Performance Evaluation of Fuzzy HEER for Heterogeneous WSN 1-Harnoor Singh GIMET Amritsar

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
Performance Evaluation of Fuzzy HEER for Heterogeneous WSN
1-Harnoor Singh
2-Er Garima Malik
GIMET Amritsar
Efficiency of energy is a major design purpose in the
majority of the study associated to wireless sensor
networks as the nodes are rigorously energy controlled. In
this research paper, improvement in the performance of the
HEER has been shown using improved fuzzy based cluster
head selection. The HEER has used a variety of probability
function for cluster head selection for choosing the best
cluster head by using the residual energy. The fuzzy cost
has been evaluated on the basis of the residual energy and
the node centrality. The fuzzy cost is dynamic in nature as
it has been evaluated in every round. Thus it has provided
better results due to its adaptive nature i.e. have change as
the residual energy varies. The benefit of the proposed
protocol is that the optimum numbers of clusters are
formed in every round, which is almost impossible in
LEACH and also not guaranteed in HEER. The main goal
of this work is to enhance the average energy consumption,
packets send to base station and packet sent to cluster head
by using the integrated HEER protocol which will enhance
the network life time by using thresholding and if then
rules based algorithm and optimum size cluster formation
Keywords: HEER, Energy Efficiency,
Energy efficiency [1] - [4] is a key design purpose in most
of the study related to wireless sensor networks because the
nodes are rigorously energy controlled, and battery
replacement is often not practical. Cluster heads also serve
up as synthesis points for aggregation of data, so that the
data that is really transmitted to the base station is
decreased. Enhancing the lifetime in wireless sensor
networks is significant because the sensor nodes in wireless
networks are controlled by limited energy. The way to
enhance WSN lifetime is to expand energy-efficient
protocol for falling energy conservation. Sensor nodes
usually have inadequate energy supply and they are
impractical to recharge. HEER enhances the stable region
for clustering hierarchy process for a reactive network in
homogeneous and heterogeneous environment. It does not
need any global knowledge of energy at any election round.
ISSN: 2231-5381
When cluster configuration is done, the CH transfers two
threshold values, i.e.
. The nodes sense their
environment repeatedly and if a parameter from the
attributes set reaches its
value, the node switches on its
transmitter and transmits data. N. Javaid et al.[1] In this
examination paper they have proposed a convention
intended for the attributes of touchy homogeneous Wsns,
HEER (Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive) convention. In
HEER, Cluster Head (CH) choice is focused around the
proportion of leftover vitality of hub and normal vitality of
system. Besides, to monitor more vitality, we present Hard
Threshold (HT) and Soft Threshold (ST). At last,
recreations demonstrate that the convention has delayed the
system lifetime as well as altogether expanded the
solidness period. Babaie et al. [2] This paper utilizes a
novel strategy to choose a bunch Head. Filter convention
has set limit worth to 0 for next 1/p rounds when a hub has
been chosen as a bunch head. This procedure enhanced
LEACH system, by altering edge thinking of some as
elements. Proposed calculation has settled the limit of
every hub correspondingly to the quantity of live and dead
hubs in each round, so the likelihood for more hubs has
been made to wind up bunch head. Vitality element has
been contemplated, amid Cluster Head choice stage and
no-group head selecting hub as its bunch head, while
information transmitting method is the same as in LEACH.
This calculation considered the quantity of live and dead
hubs in each round to figure the limit esteem. Likelihood of
picking the bunch head has been expanding after rounds.
Attention of number of live and dead hubs in each round
has been utilized to compute the Threshold. It inferred that
the proposed technique can diminish the low vitality level
sensor hubs to be chosen as bunch heads, and set up the
vitality Balance of system burden. Besides, Results have
been attained better system lifetime in WSN. Hence, the
technique to change the limit may be a powerful approach
to intention the issue of system vitality utilization. Bakr et
al. [3] In this paper they mostly centered around
broadening the WSN lifetime that is carried out by making
Wsns repetitive by including extra hubs. The aloof
(exchanged off) extras has been made accessible to wind
up dynamic (be exchanged on) at whatever point any
dynamic WSN hub vitality gets depleted. Another proposed
LEACH-SM (LEACH Spare Management) has changed
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
the conspicuous LEACH convention by upgrading it with
an effective administration of extras hubs. Expansion of the
extra choice stage has been carried out in LEACH; this
usefulness has been named as extra administration as
LEACH-SM. Amid Spare Selection stage, every hub has
been chosen in parallel whether it would turn into a
dynamic essential hub, or an aloof extra hub. The extra
hubs chose to go sleeping, while the WSN as the entire has
been kept up the needed above-edge target scope. (The
extras have stirred when the likelihood that any essential
hub depleted its vitality achieves a predefined worth.)
Identification of extras alone has expanded vitality
proficiency for Wsns as demonstrated; Decentralized
Energy-productive Spare Selection Technique has been
utilized as a part of extra choice stage by extra supervisor.
Diminishment in the term of the dynamic interim for bunch
heads has been seen as a symptom. Diminishment in
vitality utilization by group heads has been watched
chiefly. Beiranvand et al. [4] In this paper they have
examined and proposed another improvement in LEACH
named I-LEACH, An Improvement has been carried out by
considering fundamentally three variables; Residual
Energy in hubs, Distance from base station and Number of
neighboring hubs. A hub has been considered as head hub
on the off chance that it has ideal worth for examined three
components i.e. have more leftover vitality as contrast with
normal vitality of system, a larger number of neighbors
than normal neighbors for a hub ascertained in system and
hub having less separation from base station as correlation
to hub's normal separation from BS in system.
Diminishment in vitality utilization and prolongation in
system life time has been watched. Chen et al. [5] In this
paper study they have clarified an enhanced model in WSN
which has been focused around heterogeneous vitality of
hubs for same beginning vitality and multi bounce
information transmission among bunch heads was
proposed. New edge has been presented on the premise of
current vitality and normal vitality of the hub to group head
race likelihood and give dependability that higher
remaining vitality have more prominent likelihood to wind
up bunch heads than that with the low leftover vitality.
Issue of number of group heads lessens with the expand of
the quantity of rounds. Affirmation has been furnished with
the approach that hubs with higher remaining vitality have
more noteworthy likelihood to wind up group heads than
that with the low leftover vitality. In this way brings about
augmentation in the system lifetime and assurances an
overall appropriated vitality utilization model. Elbhiri et al.
[6] In this exploration paper they have clarified the
otherworldly grouping strategies. Ghostly Classification for
ISSN: 2231-5381
Robust Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks (SCRCWSN) named calculation has been proposed. Ghastly
dividing technique has utilized the chart hypothesis
strategies for differentiating the system in an altered ideal
number of bunches. Ideal number of groups and changing
powerfully the bunch head decision likelihood has been
exceptionally compelling to expand the execution. An
incorporated methodology has been utilized to ascertain the
hubs lingering vitality. Impact of hub thickness on the
power of the calculation has been considered which has
come about less vitality utilization and expand in lifetime.
Heinzelman et al. [7] In this paper assessment study they
proposed the first Leach convention ever. Remote
circulated micro sensor frameworks that give the reliable
seeing in the territories for military and common
applications. It has additionally clarified that the
correspondence conventions, which have done the
powerful change on the general vitality dispersal of WSN.
Immediate transmission, multihop directing, and static
grouping have been kind more viable in sensor arranges,
Katiyar et al. [8] In this paper they have examined with
respect to the unnecessary vitality utilization because of the
creation little and enormous group at same. To beat this
issue another convention has been proposed named FZLEACH (Far Zone LEACH). Arrangements of Far Zones
have been carried out to conquer the issue of uneven bunch
establishment. Far-Zone has been clarified as a gathering of
sensor hubs which were put at areas where their energies
are short of what a limit. A change in the execution has
been seen as far as Energy dissemination rate and system
lifetime. Liu et al. [9] This paper have clarified another
system in which decrease of vitality burden among all the
hubs has been displayed as an enhanced calculation
LEACH-D focused around LEACH. The joined together
plans of conforming the limit work about the hubs, a settled
range of the bunching and a multi-jump correspondence
component among the group heads to impart framework
lifetime vitality load among all the hubs has been
examined. A change has been carried out mostly on taking
after viewpoints, Connectivity thickness in the estimation
of limit which has considered the thickness of conveyance
of hub, with the goal that it builds the likelihood of a hub
which have a high integration thickness to be a head hub.
Second, in the bunching stage, the group head hub chooses
its bunch sweep as indicated by their separation from the
base station and the level of network. With this system
head hub's vitality utilization have decreased. Non-Cluster
Head hubs have decided to join a group as indicated by the
vitality of head hub and the separation to the bunch head
hub; in the correspondence stage, group head hub utilizes a
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
multi-bounce enduring state transmitting information to the
base station. Lessening in the whole system vitality
utilization has been watched, and discovered suited for the
little remote sensor organize successfully. Zhang D. et al.
[10] In this paper the scientists have been focused for the
most part on the hubs those are far from base station and
have been chosen as group head, these hub's vitality has
been fallen quickly, so overcome it another model has been
proposed in which three components have been talked
about i.e. vitality of every hub at specific example of time,
number of time a hub has been chosen as group head and
separation between the hub and base station. By
considering these parameters edge have been changed to
improve the system life time. NEWLEACH name
convention has been proposed which has presented another
idea named ideal variable by considering the leftover
vitality of hubs, times of a hub to be picked as a group head
hub and the separations in the middle of hubs and base
station. Improvement in Network lifetime and even
dissemination of dead hubs has been demonstrated that
approach contained adjusted vitality model. Melese et al.
[11] In this paper assessment they have clarified the
vitality utilization of sensor hubs in Wireless sensor
system. Fundamental exertion has been carried out for
adjusting the vitality utilization over the system with the
goal that survival time of all hubs can expand.
Enhancement of the force utilization has been centered by
taking devoured vitality as a central point for criteria of
group head determination. Vitality utilization component
have helped all the more viably in expanded system life
time of WSN instead of lingering vitality. By considering
vitality utilization, new recipe has been proposed to
compute limit esteem. To upgrade vitality utilization and
expand system lifetime, it is important to adjust vitality
among hubs. Expansion in the LEACH equation has been
carried out on the premise of a segment that incorporates
the devoured vitality of every hubs of WSN, An expand in
system life time has been watched. Significant effect has
been seen in the situations when long separations happened
between the base station and the hubs. Astounding change
has been closed for bunch head choice. Peng et al. [12] In
this paper they have proposed another method in which
versatile bunching order calculation has been proposed to
meet QOS (Quality of Services) necessities. Adjustment
has been carried out in fundamental LEACH and an
enhanced convention has expounded in which change has
been happened in the vitality productivity and different
QOS parameters by barring the hub with dishonorable
geographic area to be the group heads. Sun et al. [13] This
paper has proposed a procedure in which some usage has
ISSN: 2231-5381
done to fundamental LEACH, named as Ileach.ileach is
focused around the normal for constrained vitality of
remote sensor systems to drag out the lifetime of the Whole
systems. Thought of hubs for group head determination has
been carried out on the premise of remaining vitality. The
edge demand of separation has used to advance group plan.
Development of the directing tree has been proposed on the
premise of Cluster heads' weight. A tree based steering has
been carried out in which a bunch head is chosen as root
hub and the criteria for selecting root hub is to be closer to
the base station and having enough vitality. A finer
execution in both system life time and group head race has
been reaching out as a determination. Tao et al. [14] This
paper has depicted the representation of an order based
convention in Wireless Sensor Network. Another vitality
proficient convention has been examined by utilizing the
group part vitality edge element to limit the framing of
enormous and the little bunches in the meantime. An
improvement has been carried out by taking the thought of
three variables: Unbalanced Clusters, Uneven Energy
Distribution and Unnecessary Energy Consumption when
Cluster Head is dead. Various leveled or multi-bounce
steering methodology has been utilized to get information
from the bunch head hubs to the BS. Bunch heads have
customized in such a route, to the point that they structure a
multi-bounce spine for transmitting information among
group heads until they achieve the BS. An Algorithm has
been closed a fundamentally expands the system lifetime.
Yektaparast et al. [15] This paper has clarified the proposed
strategy in which they have partitioned the bunches into a
balance of, called as cell. Each bunch partitioned into 7
cells. Each one cell contains a cell head which is in charge
of immediate correspondence with Cluster Head. Cell head
has amassed the local part's data in that cell and correspond
with Cluster Head, and avert sensors unnecessary repetitive
data to Cluster Head. A change has likewise been carried
out in reckoning of the limit esteem for a bunch head
determination recipe. Hub remaining vitality has been
thoughtful amid bunch head, cell-head choice process that
is in charge of keeping up the adjusted vitality utilization of
the sensor system. This methodology has altogether
enhanced the system lifetime and upgraded the vitality
3. Proposed Algorithm
Figure 1 has shown the flow chart of the proposed
algorithm. Here Probabilities of normal (eq.1), advance
(eq.2), super nodes (eq.3) and for all types of nodes having
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
same remaining energy (eq.4) for CH selection for CH
selection in are showing below in the algorithm.
Step 1: Initialize the WSNs with required parameters like
nodes position, sink position, initial energy of each kind of
nodes etc.
Step 2: for every node i repeat the following steps until all
nodes become dead.
Step 3: Select cluster head using following equations i.e.
normal (eq.1), advance (eq.2), super nodes (eq.3) and for
all types of nodes having same remaining energy (eq.4).
( )
) Ē( )
E (r)>T
E (r)>T
∗ Fuzzy_cost
for normal nodes if
) ( )
) Ē( )
∗ Fuzzy_cost
)( )
) Ē( )
∗ Fuzzy_cost
E (r) > T
) ( )
) Ē( )
∗ Fuzzy_cost
for nor, adv, sup nodes
if E (r) ≤ T
Step 4: Evaluate the energy dissipation and update the
remaining energies it. Where distance will be evaluated
using eq. 5 and updating of energy will be based upon the
eq. 6 and eq. 7.
√ π , d
= 0.765
E (l, d) = ƖE
+ Ɩε d
E (l, d) = ƖE
+ Ɩε
d ,
d <d₀
d ≥ d₀ (7)
for advance node if
4. Results and Discussions
The proposed algorithm is applied using various
performance parameters such as average energy
consumption, packet transferred.
Average Energy Consumption
Figure 2 has shown the comparison among HEER and
proposed with respect to average consumed energy. It has
been clearly shown that the average consumed energy with
respect to rounds in case of the proposed is quite less than
the HEER. It has evidently proved that the proposed
algorithm is quite better than the available techniques.
Figure 2: Average Energy Consumption evaluation
Fig 1: Proposed Algorithm
ISSN: 2231-5381
Page 318
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
5. Conclusion and Future Scope
Packets Sent To Cluster Head
Figure 3: Packets sent to CH evaluation
Figure 3 has shown the comparison among HEER and
proposed with respect to number of packets transferred
between the base stations to cluster head as well as between
cluster head to member nodes in each round. It has been
clearly shown that the packets with respect to rounds in
case of the proposed are quite more than the HEER. It has
obviously demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is
relatively better than the available techniques
Packets Sent To Base Station
Figure 4 has shown the comparison among HEER and
proposed with respect to number of packets transferred
between the base stations to cluster head as well as between
cluster head to member nodes in each round. It has been
clearly shown that the packets with respect to rounds in
case of the proposed are quite more than the HEER. It has
obviously demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is
relatively better than the available techniques.
Wireless Sensor Networks consists of various unattended
ultra-small, limited-power sensor nodes. These nodes have
limited processing, power resource capabilities and
wireless communication, which send sensed data to sink or
Base Station (BS). A novel technique well-organized
Cluster head Replacement has been proposed i.e. HEER. In
this the Cluster Head (CH) selection is based on the ratio of
residual energy of node and average energy of network.
Moreover, to conserve more energy, HEER has also
utilized the Hard Threshold (HT) and Soft Threshold (ST)..
So to overcome this problem a deterministic approach has
been proposed to enhance the cluster head selection. The
idea behind deterministic cluster head selection is simple;
firstly all the nodes will be sorted based upon their residual
energies top 10% nodes will be selected as cluster head. So
the selection criteria have deterministic decisions because
node with highest first energy will become cluster head
than the probability. The comparative analysis has shown
that the proposed HEER outperforms over the HEER
protocol with respect to the stable period and the network
In near future the work can be further extended by using
the data aggregation techniques which would provide more
significant improvement over energy consumption, stability
period and network lifetime.
[1] N. Javaid , S. N. Mohammad , K. Latif, U. Qasim , Z.
A. Khan , M. A. Khan.”HEER; Hybrid energy efficient
reactive protocol” IEEE, August 2013.
[2] Babaie, S., Agaalizadeh, S. and Golsorkhtabar, M.
“The Novel Threshold Based Hierarchical Clustering
Method for Wireless Sensor Network”, IEEE
International Conference on Electronics and
Information Engineering (ICEIE), August 2010, pp.
191 – 195.
[3] Bakr, B. A. and Leszek, L., “Extending Wireless
Sensor Network Lifetime in the LEACH-SM Protocol
by Spare Selection”,IEEE 5th Conference on
Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous
Computing, July 2011, pp. 277-282.
[4] Beiranvand, Z., Patooghy, A. and Fazeli M., “ILEACH: An Efficient Routing Algorithm to Improve
Performance & to Reduce Energy Consumption in
Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE 5th International
Figure 4: Packets sent to BS evaluation
ISSN: 2231-5381
Page 319
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 18 Number 7 – Dec 2014
Conference on Information and Knowledge
Technology, May 2013, pp. 13-18.
[5] Chen, G., Zhang, X., Yu, J. and Wang, M. “An
improved LEACH algorithm based on heterogeneous
energy of nodes in wireless sensor networks”, IEEE
Measurement, Control and Sensor Network, July 2012,
pp. 101-104.
[6] Elbhiri, B., Fkihi, S. E., Saadane, A., Lasaad N., Jorio,
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ISSN: 2231-5381
Wireless Communications & Signal Processing,
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