Enantioselective Aldol Cyclodehydrations Catalyzed by Antibody 38C2 ORGANIC

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ORGANIC
LETTERS
Enantioselective Aldol
Cyclodehydrations Catalyzed by
Antibody 38C2
1999
Vol. 1, No. 1
59-61
Benjamin List, Richard A. Lerner,* and Carlos F. Barbas III*
Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and the Department of Molecular Biology,
The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road,
La Jolla, California 92037
[email protected]
Received March 26, 1999
ABSTRACT
Aldolase antibody 38C2 catalyzes the enantioselective aldol cyclodehydration of 4-substituted-2,6-heptanediones (3) to give enantiomerically
enriched 5-substituted-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ones (4). Yields, enantioselectivities, and product purities are markedly increased compared
to the L-proline-catalyzed reactions.
Enantioselective reactions typically rely on the differentiation
between the two enantiotopic faces of an sp2 carbon center.
Most often this center is connected to an oxygen, a nitrogen,
or another carbon atom via a double bond. Examples include
the asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD)1 and the catalytic
enantioselective hydrogenation of olefins.2 A different type
of enantioselectivity is observed in reactions where two
enantiotopic groups are differentiated (Figure 1). Despite a
few known small molecule catalysts,3 natural enzymes
dominate this reaction class. Examples include the esterase-
(1) Johnson, R. A.,; Sharpless, K. B. In Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis;
Ojima, I., Ed.; VCA: Weinheim, 1993; pp 227-272.
(2) Takaya, H.; Ohta, T.; Noyori, R., ref 1, pp 1-39.
(3) For example, see: Vedejs, E.; Chen, X. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996,
118, 1809-1810.
(4) Wallace, J. S.; Baldwin, B. W.; Morrow, C. J. J. Org. Chem. 1992,
57, 5231-5239.
(5) See, for example: (a) Hsieh, L. C.; Yonkovich, S.; Kochersperger,
L.; Schultz, P. G. Science 1993, 260, 337. (b) Reymond, J.-L.; Janda, K.
D.; Lerner, R. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 2257. See ref 9a.
(6) Janda, K. D.; Shevlin, C. G.; Lerner, R. A. Science 1993, 259, 490.
See also ref 9b.
(7) Ikeda, S.; Weinhouse, M. I..; Janda, K. D.; Lerner, R. A. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 1991, 113, 7763-7764. See also ref 13.
Figure 1.
10.1021/ol9905405 CCC: $18.00
Published on Web 05/24/1999
catalyzed meso-diesters and the reverse reaction, the lipasecatalyzed desymmetrization of meso-diols.4
While catalytic antibodies have been shown to be efficient
catalysts for the enantioface-differentiating reactions5 and
enantiomer-differentiating kinetic resolutions,6 enantiogroupdifferentiating reactions with catalytic antibodies have rarely
been reported.7 In this paper we demonstrate the use of
aldolase antibody 38C2 for the enantiogroup-differentiating
aldol cyclodehydration of 4-substituted-2,6-heptanediones (3)
to give enantiomerically enriched 5-substituted-3-methyl-2cyclohexen-1-ones (4).
Aldolase antibody 38C2 (Aldrich no. 47,995-0) has been
shown to be a highly efficient and enantioselective catalyst
© 1999 American Chemical Society
for both aldol and retro-aldol reactions with rate accelerations
approaching those of natural aldolase enzymes.8 Furthermore,
and in contrast to its natural counterparts, this antibody is a
broad scope aldol catalyst that has been shown to work with
over 200 different substrate combinations.9 We have used
antibody 38C2 in the enantioselective synthesis of naturally
occurring pheromone derivatives,10 deoxy-sugars,11 and in
a total synthesis of epothilone A.12 Furthermore, we demonstrated its use in a preparative scale synthesis of the
Wieland-Miescher ketone (2) from achiral triketone 1
(Scheme 1).13 Traditionally, this reaction is catalyzed by
Scheme 1
L-proline.14
However, here the product is obtained with an
ee of 71%. A related transformation that has been catalyzed
by L-proline is the enantioselective cyclodehydration of
4-substituted-2,6-heptanediones (3) to the 5-substituted-3methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ones (4) (Scheme 2).15 Stereochemi-
former case (1 f 2) the enantiodifferentiation follows
enamine formation, while in the latter case (3 f 4)
enantiodifferentiation occurs upon enamine formation.
In the L-proline-catalyzed reaction, typically low yields
and enantioselectivities are observed.
We found that antibody 38C2 catalyzes the cyclodehydration of 3 (R ) H) quite efficiently with kcat ) 0.082 min-1,
KM ) 2 mM, and kcat/kuncat ) 1.2 × 107.9a The question was
whether antibody 38C2 was capable of catalyzing this
transformation with enantiogroup selectivity when provided
with substrates 3 where R * H.
For the synthesis of the starting 1,5-diketones 3a-c, we
followed a route that has been developed by Sakurai and
co-workers.16 Thus, Lewis acid mediated conjugate addition
of allyltrimethylsilane to R,β-unsaturated ketones 5a-c gave
olefins 6a-c.17 Wacker oxidation of δ,-unsaturated ketones
6a-c then furnished diketones 3a-c.18 Interestingly, we
found that the Wacker oxidation did not require an oxygen
atmosphere. Simple stirring under air furnished the products
in equivalent yield.19 Racemic reference compounds 4a-c
can be prepared by base treatment (KOH/MeOH) of ketones
3a-c (Scheme 3).20
Scheme 3
Scheme 2
cally, both reactions are enantiogroup-differentiating and
probably occur via an enamine mechanism. However, in the
(8) (a) Wagner, J.; Lerner, R. A.; Barbas, C. F., III. Science 1995, 270,
1797. (b) Barbas, C. F., III; Heine, A.; Zhong, G.; Hoffmann, T.;
Gramatikova, S.; Bjo╠łrnestedt, R.; List, B.; Anderson, J.; Stura, E. A.; Wilson,
I. A.; Lerner, R. A. Science 1997, 278, 2085-2092.
(9) (a) Hoffmann, T.; Zhong, G.; List, B.; Shabat, D.; Anderson, J.;
Gramatikova, S.; Lerner, R. A.; Barbas, C. F., III. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998,
120, 2768-2779. (b) Zhong, G.; Shabat, D.; List, B.; Anderson, J.; Sinha,
S. C.; Lerner. R. A.; Barbas, C. F., III. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1998,
37, 2481-2484. (c) List, B.; Barbas, C. F., III; Lerner, R. A. Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998, 15351-15355.
(10) List, B.; Shabat, D.; Barbas, C. F., III; Lerner, R. A. Chem. Eur. J.
1998, 4, 881-885.
(11) Shabat, D.; List, B.; Lerner, R. A.; Barbas, C. F., III. Tetrahedron
Lett. 1999, 40, 1437-1440.
(12) Sinha, S. C.; Barbas, C. F., III; Lerner, R. A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
U.S.A. 1998, 14603-14608.
(13) Zhong, G.; Hoffmann, T., Lerner, R. A., Danishefsky, S.; Barbas,
C. F., III. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 8131-8132.
60
The results of the antibody-catalyzed cyclization of diketones 3 are shown in Scheme 4.
(14) (a) Eder, U.; Sauer, G.; Wiechert, R. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl.
1971, 10, 496-497. (b) Hajos, Z. G.; Parrish, D. R. J. Org. Chem. 1974,
39, 1615-1621.
(15) Agami, C.; Platzer, N.; Sevestre, H. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1987, 2,
358-360.
(16) Hosomi, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Sakurai, H. Tetrahedron Lett 1980, 21,
955-958.
(17) Hosomi, A.; Sakurai, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 1673-1675.
The yield of olefin 6c was diminished from concurrent cyclobutane
formation. A similar observation has been made by Hosomi et al. (ref 16).
(18) Tsuji, J.; Shimizu, I.; Yamamoto, K. Tetrahedron Lett. 1976, 29752976.
(19) Doron Shabat, The Scripps Research Institute, personal communication.
Org. Lett., Vol. 1, No. 1, 1999
Scheme 4
Scheme 5
Antibody 38C2 (10 µM, 2 mol %) catalyzes the cyclodehydration of diketones 3a-c (500 µM in phosphate
buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 10% CH3CN) very efficiently
to give the (S)-configured products 4a-c with yields
generally exceeding 95%.
The enantioselectivity of these reactions is moderate to
good. The ee’s were determined by chiral-phase HPLC
analysis.21
To determine the absolute configuration of enones 4a-c,
we used the products from the L-proline-catalyzed reaction
as a reference standard. This transformation is known to give
the corresponding (R)-isomers (Scheme 5).
All products obtained from the L-proline-catalyzed reactions had a configuration opposite that of the products
produced in the antibody-catalyzed reaction as determined
by chiral-phase HPLC analyses.20 Interestingly, and in
contrast to these results, in the Wieland-Miescher case both
L-proline and 38C2 gave the same enantiomer.
In summary, aldolase antibody 38C2 has been shown to
be an efficient catalyst for the enantiogroup-differentiating
cyclodehydration of 4-substituted 2,6-heptanediones. The
observed enantioselectivities are modest in comparison to
the exceptional high ee’s that are usually obtained in aldol
additions and retro-aldol reactions catalyzed by antibody
38C2.9a,b However, product yields, purities, and to some
extent enantioselectivities are far better than those obtained
from the corresponding L-proline-catalyzed reactions.
(20) All new compounds gave satisfactory spectroscopic data (1H and
NMR and HRMS).
(21) 4a and 4b: Chiracell ODR, 60% H2O (0.1% TFA), 40% CH3CN,
0.6 mL/min. 4c: Chiracell ODR, 70% H2O (0.1% TFA), 30% CH3CN, 0.6
mL/min. (S)-4a 46.5 min, (R)-4a 49.0 min; (S)-4b 51.8 min, (R)-4b 50.7
min; (S)-4c 48.2 min, (R)-4c 45.0 min.
13C
Org. Lett., Vol. 1, No. 1, 1999
Acknowledgment. This study was supported in part by
the NIH (CA27489). B.L. thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, Germany, for a Feodor Lynen fellowship.
OL9905405
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