warm and moist.
They are a lot more expensive than bare-rooted plants.
Picture of a root-balled plant
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Container Grown Trees and Shrubs
These are plants that have spent their entire lives growing in containers.
This method produces an ideal root system as there is minimum root disturbance.
Container grown plants are generally more expensive, as they are more
expensive to produce.
The great advantage of a container grown plant is that they can be planted out at
any time of year provided that they are watered.
Rhododendron grown in a container
 After planting, all plants should be watered in to settle the soil.
 A bark mulch is often applied around the base to prevent weed growth and to
conserve moisture.
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Plant Protection
It is important after planting to protect the plants against animals, vandalism and
machinery.
The use of tree guards can help protect young trees when they are newly
planted.
Some of the most common types used are:
1. Rabbit Spirals
These are wound around the main stem to deter rabbits and hares. Small holes
help the plant to breathe.
A young tree protected by a rabbit spiral
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2. Tuley tubes
The tube is placed around the tree and supported with a stake. This protects the
tree and also makes it grow faster due to the warmer environment. These are
commonly used when creating woodlands or shelter belts.
A young tree protected by a Tuley tube and stake post
3. Metal guards and tree grills
These are used to protect larger trees from vandals in public areas. The grill stops
the ground from becoming overly compacted around the roots.
A tree protected by metal guard and grill in a public landscaped area
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Trees and Shrubs commonly used in Landscaping
Examples of trees and shrubs commonly used in landscaping:
Common Name
Plant Type
Plant material
Sycamore
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Scots Pine
Evergreen tree
Root balled
Horse Chestnut
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Silver Birch
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Oak
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Ash
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Beech
Deciduous tree
Bare rooted
Box
Evergreen shrub
Root balled
Rosemary
Evergreen shrub
Container grown
Buddleia
Deciduous shrub
Container grown
Rose
Deciduous shrub
Laurel
Evergreen shrub
Container grown or bare
rooted
Root balled
Pyracantha
Evergreen shrub
Container grown
Clematis jackmanii is an excellent
climbing plant
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Bedding Plants
Bedding plants are planted out in gardens to provide colourful displays.
They are arranged in patterns and are classified as either ‘hardy’ or ‘half hardy’.
Hardy plants are plants capable of withstanding frost
Half hardy plants are plants that are not capable of withstanding
frosts
The types of plants used in bedding displays are:
 Edging plants e.g. Lobelia, Alyssum
These are usually small plants used to form the outline of the bed.
 Groundwork plants e.g. Marigold
These fill up the majority of the bed and are generally medium sized.
 Dot plants e.g. Castor Oil plant
These are used to break up the main display and create a focal point.
 Standard plants e.g. Standard Fuchsia
These are used to provide instant height to the display and are generally
placed in the centre of the bed.
As part of your tasks you may have to plant up a bedding display. If this is the
case, your tutor will provide the planting plan.
Below is what a typical bedding plan may look like:
Dot Plants
Standard plants
Groundwork plants
Edging plants
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Bedding plants are generally planted as plugs.
Plugs are plants grown in containers
where the root systems are kept
separate to reduce root damage during
transplanting.
A plug plant
Bedding plants are generally grown from either seeds or cuttings.
There are two types:
 Spring bedding
 Summer bedding
These are illustrated on the next page.
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Summer bedding plants are planted out at the end of May, after the fear of frost
has passed. They provide colour throughout the summer and are lifted in early
autumn e.g. Geranium, Begonia and Alyssum.
Spring bedding plants are planted out in autumn. They provide colour between
March and May. They are often under planted with bulbs, such as tulips. Spring
bedding plants include Polyanthus, Wallflower and Forget-Me-Not.
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Method
It is very important that the ground is well prepared before any planting is carried
out.
The plants should also be well watered before they are removed from pots or
trays.
Before planting, the plants are laid out on the bed.
1. The edging plants are planted first.
Activity
Write down the name of the edging plants you will be using.
The plants should be planted to the same depth as in the pot or tray.
The plant spacing will vary according to the plant being used.
Remember to plant at least 150 mm from the edge of the bed.
2. The standard and dot plants are planted next.
Activity
Write down the name of the plants you will be using.
Standard plants
Dot plants
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3. Finally the groundwork plants are planted.
Begin at one end of the bed and work across to the other end. Once all the plants
have been planted they will need to be watered in.
Listed below are examples of common bedding plants:
Name
Type
Use
Lobelia
Half hardy annual
Summer bedding
French Marigold
Half hardy annual
Summer bedding
Forget-Me-Not
Hardy biennial
Spring bedding
Pansy
Hardy annual/biennial
Spring/summer bedding
Alyssum
Hardy annual
Summer bedding
Daisy
Hardy biennial
Spring bedding
Polyanthus
Hardy perennial
Spring bedding
Dahlia
Half hardy perennial
Summer bedding
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Herbaceous Perennials
Herbaceous Perennials live for more than three years and die back to
ground level each year.
 They are commonly used to form herbaceous borders although they can be
mixed with other plants such as shrubs and annuals.
 Herbaceous borders are normally planted up in early spring. Plants are
generally spaced at 300 mm centres.
 The main flowering season is May - September. Cutting back plants after
flowering will produce a second flush of flowers. This is normally done using a
pair of secateurs or hedging shears.
 A lot of herbaceous plants grow quite tall and require staking. This is normally
done in early May using either canes, birch branches or posts and netting.
 Traditionally most herbaceous plants are propagated by division. It is
important that the outer part of the plant is used, as this is the strongest part of
the plant.
A typical herbaceous border
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Listed below are examples of common herbaceous plants:
Name
Astilbe
Flowering Time
August
Siberian Iris
June
Lupins
June
Phlox
August
Michaelmas Daisy
September/October
Delphinium
June
An herbaceous border in early summer
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Maintenance of Soft Landscaping Areas
There are a range are tasks that must be carried out periodically to ensure that
plants are kept in good health.
Pruning
Pruning is the removal of any part of the plant.
There are various reasons for carrying out pruning:
 to remove dead, diseased or dying wood to prevent the spread of disease; this
is commonly known as the 3 D’s
 to remove crossing branches
 to remove annual growth e.g. trimming a hedge
 to promote flowering and fruiting; this is routinely carried out on fruit trees such
as Apples
 to promote colour in winter shoots e.g. Dogwoods
 to encourage further flowering
A rose garden that has been pruned correctly to encourage flowering
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Weeding
 Weeds compete with plants for light, space, nutrients and water.
 If weeds are not controlled they reduce the quality and quantity of the plant
crop.
Annual weeds are best controlled using a hoe or rotavator, by hand weeding,
mulching or applying an herbicide.
Perennial weeds, such as nettles, are best controlled by digging out with a fork,
mulching or applying a herbicide. It is very important that if you plant up a new
bed that you have removed all perennial weeds beforehand.
An herbicide is a chemical that kills a plant
Close planting reduces light and results in less weeding
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Mulching
Mulching is the adding of a material to the soil surface e.g. manure, bark, garden
compost, peat. It is generally applied in winter and has many advantages:
 it controls weeds
 it helps keep moisture in the soil
 it can add nutrients
 it can improve the look of the garden
 it can keep the soil warmer
Watering
Water is required by all plants for growth. It is best applied in early morning or
evening to avoid sun scorch and to prevent evaporation in the heat of the middle
of the day in summer.
Water can be applied using:
 a watering can, for watering a small number of plants
 a hose pipe, for watering large areas of plants
 rotating sprinklers, for use on large beds, lawns and vegetable crops
 a lance is often used at the end of a hose
A lance can be used to achieve even watering
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Self-assessment
8
1. What is the correct time for planting out summer bedding?
2. Name two plants that can be used for hedging?
3. What is a ‘plug’?
4. State two different methods of staking herbaceous borders?
5. Name one slow release fertiliser than can be used when planting hedging?
6. State one advantage of using container grown plants over bare rooted plants?
7. State two methods of protecting newly planted trees against rabbits and hares.
8. What is the difference between a Whip and a Feather?
9. Name two plants that are used in spring bedding displays.
10. What type of plants are generally root-balled?
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Answers
1. What is the correct time for planting out summer bedding?
end of May
2. Name two plants that can be used for hedging?
Beech, Hawthorn, Yew, Boxwood, Privet, Holly, Berberis, Laurel, Escallonia
3. What is a ‘plug’?
Plugs are young plants grown in containers where the root systems are kept
separate to reduce root damage during transplanting.
4. State two different methods of staking herbaceous borders?
Canes, birch branches, posts and netting
5. Name one slow release fertiliser than can be used when planting hedging?
Ficote, Osmocote, Enmag
6. State one advantage of using container grown plants over bare rooted plants?
They can be planted at any time of year.
7. State two methods of protecting newly planted trees against rabbits and hares.
Rabbit spirals or Tuley tubes.
8. What is the difference between a Whip and a Feather?
Whips are young trees, generally 60-100cm tall with a single clean stem.
Feathers are young trees, generally 100-200cm tall with small branches
along the main stem.
9. Name two plants that are used in spring bedding displays.
Forget-me-not, Polyanthus, Daisy
10. What type of plants are generally root-balled?
Evergreens, rhododendrons and large conifers.
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Rural Skills: Soft Landscaping: An Introduction, Intermediate 1
Practical Assessment Checklist
8
This checklist will help you to understand what your tutor will be looking for when
you’re doing the practical assessments in this unit. Use this checklist to think
about whether you are doing all these things, when you are practising for the
assessment tasks and to work out what you need to improve on.
Can I / Do I know how to
Yes / No
Things I need to work on or get
help with
 help to clear, mark out and
cultivate a site
 help to improve the soil in a
site
 plant a range of plants
correctly
 help to look after plants once
they’ve been planted e.g.
staking, protecting, watering
mulching
 carry out two different
methods of weed control
 deadhead and/or prune
plants
 carry out all of these tasks
safely
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Glossary of Terms
Bare rooted
plants lifted from the nursery with no soil attached to their roots
Consolidation
tramping or rolling the soil
Container
Grown
plants raised and grown in pots or rootrainers
Deciduous
plants which lose their leaves in autumn
Evergreen
plants which keep their leaves throughout the year
Feathers
young trees, generally 100-200 cm tall with small branches
along the main stem
Fertiliser
material or liquid added to the soil to supply nutrients
Fine tilth
soil with particles that are fine and easily worked
Half-Hardy
plants not capable of withstanding frost
Hardy
plants capable of withstanding frost
Herbaceous
perennials
plants that live for more than three years and die back to
ground level each year
Herbicide
a chemical that kills a plant
Mulch
material such as manure or bark that is placed on the surface of
the soil around the plants
Plug
plants grown in containers where the root systems are kept
separate
Pruning
the removal of any part of the plant
Root-balled
plants with a ball of soil attached to their roots – usually held
together with hessian
Shrub
a woody plant that lives for more than three years
Standards
trees, generally 300-400 cm tall with a clear stem for the bottom
170 cm
Whips
young trees generally 60-100 cm tall with a single clean stem
Scottish Further Education Unit
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Scottish Further Education Unit
Argyll Court
Castle Business Park
Stirling
FK9 4TY
Tel: 01786 892000 Fax: 01786 892001 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.sfeu.ac.uk
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