A q u a c u l t u r... 2 2 3

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A q u a c u l t u r e , 4 9 ( 1 9 8 5 ) 2 2 3 —2 2 9
E lsevier S c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s B .V ., A m s t e r d a m — P r i n t e d in T h e N e t h e r l a n d s
223
- 495 #
PR E L IM IN A R Y R E SU L T S ON T H E N U T R IT IO N A L EV A L U A T IO N O F
co3-H U FA *-EN R IC H E D A R T E M IA N A U PL II F O R L A R V A E O F T H E SEA
BASS, D IC E N T R A R C H U S L A B R A X
E. V A N B A L L A E R ' , F . A M A T \ F . H O N T O R I A 2, P. L E G E R 1 a n d P. S O R G E L O O S '
1 A r t e m i n a R e f e r e n c e C e n te r , F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l S c ie n c e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i ty o f G h e n t ,
J. P la t e a u s t r a a t 2 2 , B - 9 0 0 0 G h e n t ( B e l g i u m )
'■I n s t i t u t o d e A c u i c u l t u r a d e T o r r e d e la Sal, C o n s e j o S u p e r i o r d e I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s C i e n t í f ­
icas, R i b e r a d e Cabanas, C a s t e ll ó n (S p a in )
( A c c e p t e d 27 J u n e 1 9 8 5 )
ABSTRACT
V a n B a lla er, E ., A m a t , F . , H o n t o r i a , F . , L é g e r , P. a n d S o r g e l o o s , P., 1 9 8 5 . P r e l i m i n a r y
r e s u l t s o n t h e n u t r i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f u > 3 - H U F A - e n r i c h e d A r t e m i a n a u p l i i f o r larvae
o f t h e se a b a s s , D i c e n t r a r c h u s labrax. A q u a c u l t u r e , 4 9 : 2 2 3 —2 2 9 .
F resh ly h a tc h e d S a n P ab lo B ay a n d G re at Salt L ak e A r t e m ia nauplii (c j3 -H U F A p o o r) a n d e n rich ed m eta -n a u p lii (to 3 -H U F A -e n ric h ed ) w e re c o m p a r e d t o R e fere n ce
A r t e m i a n a u p l i i ( t o 3 - H U F A - r i c h ) a s a f o o d s o u r c e f o r t h e larv a e o f t h e se a b a ss, D i­
c e n t r a r c h u s labrax. S i g n i f ic a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n survival a n d b i o m a s s p r o d u c t i o n b e t w e e n
th e t r e a tm e n ts co u ld be a tt r i b u te d to th e to 3 -H U F A c o n te n t o f th e fo o d . A delay ed
m o r t a l i t y in fish la r v a e f e d t h e G r e a t S a l t L a k e A r t e m i a is s u s p e c t e d t o b e c a u s e d b y a
high level o f cv-BHC in t h i s A r t e m i a s o u r c e . G r o w t h w a s n o t s i g n i f ic a n tl y d i f f e r e n t b e ­
t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t s , m o s t p r o b a b l y d u e t o t h e larg e v a r i a t i o n i n g r o w t h r a t e w i t h i n
t h e t r e a t m e n t s , as w ell a s t h e l o w n u m b e r o f s u rv iv in g fish in s o m e t r e a t m e n t s .
IN T R O D U C T IO N
G ro w th an d survival o f m arin e fish larvae are o fte n in flu en ced by th e
size a n d /o r th e d ietary value o f th e organism s used as fo o d (Sorgeloos,
1981a). It is w ell k n o w n th a t n o t all strains o f A rte m ia g u aran tee equal
c u ltu re success in a q u a c u ltu re h atch eries (L éger a n d S orgeloos, 1 9 8 4 ).
R ece n t in v estigations have in d icated th a t su b stan tial am o u n ts o f essential
fa tty acids, i.e. th e h ig h ly -u n satu ra te d f a tty acids 2 0 :5 w 3 and 22:6co3,
largely d e te rm in e th e n u tritio n a l effectiveness of A rte m ia n au p lii an d of
B rachionus as fo o d fo r larval m arin e finfish (e.g. W atanabe e t al., 1978;
F u jita e t al., 1 9 8 0 ) and cru stacean s (L éger et al., 1 9 8 5 a, b). N u tritio n al
tests w ith larval sea bass, D icentrarchus labrax, fed w ith en rich ed ro tifers
B rachionus p licatilis (G a teso u p e and L u q u e t, 1 9 8 1 ; G ateso u p e an d R obin,
1982) o r w ith en rich ed A rte m ia nau p lii (R o b in e t al., 1 9 8 1 ) have dem on* H ig h ly u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a cid .
224
225
s t r a n d th a t th e use o f fo rtifie d diets in th e h a tc h e ry can m arkedly im prove
sea bass cu ltu re. N one o f these studies, how ever, p rovided analytical d ata
on fa tty acid levels in th e larval fo o d , before and a fte r en ric h m en t w ith
H U F A ’s.
T h e p re se n t ex p e rim en t was designed to evaluate cu 3-H U F A -poor A rte m ia
pre fed o n a co 3-H U FA -rich d ie t as fo o d fo r th e larvae o f D icentrarchus
labrax.
M ETH O D S A N D M A T E R IA L S
A rte m ia cy sts fro m San Pablo B ay, C alifornia, U.S.A. (SPB 1 628) and
fro m th e N o rth A rm o f th e G reat S alt L ake, U tah , U.S.A. (G SL NA) were
selected as co3-H U FA -poor A rte m ia sources (S chauer e t al., 1 9 8 0 ; ow n
resu lts). R eferen ce A rte m ia cysts (RAC) w ere used as a positive co n tro l
fo r co 3 -H U F A -rich A rte m ia (S orgeloos, 1981b). C ysts w ere in cu b ate d in
n a tu ra l seaw ater (3 8 p p t) u n d e r c o n tin u o u s ae ratio n and artificial illu m in a­
tion.. A fte r h arv est a t T 90 h o u rs (V anhaecke an d Sorgeloos, 1 9 8 2 ; see
T ab le 1), in star I nauplii w ere sep arated fro m th e h atch in g debris and tra n s­
ferred to fresh seaw ater. E n rich ed A rte m ia nauplii w ere p re p are d as fol­
low s: a fte r th e H U F A en ric h m en t p ro d u c t A A 18 (Léger et al., 1 9 8 5 a) had
b een h o m o g en eo u sly m ixed w ith th e dry cy sts at a ra tio o f 1 :5 th e y were
in c u b a te d in n a tu ra l seaw ater u n d e r th e sam e co n d itio n s as m en tio n ed
above. In o rd er to p rovide su ffic ie n t tim e fo r b io en ca p su latio n of th e en ­
ric h m e n t d ie t in th e A rte m ia m eta-nauplii, th e in cu b a tio n tim e was p ro lo n g ­
ed fo r 24 h u p o n in star I nauplii p ro d u c tio n , i.e. T 9 0 + 24 h (see T able 1).
TABLE 1
E x p e rim e n ta l t r e a tm e n ts and h a tc h in g c o n d itio n s f o r th e p r o d u c tio n o f in star I and
e n r i c h e d A r t e m i a n a u p lii
T rea tm e n t
S a n Pablo B ay 1 6 2 8
in star I
G r e a t S a lt L a k e
N o rth A rm instar I
S a n Pablo B ay 1 6 2 8
+ A A 1 8 en ric h m en t
di e t
G reat Salt L ake
N orth A rm + A A 18
e n ric h m e n t diet
R eference A rtem ia
cysts instar I
A bbreviation
D ensity
(g p r o d u c t / 1 )
T em perature
(°C)
In c u b atio n
t i m e (h)
SPB I
2
25
22
GSL I
2
25
22
E nriched m eta-n au p lii w ere h arv ested fro m th e h atch in g d ebris and th o r ­
oughly rinsed in o rd e r to rem ove th e n o n -co n su m ed fo o d particles.
In th e c u ltu re te s ts w ith th e d iffe re n t A rte m ia p re p a ra tio n s 4 8 0 D icentrar­
chus larvae w ere used. T hese larvae had been fed o n B rachionus plicatilis
fro m d ay 3 to d ay 37 a fte r h atch in g . R o tifers w ere reared o n b a k e r’s yeast
an d en rich ed w ith P la tym o n a s sp. p rio r to th e ir tra n s fe r to th e fish tan k s.
A t d ay 37 D icentrarchus larvae w ere tran sferre d in to 2 1 cylin d ers, exposed
to n atu ra l lig h t c o n d itio n s, and sto ck ed w ith 10 larvae p e r 1 (4 replicates
p er tre a tm e n t). C u ltu re w a te r (salin ity 38 p p t, 18—23°C, pH = 8 .3 ) was
renew ed a t a flow ra te o f 2 1 h -1.
Sea bass larvae w ere fed tw ice a day (m o rn in g an d evening) a t th e begin­
ning o f th e ex p e rim e n t and o n ce a d ay to w a rd s th e en d . A fte r th e first
feeding, A rte m ia nau p lii w ere sto red a t 4°C (Léger e t al., 1 9 8 3 ). T h e initial
d en sity o f one n au p liu s p er ml was ad ju sted daily in o rd e r to ensure adlib itu m feeding o f th e larvae. P rio r to feeding, d ead fish larvae, deb ris and
n o n-consum ed A rte m ia w ere rem oved. Survival was re co rd e d daily, an d a fte r
19 days o n th e A rte m ia d ie t individual len g th an d w e t w eig h t w ere d e te r­
m ined. B iom ass p ro d u c tio n w as ca lcu lated fro m th e m u ltip licatio n o f
individual w e t w eig h t by p e rc e n t survival. D a ta w ere tre a te d statistically
in a one-way. analysis o f variance, and D u n c a n ’s m u ltip le range te s t was
used to d e te rm in e sig n ificant d ifferen ces am ong m eans. P rio r to analysis,
survival d a ta w ere n o rm alized th ro u g h arcsin \/~ ^ -tra n s fo rm a tio n (S n ed eco r
and C ochran, 1 9 6 7 ).
T he fa tty acid p ro file o f freshly h a tc h e d and enriched A rte m ia was
d eterm in e d . A fte r h o m o g en iza tio n w ith an u ltraso n ic ho m o g en izer, lipid
ex tra c tio n , sap o n ifica tio n and estérificatio n w ere d o n e according to th e
p ro c e d u re describ ed in S ch au er and S im p so n (1 9 7 8 ). F a tty acid m eth y l
esters w ere in je c te d o n a capillary co lu m n (2 5 m fused silica, 0 .3 2 m m
I.D .; liquid ph ase, Silar 10C ; film th ick n ess, 0.3 p m ) installed on a Carlo
E rb a F racto v ap 2 3 3 0 gas ch ro m a to g rap h . O p eratin g co n d itio n s w ere as
follow s: solid in jecto r; H 2 carrier gas a t a flow ra te o f 1.9 m l m in -1; F.I.D .
d e te c tio n ; oven te m p e ra tu re p ro g ram m e, 154°C to 200°C a t 1.5°C m in -1.
P eak id e n tific a tio n and q u a n tific a tio n w as d o n e w ith a calib rated p lo tte rin te g ra to r (H e w lett P ack ard 3 3 9 0 A ). T h e in tern a l stan d ard p ro c ed u re ,
w ith 2 0 :2 c j 6 as an in tern a l stan d ard , w as u sed fo r q u a n tita tiv e analysis.
RESULTS
SPB ED
3
30
46
GSL ED
3
30
46
RAC
2
25
26
F a tty acid analysis (T able 2) revealed con sid erab le d ifferences in 20:5co3
c o n te n t b etw een in sta r I n au p lii in S an P ablo B ay, G reat S alt L ak e and
re fere n ce A rtem ia . A fte r e n ric h m e n t o f th e fo rm e r strains, 20:5co3 co n ­
c e n tra tio n s in creased and su b stan tial levels o f 22:6co3 w ere d e te c te d ; to ta l
co3-H U FA c o n te n ts in en ric h ed A rte m ia a p p ro x im a te d th e level fo u n d
in re feren ce A rte m ia .
Survival and b iom ass p ro d u c tio n o f larval D icentrarchus labrax show ed
226
TABLE 2
F a t t y a cid m e t h y l e s t e r s ( F A M E ) in f r e s h l y - h a t c h e d a n d e n r i c h e d A r t e m i a n a u p lii (m g
f a t t y a cid m e t h y l e s t e r p e r g A r t e m i a d r y w e i g h t ; a b b r e v i a t i o n s as in T a b l e 1)
FAME
RAC
GSL I
SPB I
G S L ED
SPB ED
2 0 : 5 oj 3
2 2 : 6co 3
oj3 - H U F A ‘
10.6
—
11.2
0.3
—
0 .5
0.5
—
2.6
3.4
2.3
6.7
2 .2
3.1
9 .6
50-
1T o t a l a m o u n t o f cu 3 -h ig h ly u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s ( 2 0 : 3 c u 3 , 2 0 : 4 c o 3 , 2 0 : 5 u > 3 , 2 2 : 3 c u 3 ,
2 2 : 4 w 3, 22:5tu3, 22:6cu3).
TABLE 3
S u r v iv a l, m e a n l e n g t h , m e a n w e t w e i g h t a n d b i o m a s s p r o d u c t i o n d a t a f o r larval D i c e n t r a r ­
c h u s la b r a x a f t e r 1 9 d a y s o f A r t e m i a f e e d i n g ( a b b r e v i a t i o n s as in T a b l e 1)
S u rviv a l (%)
SD
M ean length (m m )
SD
M e a n w e t w e i g h t (m g )
SD
B i o m a s s p r o d , (m g %)
SD
SPB I
GSL I'
SPB ED
GSL ED
RAC
1 5 .6 °
4 .2
1 8 .2a
1.6
43 .8 a
11.8
65 3 .9 °
101.2
1.4
—
20.9
—
5 2 .0
—
72.8
—
9 3 .0 a
6 .3
19.6a
1 .3
60.5a
12.9
5 6 5 2 .3 a
1346.8
6 6 .5b
1 2 .1
18.2a
1.8
5 0 .0 a
11 .8
3 4 0 2 . 5b
1260.4
9 2 .3 a
5.5
19.4a
0.9
58.0a
7.6
5 3 2 3 .0 a
4 3 5.4
1 O n l y o n e larva l e f t a t d a y 5 6 ; G S L I d a t a a re t h e r e f o r e n o t i n c l u d e d in s t a ti s t i c a l a naly sis.
S D : s t a n d a r d d e v ia t io n .
a ’b ’c M e a n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P = 0 . 0 5 ) .
% sur vival
SPB I
GSL I
S P B ED
G S L EO
RAC
x
treatm ent
Fig. 2. B i o m a s s p r o d u c t i o n o f sea b a s s larva e fe d d i f f e r e n t A r t e m i a p r e p a r a t i o n s (ex'
p r e s s e d in % o f t h e R A C t r e a t m e n t ; a b b r e v i a t i o n s a s in T a b l e 1).
su b stan tial d ifferences b etw een th e en rich ed an d n o n -en rich ed treatm ents
(T able 3; Figs. 1 and 2). A co n sid erab le im p ro v em en t w as n o ticed aftei
prefeed in g SPB and GSL A rte m ia w ith th e co3-H U FA -rich d ie t AA18.
i.e. RAC and en rich ed SPB tre a tm e n ts gave equal biom ass yields. Biomass
p ro d u c tio n in th e G S L -enriched tre a tm e n t was lo w er d u e to increased
m o rtalitie s at th e end o f th e te s t (Fig. 1). A lth o u g h m o rtalitie s started
only later, re d u ced ac tiv ity o f th e sea bass larvae was n o tic e d by d ay 1
and day 10 fo r th e in star I tre a tm e n ts w ith GSL and SPB A rte m ia , respec­
tively. U nlike th e m ark ed d ifferen ces in survival rates, g ro w th differences
(e.g. m ean len g th or w eight) am ong th e d iffe re n t tre a tm e n ts w ere not
significant.
D ISCU SSIO N
T he re su lts o b ta in e d in th is stu d y co n firm th e d iffe re n t n u tritio n a l value
o f various A rte m ia strains as fo o d fo r larval m arin e fish. F u rth erm o re ,
ad d itio n al evidence is p ro vided th a t th e d ie ta ry value o f A rtem ia can be
co rre la te d w ith d ifferen ces in co 3-H U FA levels in th e nauplii.
A lth o u g h th e im p a c t o f essential fa tty acids is m o st p ro n o u n c e d on
larval survival, its e ffe c t o n g ro w th appears to be m inim al. T his should
n o t be generalized since o u r len g th an d w eig h t d a ta have little statistical
value, as a re su lt o f large v ariatio n s in g ro w th w ith in tre a tm e n ts , as well
as a low level o f survival in som e tre a tm e n ts. N ew ex p erim en ts are n eeded,
w ith larger n u m b e rs o f anim als p e r tre a tm e n t.
T o w ard s th e end o f th e te s t p erio d a sig n ificant m o rta lity o cc u rre d in
th e w 3-H U F A -en rich ed GSL tre a tm e n ts . A side fro m n u tritio n a l d ifferences,
th e th re e A rte m ia strains used h ere varied also in th e ir levels o f co n tam in at i m e (days)
t? :-.
i
o
:
i
_ c
i
i
r
í
J i f f — —
a
i- : „ —
228
tio n , th e m o st im p o rta n t d ifferen ce being th e high level o f th e pesticide
resid u e a-BH C in th e GSL NA A rte m ia (O lney e t al., 1980; K. S im pson,
perso n al co m m u n icatio n , 1984). P esticide a c cu m u latio n in th e sea bass
larvae m ig h t explain th e m o rta lity in th e en rich ed G SL tre a tm e n t as well
as th e earlier m o rta lity in fish fed GSL th a n in th o se fed SPB in star I nauplii.
T hese results, w hich should be verified in new c u ltu re tests o f longer
d u ra tio n , in d icate th a t co3-HUFA c o n te n t has only a p artial role in th e
d e te rm in a tio n o f th e n u tritio n a l value o f A rte m ia , at least w hen using the
A rtem ia strain fro m th e G reat S alt L ake, N o rth A rm , as fo o d fo r m arine
fish larvae.
ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS
T his stu d y was su p p o rte d b y th e B elgian N a tio n al Science F o u n d a tio n
(NFW O) g ran t F K F O 3 2 .0 0 1 2 .8 2 and by th e U S -E nvironm ental P ro te c ­
tio n A gency g ran t CR 8 11042-02-0. C u ltu re facilities w ere m ade available
a t th e In s titu to de A c u ic u ltu ra de T o rre d e la Sal.
P atrick Sorgeloos is a senior scie n tist w ith th e NFW O. In te rn a tio n a l
S tu d y o n A rte m ia c o n trib u tio n n u m b er 34.
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