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.
•
III
11.
.
Lal'vae
!.'!lrO'LU5
..
41
'3
..
.
..
47
47
61
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e
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161
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163
Oll'
.
.
.
..
..
..
.
"
.
.
51
14 ..
.
and
..
noctuid
1
Typical noctuid larval pigmentation bands
17 ..
.
.
.
18 ..
.
..
Apioal fore
..
..
thoraoio
21.
nootu1d
.
of a. noatuid
venation
of egg
22 ..
.
.
.
.
'I
20 ..
.
.
e
"
..
"
"
.
.
..
"
.
..
.
68
68
and t.he other
in the genus
t
1928) ..
.
23 ..
.
..
24"
.
..
.
Female genittdia of
of
"
•
.
116
.
117
It
118
.
..
119
120
121
28k
..
29.
1temale
31.
53
pattern of a
noo
26 ..
.
.
and shield chaetotaxy
"
19 ..
.52
talia of
.
.
.
.
122
123
124
PI,ATE
1 ..
FI'ontispiece: A '\fiew of the Urd versi ty of Canterbury
Hesearch hut, Cass, with the .surrounding vegetation
2.
.
..
hoat to many :noctuid species
Typical marginal notching of flax
..
(Phormi~1l,!
•
tenax:)
leaves caused by the larvae of ,Persectania
..
(r1eyrick) ..
C;i.
;>-
.. .
"
..
.
.
•
The model of light trap used to catch live adults
.
.
. .. .
.
Persectania averse. (~V1k .. ) male
. . . ..
. .. • "
Persectania aversa (Wlk .. ) , fell'ltlcle
Grapht.mia disjung®ns Oak .. ) , Il'la.le
. • .
.. ..
Urar/hauie. disjungens (Wlk.), female . " • . " "
Gt'aphania arotis (lYleyr .. ) , male
.. .. .. .. . • ..
.
of the r,)oth species under revision
4..
t, .,
•
Of
..
The two types of cages whioh wer>e used to contain
ovipositing adults B.nd subsequently developing
larvae •
.5 ..
6.
7"
8.
9.
. .
.
..
;&
.
..
.
t
O~eyr ..
co
.
) t female
..
.. .. .. ..
10 ..
Graphania arotis
11.
Tmetolophota propria (\Hk.), male
12.
Tmetolophota
13 ..
Tmetolophota
14 ..
Tmetolophota
15.
'i.'metolophota
16.
Tmetolophota steropastis (riJeyr .. ) , femeJ.e
"
..
.
.
..
..
. ..
. .. " ..
. . . .. ..
propria (~l1k .. ) t female .
atristriga (~nk,,) , rmale
.. .
• .. .
Cltristriga (Wlk .. ), female •
.
.. .
steropastis (I'1eyr .. ) male .. . . . .. .
t
.
129
129
129
•
..
129
.
129
129
130
130
130
130
130
130
PAGE
similia (
17"
18.
19 ..
1st
of
20.
1st
of
.
1st
of
. ),
. ),
..
female
e
9
"
..
<II
.
"
"
.
.
.
149
•
150
.
13 1a.
13180.
151
'j'ABI.E
1 ..
PAGE
'l'he n"lInes
the cranial E1etae and
associated punctures of LepidopterouB
larvaet after Hinton (1946).
2..
.
to
.
33
'rIbs names of tile thoracic and abdominal
setae of LepidopteroUB larvae, after
Hinton
3..
(1946)
..
..
"
.
Measurements in mm. between the cranial
setae of six species of Lepidopteraus larva.
4.
Transformation into ratios of the messurements
between the cranial setne of six species of
Lepidopterous larvae
"
.
..
.
•
55
1
I
It
(
native army
their
eOU8
"
1t becomes
the
on the
"
, iaan economic
i.l'heNew
for thiH reason a
c
to a
of
!ii!as
to
on the actual
by
to restrict the lenuo
It" ...
to
,1 t
.
}las al~lO
(
)
.
) arld
n. •
(
in the genu,S.
.
)
(
t
1928),
seven
\ill
e in
,
,
o'f
(Oommon, 1
to
of the
Common (1
• H.
t
or
the
to
It
in
to
115 thz,t the
are ob.cured. to
a
the
c
the (lont
It
~
the:
ai' the
Nee
It
Of'
ot' Nce
Hampson have larvae that are c
not
tly correct"
of the
from the
damage to
'i
are
f~
1961).
t;v:pe'
to mass
t,
t
ca,
ted b;y o'i
1961) ..
In
cond.itions for
(
, 1
, 1
l1(;ltural
1
)
,
,,-_ . . _.... _- -_. . . - - _. --, -"'-·"i
,,,
I
,
" i
based
- ........
...... .
In
two arrny
over most of
toge
1
..
(
e to
For all their
the
mOQ(lrn
refer~nce
New
(
army
to the
)
in
,
aut l,ulln s
of 1
to
one of
"
(CommOII, 1
___.....;;.;;;;..;;;,;e
330th of
(It)mmon
t
end
(G(HflmOn,
1
) (
It has &
1)
in
t
it
tbe
SUj:ltffltH'
$XC
oocur
in
ll'If'rI'S
(
c}mrI'lOrt'l
one
a
·1954),.
in 1'40w
tru~
as
the only
from ita
, '919).
to
that
to
that a d,is
that
(
the
1966b;
(
t
{
1
and
lliU.llIUlleJ' (
shc<Ilth
aI'
on the
of'
the Boil
to
II
of
.stem
t (
the
9
Plate 2: Typical marginal notching of
flax (Phormium tenax) leaves caused by
the larvae of Persectania Steropastis
(Meyrick) .
10
!Li6!.turi ty and greatest :t'e;j)dingpower (
habit
Iii
This feeding
..................... as well s.s
typical of
• varying role in the ecology
The remaining Bix
of
1960).
t
number of ha'bita.ts ;r'!;lr!ging through flax stands. bush, high
country, hill country and improvtE)d
•
Heyrick
Two of these speciDs
(Gaskirl, 1966a;
Hayriok develop on Dfitive flax
Hudson, 1950; Millar, 1916; 1917 R,b.c; !
19,8), the latter
•
species ha. al.o boen recorded on toe-toe
~ .. )
(Dugdale.
notching on account
eaten from the 1
•
)
Injury by the larvae
called.
hB.s been
the ma.rginal nUll or IlV ti shaped l':i.eCElIS
in typical noctuid fashion (Cumber, 1954)
(Plate 2). AdulttB
found t x:l'oughout
the year with greatest numbers in
- Marah,
Apr11~
Fem~le
moth. OVipOB1t on the leaves of flax bushes Dnd the newly hatched
larvae quickly move to rolled leaves for aholter.
throughout the year: and scemB to bec'ome more prevellent between
that there
generations per year.
be two
Pupation occurs within the
leaf
$hea ths or in the dry eoil about: the pla,flt.. (Cumber, 1954) ..
Four other apecies,
~..;;:;,o;;.--....
Walker
lUld
.;o;;,;;;;;;~=_ l~hil1Jot t,
found at higher altitudes on native
although they are not oonfined to thie are,,'l.e
____~~___ larvae is probably very
£ll:'.
coftHl1only
iu b'ui::lh lilI'eatf,
'rna
to this
~ignificant.
11
an
an
I1lflowed th& t
.L. U""J,'.;
e
0
f
on
1
the
, 1
in
re~
..
)
Dr :fox (~.",.",:._
IlID-e; r~o
4000$ ..
In
N$W
t
60US
1928)
:plrart ts ~
1:;;1
lnlt uncon
tussock grasses"
a
from the
t
hut
f
( mEla.n
the
ia not
... November ..
con.u:;tant
the 4\'IUmnler
(
(
1}
(c)
('"
; ;.
.,~~;;;o;;_
...
( )
..
(
..
(
fo.r
14
much
It
19;4,
t
19'7;
• 1951; Klots; 1970_
.. 1955;
• 1
to
of
of the
(Rambur t 1842),
tl1eir ueJe was
)
the
and
acquired a
throughout
of
(1909),
for mueh
that
of sOlle
(
the oonfulld.on
t
•
(
19'70).
caue~a
have
ct!Ul
cID~v1ouat
)
(
:n,cI1m~
en
h
a:r~
••
(ita
a
)
1
to
, 1954),
to
(
(
now
16
noting
the
.
-
i
the
II
t
'1
.
been
\
\
are
tlHll
)
v
(
• blind
The
abdominal
of
~
:
(
""
,
(
.:
-
er. 1
(
,
1
•
1
1
)
18
to
1
(
1 ..
"
)
-
.
of the
1
en
19
to
)
to a
~
(
in
(
(
)
(1
)
oi
of
in the
14).
(
)
(
Abdominal
Segm~~
(
the
I
1
(
of
(1
).
(
,
occurs
or
to th1El
ifll!lldian
the
,
\
t
the
of the
1
'L'his
the
.
(
to
.
)
are
Both
th~
the
an
is
SRermathecg
anteriores
P
illae
anal
Bulla seminalis
bursgel .
Corp..!:!! bursae
~s
seminalis
Ductus eja1:ulatarius
Vesica
Caecum
penh
Car nut!
edeagus
5
or
• 1914)
aclerotized
of
are
( Klote.,
, (Fig.2).
studied
role in
of
notioeable at the
in'f,f)rCOnnec "'.I."~lli:ll
, 19'70).
The use of
in
not
t
in
to which
o,peninr:;s
1
"
(
the
t
) ..
1
(
,
(
(
(
Stekol'nikov, 1965).
(
run
(
the
, 1
Stekol'nikov, 1965).
:ls often
(:'1.
27
Stekoltnikav, 1965).
(
II
(
much
Max,
Mentum
Labium
[
Maxilla
~S~u~b~m~e~n~t~u~mll-~~~__~____
S,trichodeum
5, basicanicum
Sensillum
camp.anifor.ni
Dentatio
Mandibular seta
Retinaculum
Condy'~le~
________t
_____--___
-r-------.lr-.,.!;;E pi HaD hi!! slit ure
dfront I
r-r------+....8sfJ:.QJ1t,al
area
suture
Butures and areBS
..
8: Nee
larval
ts
(
)
19 46,1
t
1956 t 1
1
;
P'k'l.ckIiilY, 19591
, 19.51: ; ,
.b; Mutuura, 1
• 1957).
1
,
this
1968~~) in
topic
to
and
l1!titjor
, t
there is no
familielih
for
illustrate some of
common
C
Mm.",,,,,,,,"
[email protected]
morphologioal
lopidopteroula
mouthpartgg
distinot
Most
000111:.
and a
HUF"'A
has
t
legs and the
bears a pair
prolegs.
to
si~,
arc ton abdominal
are uf!Haal11
and ten,
prel3~mt
on
on the first eight
(Feterson, 1959). (Figs. 4,5,6,7,8 & 9).
),
Imme (1964)
Noetuid
•
the
of
(1
(1
{ 191
i
{
Clon-
(
1
"
t
.
(
)
.
(
(
1
+
:3
+
+-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
...
"
...
'l.'lUll
speoies of
the
, has been
form
'rhe
l . ight
Coll~ge
(
of fidul t 6 of
at
the flUltlmer
Only
the nuulbere of
to
0
au!fieient
This
eviously even more
two
No adult1£! of
no
have
~Hilen
on
om
on
Plate 3:
The model of light trap used to
catch live adults of the moth species under
revision.
37
L a r v a l R . r ln
C:-10 -5 .
Plate 4: The two types or cages which were
used to contain ovipositing adults and
subsequently developing larvae.
to
'I'he
cages (
in
4),
The
in
rowliS or in
OA
north
to a
"oon
QS
in
not
whll:u'fJ!
i'l
dark
hl'll!\
or over the whole
l~rv~l
larvae"
eharacters
I!ilpeciee ha.ve
to
or I'l!!fute the
a number
the two
sl>EudmeTl
often
to
t
the
two
to
punotures"
been
.. (ne
40
were
$l1d
removing the
(~xtract
and
hea.tints
W<liI,t;er tuath.
KOH over
Were lCH)sen6ld
with tine
(Watchmakers
the
The
the adult,
and
15tuck
the corkill
requirilid
imen
the
W,3J!9
slide
the
and eover
the
they can be
tor the
tioIl.
or
turel3 IOmd
the male
to
the
museum colloo ,,_ ..,_'""
x
e
""""'''' u""",
$!H:1
onol
water was injected to
tial
vesica to
to ita delia
the
the
the
then
t
"
or &bsolute ale
it.
in an
Frior to
genit{;Alia were
to
oorreet
1'1,.
were
drawn
laterally with the
m1croacope
camera lucida on a
aid oi' a
the
en~\ble
on heavy boru!
(1
copie~
morpnologio
..
of the
binocular
Were
for
included
body
and
III
TAXONOMY
UlH:iOM. 1928)
one
fl'he family Noc
of
(
1
; Hudson. 1
our endel1l1ic
lepidopter(.ltU!I
exllibit
~tNl
colour.
lit
noe
for
Althoush
a3tudied
fix'a tly by the
on
th~
clasIllil'icat1on
of theae
e on
famil,.
oombined
ls.X'ge and
i~
to the
•
lldv,'moes
.
to
one
.
srayp. a
or
of
often
.
.,
.
(1
of tho
1)
to
1 ..
(
(
Fl~
(
1
..
47
(Figs
(
10 & 11)..
II
to
(
4) ..
(
1
10: Larval c
( )
)
(
t.horacic
(b)
( )
( )
( )
.,
"
, ',:tr.-
..
'
.~.,
:
..
.
,
/
/
/
o
. .
. .... ',',: ..... }~
:;;: :~;~J:'':;'
::'t':~sk;;;r;';E;
';"':"',
r~:;;;;.\<:~.~
r, :
.
•
.
::;
. '::'::.,; ,',\
•. ', .; ....... ,:. •• c '... ':.'" ....:
;'~j,"':5{";"
",:~". .".::'
,'"
~;",:."',
.'~
". .
:......
:0
..
.......
.
(b)
I
'/
'
.. '... ;
-";'
.. /
~;,l
. ...' ....-
... ".
~ '..
:.. ... :: "..... - ....
14:
( )
(0)
( f)
abdominal c
of
"
.
:~;;:~~!,::~!::':i?~~::!~:r!~;~~::{~f!~:~~~~
.
....
"..,
'
,/
!~;~~~{lii~:;:·; :.~, ~:··:::::0'. ': "
:/.'
..., - ,,":,
...
...
.
,..
I(
/
( d)
~.
;~
~\)
"
..
. ./"
',
/'
~
"
·"··".I'
....."
'.
1--"--'_''",'---1
?
6
( f)
Pl
15
larval cranial
Pronator shield
Subdor
Sup.!!!!~irocuJor
Splraculor
Sub plrgcuha
noctuid
"
Po.terior group - P2 aDd Pb iD a .tr.l.-t liD. with '1
an. 'pproxiaatel, .qui.i.tant, .xc.pt f.ay,r., whloh h•• '1
.t • gr.at,r di.tano. to f2 thaD P2 1. to P'.
an4 P2 an' Pb art the •••• distanc.a apart.
P1 an. P.,
Pb .lightl,
poet.rOY.Dtral to P2, P. ant.roy.ntral to P1.
P1 i. two to
tour ti... lons.r than P2 in .11 .p.ci.. .xc.pt Jhe.tol.phota
,t'Eopa.ti. wh.r. P2 1. . . .11.
Lat.r.l group - L1 .pproxlmat.l, c.ntral, b.ins y.ntr.l
to ,1 and poat.rior to P1, La alilhtl, po.t.ro'oraal to L1,
gE'."'"
....D. and f.'Y'EJ"
Ant.rodora.l group • A" Aa .D' A2 tora an .pproxi..t •
although .or. dor••l iD
f1.~
• quil.t.r.l tri.Dl1., while A1 tor. . . .traisht liD. wlth A2
aDd P..
A2. A, aD' 0
1
,lao tora • •tr.isht 11D., with Aa 'ora.l
10Dg.r tbaa A2.
Suboo.ll.r lEoup - S01, S02 and SO, tor. an .pproxi..t.l,
,
.qul1.t.r.1 tEl.nsl •• S01 n.,r ba•• ot an'.n., aDd y•• 'ral to
S02 whlch i. .10.1.1.. O.
SO, po.t.ro'ora.l to S01 ••4
poet.roy.ntr.l to B02, wi'k SOa olo••• t to SO,.
Oc.llar sroup - 01 slight1, po.t.rior to 0 4 , 02 po.'.rodora.l
to 0 1 an. 0, poat.roY.Dtr.1 to 021
tri ••,l..
01.
O. oloa. to
! .•l.juaa.B8
thl. sroup tor.ing
aD
.quilater.l
0' an4 ott •• s11ghtl, Y.ntral to lin. 0, -
IA' !!.t.l'Rhot. I£OpEl. hay. Oa clo••• t
to 0"
Gr.phIDia !E0ti. wlth Oa clo••at to 01 .a• .or. b.tW ••D 0 4 - 0'
than .~u.l to or .lilhtl, Y'Dtral to 0 4 a. iD other .p.ci •••
G.n.1 ,roup - 1•• t'£2ptttia with G1 v ry 0108. to
.dg.
ot crani.. , Ga .lishtl, ant.rodor.al toraiDS an .pproxi..t.l,
55
with 03
lilllew1th
to
G1
m~re
ventral than
- Oa.
- 0& than
and 01 ventral to Ga.
..........;;;.;:;.,;;;;,;;;;.
with
Os.
ventral to Line
- Oa ..
31
--
G • die;1un llln:l.e
,.
g.aversa
0.20
o.
...
P2
1;1
17
0 .. 20
0 .. 40
0.21
o.
0.33
0 .. 43
0 .. 20
0.21
0 ..
0 .. 2,5
O.
0 .. 201
0",30
0 .. 11
0 ..
0 .. 11
0 .. 21
0",1}
0 .. 3'
0
O~
1 .. 13
1 .. 13
0 .. 70
0 .. 94
- V1
1
0 ..
1.11
1 ..
0 .. 63
1 .. 23
- A2
0 • .50
0
0 .. 50
0.50
0 .. 30
40
0 .. 33
0 .. 40
0 ..
0 .. 10
...
-
Pa
l~a
{) .. 43
01
02
01
G1
61
0 ..
0 .. "
0 .. 61
- .'I.e-
0 .. 37
0 .. 11
0 .. 17
O.. }O
0 .. 20
0 .. 21
A1
0 .. 40
0 .. 30
0 .. }0
0 .. 43
0 .. 20
40
02
0 .. 53
0 .. 43
0 .. 50
0 .. 6:;
0 .. 67
0.25
0 .. 37
0 .. 51
0 ..
33
0 .. 46
0.61
0 .. 60
0 .. 46
0 .. 67
0 .. 60
0 .. 46
83
0 .. 27
0 .. 17
30
0 .. 20
0 .. 25
0 .. 40
302
27
0 .. 21
0"
37
0 .. 25
0 .. 33
S03
0.25
0 .. 20
0.30
0 .. 20
0 .. 13
0
0 .. 60
0.06
0 .. 10
0,,03
0 .. 06
0 .. 10
0 .. 2.7
0 .. 1'7
0 .. 27
0 .. 21
0 .. 25
0 .. 21
43
0 .. 27
0 .. 25
0 .. 13
0 .. 30
o.
0.21
0.25
0 .. 37
-
-
131
60
0 ..
~
A2
27
0 .. 1,
20
0 .. 33
O~
P1
20
- 03
Gm.
- 03
o.
Q .. 25
OF
1
1.
~5
o.
.50
2.
1_
•
'1
1 .. 22
l'
42
...
1 ..
1.
$
1•
1.00
2 ..
1.
1 .. 2,
1
1 ..
1
2
1
1
1 .. 15
1
1
o.
'I
1.
:2
'.
1 ..
1
1.,
'OIl
""
1
'
'" ..
u
1.
1
,
1.
1.
1 ..
0 ..
:;
-
SO'll\,
SO'!
1
.r:.
...
2•
1 ..
1 .. 22
1.83
o.
1.00
0 ..
1•
1.
o.
1
1 ..
'1
1
1.
1 .. 00
(
to
•
All
same
having a mOt'e
xn
slightly
"'_~~~:.=.
t
fUl.d .;:.••~~~
])1
D2
of
t1011 w:ith
on
pronotal
)
- MD1
...
It
the
distinctly
- Vi mere
the
the same
..
to
(
)
17= The larval aDHl
~hield
chueto
(d)
(
to
..
(
f3
t
"I
on
t
with
I\>
(b)
on
the
, the
rows with
fA
.
to
to
the
,
L
1 - IX,
the
,
the
..
L
(
l'
do
stripe
(
tb~
with
til
very
an area to
thl1!l
narrow
stripe,
not
Oll
and
D
I -
t
D
the
th~
(
more
bltll,ck.
w1th
4111
the
in
The
(
[email protected] are
methoda
(1970)
of
(
;
1-
o ...
2 -
4,
about
nfiarer to
(
t
or
Orbicular
Reniform
Sub basal line
Basal streak
Trans. post. line
18:
19 :
tic sketch of the"
tern of a noctuid
t,·',rsa.l
,liew ..
Mes of horae; c
20: 1'ypi.-::o.1
io
Metathoracic"
of
t;l
noctuid.
Radio -medIC" stem
21:
~~~:::::
__--lR5
noctuid
Other s:pecielf>
22:
species in the genua
~nd
of the other
1
)
0
than to M1 (
neerer to
);
abc1om~n
(Figs 18,19,20,21 & 22).
Vel'
or i,n
• 1
without
with
(:l~nse
,sec
. aetae on viillrrueae,
• not
tel'
phytophagous.
.t
c
aoue on
in soil or in
cocoon not
inc orpora til'lg larval ha ira.
Common ('1970)
on
es
) also
adult characters,
of
tfllia
A
k~y
the
..
Key of BOme
1..
Clo~ely
Related
..
Hindwing trifid
Bindwing
. . ..
if1 the
.. .. .. ..
or
..
ill
on meso- and. meeathorax
only one then usually tha let-Iter • .
·.
" .. ,.
:;
.. ..
4
Tibiae on meao- and meta thorax not
,..
Prothoracic
"
th a curved olaw on apex -
t
" ..
t11
,
"
I
uen..e
'1
..
.
t
IV
ill
(
II
•
..
..
•
..
\9
.. 2
"
..
"
1 ..
es ..
ventral
lenitalia
of valva
produoing a
costa cllrved
of stout
and
of
Iii
on cueullu!!'i!t
from
; e
cornuti a.
1 bun.ch
of the
I<ItroDgly
eac Id thout
the
the
.-.~~ ~.:;,.;:;;;:;.~
diagn~8tic
fe/atures of
: the
to
male
=
the
..
Bac;
.15enue are:
the
thie genulilI'
ue! the
which
of
.
the mi
1 ..
th
•
•
~
•
with
of'
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
~
•
•
•
•
,
~
,
•
*
•
.5
..
.
11
..
..
11 •
..
t
1
.109,
6 }..
th
..
oft~.n
•
~hit~ atth~
t, one
two
cel.l, the
,
othElil' netl.r
ti
..
t
short dark
line
tr'J.ni'il-
ant
with
e
ver~u~
to R4 t
terior
then
indistinct
liind
r~miform
most
blaCK.
with th0
reniform
~tri~lAk
posterior
of
te
It
om
to P2.;
it
exc
... XD1 more
to
V1
more
•
to
t
..
D1 more
with
to D2
€II"
of
and
tlrel.lS
,!U'l'llaSh
...
coruapicuous
udinally
occur in
'I'helDe
and
own
the raidaorsum ..
subdor
in the
fA
"
,
thrtH'
with
it
than
o:n
the body ..
vertical
O.. 66mm,
at
in
Colour;
to
oolQuration common
noticab1.e at 2
.
..
(
.
.
(
(
1
1
(
.1
,
8.
11;
..
(
•
,.
c
1~
~~t.
..
- .. xII1
•
(
21 <IIJt: .. 1910,
1
t
----.,
•(
•
.. ),
).,
It
(
and
nQ
e Common's {
o()mmon
on the
to
and
t
ot
on the
The
~lIS
it
~.
not
the
manner
in
to
juat
..
.
..
t
,
the
on
(
witn
.) .
?
..
..
on
blaok
t r tiIJUi y er {;Jut
~13;~
,
with costa
lightly
, marginal
di
S1Hlller
o,or-sally;
t
of
fina
than
; I.3triations at
f t;;f .......~~........-.---.
el.'
, Va
V2
ihan V2;
equidifltAl1t;
ot
other
I Oa .lightly ventral to
; :01
to D2; iWW1
~lightly
8hield; '11 langeI'
exo
wi
forma by
t
10c
..
"
.v.
,
(
1
, 1
(
• (Anoll.),
t
wore common in
in
4000' h
t
I'L.l"
"
in
or
an
obvious
ant elUUle of'
lEI.re
9 &: 10) '"
11.
(
of
;,
t
..
ground colour;
of
at •• ; • pair of f1••
or
an
a
"
t
i
pa:Z'l;[email protected]~
\
(:013&&
corona
- 44mm" (24
to
F2
to
;
t
t
(10
.
2-
t
15
..
.
0
16~ (
1+. {K"
ex
12,
..
(J.tI'.
Of
):
(
, (:2l,
(
t
1~, (s ..
16: (
It
,
.2t~ 2"J("
is
both
the
is no
on
sa or
..
"
oblique17"
t
knob11ke
about
with a
narrow,
some
wi
or
of
on
. . .. . . . . , . .
~
cos
(lQlI!l,lex
and
epot
(;It
and
(P ... ).
t
of
11
"
111 ..
(
It
1
Merging into a black streak on either side; underside irrorated
in
anteriorly;
cell from
fUe>oous;
some
e.
luI!ules
on
t
III
or
..
OOhl'ef}US
lunulea
with
touchinS
ourved
Ii
nl!!.rrow
"
to
(1.
of
(0.
(86
;3mm,
)
.
"12
to V1,
; D1
V1
..
two
than the
\I
..
(10
at
in cone
&1bout
..
the
s.t
the
Locat
"
101
.1966, 1~ (il
29
U.J.j'~y'~~~.'\f
)"
: 7.11 .. 1970,
),
61/o'!
9
191
l;!emoris.l
o
1+:
t
4t~ (s.
).
11.iii.1915~
~juae\1m); 6 .. U.i.1915 t 1~
in both the North and South
IHstributioru
in particular at high altitudes
it occurs in
bee. recorded up to ,,00' •••• 1. in Canterbury.
Occurs in
it il'll bound
.
than the
'basic c 010ur
..
Those with the
colour on
the paler
mnd forked apically with the
along the
the valva margin.
Ii'letcher
for this
(!!
) ..
sta.tea that
to ba quoted here.
lUUll
angle
in
~
10,
102
t.,tolophota atristrila ('allter) (Figs. }1,}2 • }8; Plates 1, & 14:
Iyliaa atri.trit'ja .,Hllker, 1865. L1st Spec. Lep. Ins. Brit.
Mus. Jl:7.56.
Ha.eutra antiRoe felder, 187".
"Noyara." Reise der
oe.terrelch i.chen Fregatte Novara ua die Erde in den Jahren,
pl.109, fig.2}.
Leucania atrlatriaa (';.aUer); Heyrick, 1886.
N.Z. lnat. 1i&8. Hudson, 1897.
Trona.
N.Z. Moths and Butterflie. p.10.
pl.iy, f1S.12.
Pereectani• • tristric.
(~alker);
Haapson, 190,5.
Phaelaenae Brit. Mua • .5:}88 Hudaon, 1928.
Cat. Lep.
The Butterflie. and
Motha of N.Z. p.61. pl.yil, flg.28.
ADOLT
Ground colour: Fuacoua - terruglDou8 - ochreoferruslnoua.
nead, labial pal pi and thorax ground colour, often paled
by an irroration of .hite tipped acalea; thia u8uall, correapon4ins
to the wiac colour althoush ao.. have paler winas.
Antennae ot
female aiaple, c11indrical te. cilia; ot male .errate and
taaciculate reduced to c11indr1cal and cillate dlatall,.
Thorax with patagia sround colour rarely with a faint
dark tranaTerse band; tesulae ground colour.
with ferruginoue, 80.e
fU8COUB
Legs pale suffused
aleo; anterior ot femur and tibla,
/
and 1.8t 2 - } tarai blackish.
Abdomen fU8columate; anal tuft more ochreous in darker
speciaena.
Fore.ing ground colour ln most speci.ens, predominantl,
1
oehreo ferruginous;
from below
erniing
bl~~ek
of cell to below the orirtin of Ou2.
pointed arJ(!!X;
a
costal area otten clouded. ';¥ith
to Dear apex, clBviform
ob601et(~;
orbicular
form
B.nd l)lack. laterally; the
by
angled bt{sally on
~nedhm
slfl~ll
former
ar
nervure and with some
in
(jUS
lower part; an oobreous. patch between M1, M2 near reniform;
sub-basal line sometimes
IOmd. cell,
liES
repr./i:~ented.
by slight striae from
0
red:uced. mostly obsolete; trantlVe;r/i,H'il anterior line
double striae from oostet and cell. mostly obsolete or
ve,!'y reduced although more obvious
du.rker specimens;
transverse posterior line visible as double .triae
then indistinct, dark or light in fuacous ...
from
ferruginous range of specimens; Bubterminal line usually indistinct
iil.nd
repr~.;sented
by a s()ri.s of small ochreous
dentations aometimelS visible as much
epecimeru~;
~~nd
fueoQus
Ou' and"3 in
fUSCOUEl
a terminal seriet!! of black lunule6 in Eiome Speoi.!1'lenlll;
cilia ground oolour.
Hiadwing fuscoutJ to pale [ueaoUE!!. paled ba.8ally;
fulvid. also sometimes pale basally.
Underaidel!1.l of wings
• irroX'P"I,ted with fU800us t:'tnd
Elonu~timefiil
r'lfous; forewing with fuscoul1I discal area; hindw1n,; 'With black
terminal
..
genitalia with costa rounded to elbowed; cucullua
strongly
; spines of
corona
•
mora
til
of sbort
and
out
(0.
31-40mm, (
)
.
V1
more
; 01
on a
105
ts ot'
00
two
ts
hut
longitudinally in the subdor!'ilal
,"".n equally dilJtinct
aligned longitudinally.
Also in
there are twa broad, whit. bandB
,~rtd
th th.e
t3.nal
Bum narrow on the latter
EGG
Shillp.:
~;ubBph(~rical,
flattened through the V'ertiet:l.l
wide.t diameter O.70-0.?2mm, (10 !'5pecil'llens) ..
, ( 10
ending at lower ourve,
eell
bas.; ri
about tbe mioropyle.
by oross ribs
Colour: ifih.ite whan fre.h.
chf~nging
to
~
dark brown
;'It
maturi ty; forming typical brown markings on the rnieropyle and in
of Type. British
~
54/J:
(tural U:hltory) t I,ondon"
:5 l •. rvae"
1
~
)
.
7.
...
-
1
'I!
.:1 to 1
:
~
(T.l1.
t
(
)
.
1
,
t
1~, (
~
(
(
(
I)
1+, (
,
"') .. (
f) ..
.. 1
,.
4.
.)
'I
(
11.
.. 1
.
16~
.. 1
.•
(
) t
)
511t
(s.
t
(
16;
It.,
,
8",1",1
~x
• 21
,,1
11,
..1
1 .. i i .. 1
",1
,1J;
II,
~
1/;
(8"
11,
(
, 1tf,
,
(
(
'"
o ODnno:o.
Auokland;
t
..
.,
t
ooe
(
of
no
)" {
"
H))
..
1898 ..
.. 1(),11 ..
.
(
;
Dot
~
1
and
6~()oud
blw::k
a,nllel"iQI' 1.ineJ
t
fuscoteBtao80UB
the
of
vein
Cu2,
t
,
ons to
tHl d
t(1
>'1,
wi th a, narrow
corona,
and
bunch
III
short
the base
under
Bl:H)ut a third
on
(1.
.;...;;;.:w;,;~ .......;:.;;:;.,;;;;;.;;;,
longer
expanse I
....-...::~ ... V,. VI!i. Ilitnd
V2 ilill
to
line
"
110
to
t
(
111
.
,
; 1
<II
0
1+, (
,
(
~)
t
.),
<
(
to
.. -S-,
1J! (
.
r...
5
0
..1914 t
.
1':
(
.. 1878, 1~t
2t&~ (
)t
(
t
1~
(
(
(
..35. 37
'"
&
38;
1
t
sh
115
}
-.:i.i,,, 1970,
1/, 1~:
.... '
all.
11,
,~=...
.. 1922,
1l.
t
If
lt~~* (
•v .
.19,1. 1~~
(
(
),
)
,
tute.
(A
1
'1
Ijo
'1
1/,
) ..
n
16,
Lateral and Ventral View
of
of
of
116
111
24.
P os t er i or ap"!!'p"!!y.:!.s~e!.s_~,+ _ _..j..1
Cor
Duct
5
bursae
se
'nolis
11
.119
26.
---I+-h-'WtT-'A-.p',pe n dix
bu r 5 ae
121
-,-;"
P111te 5:
(WUt.)t
Pli:lte 6:
( lk.) 9
!)l",·te 7=
('.11;;" ) ,
l'late 8:
(Ink.) t
(
(
,,),
.
Flate 10;
)~
130
131
propria
18
Plate 12:
(,lk . ) , !
1318..
Plat e 17 : Tmetol pho t a simi is
(Phllpt.), male .
Pl ate 18 : T . simi l is
(Phi l p t. ) ,-femal e .
1
1. ewingil
2. dyscrlta
3,
4. similis
QverSQ
..
)
bl
(
(d)
)
( )
I
133
t
41
1
·of
1
(
t
ext;
(
46).
.
the
non-
ga:ni ta.lia
i'ie;
o1' .....~~........... .;:;;~~~
of
tll.lia of
11'ig.
1
'!
1
1
v
DISCUSSION
CONOLUSION
In revising the Australian
~nuilil
were two epee
(1954) concluded that
ommon.
BU.DDoseo ..
During
one as had
examined
course of hie
Which had
thE!)
erB
New Zealand
of' the female 9
He chose
to
b~
whioh bad
name
plao
the New
Of
have 'beon
Hampson, has
or in the f1
Hampson, with
synoI!.om;y of
this
impossible to
New Zealand. ..
in
ty- of
Walker,
been mentioned
species.
t
Walker.,
I5Illd
the: are not c
t
t
Mey-rick have
with
and it
Unfortunately no
Plate 19:
1st Iostar larva of Persectania aversa
150
Plate 20: 1st Instar larva of Tmetolophota atristriga.
151
t
~,;
•
~
"+
~
1 r
,.
1
of
on a
a dis tine
that
typioal
egg
Doctuid
"
provided f',om. evideace for the above
1:9-Zf!illuBtrat'l;h
the
of
differences
(lIerU:THl
uniformly
firlilt
e of
Ii
faint
the
on obvious pinaoula
of colour over
of
body
of
to
(
morphological
ttle·
etrong
being
of any
they
i£10 similarity, the only significant differenoes
the
H. ttle useful
of th.e
the
this
t
although even
lilt the
.
to
or
it ilil
, V2
t~,
ami '1'1
~i1.th
te
the~e
2 ..
165 - 0."
111
At.
V1
P2
i?2
-
1
$
- [email protected]
- 1"
!l'b
0 ..
Mean O.
2
~
1 .. 21"
.
- '1
1 .. 0
- 0 ..
0 ..
was' tbe
~
__~. and may prove
or
on
the
in
or
0,0
nor
not
of the
on
y that,
sigmQid
on the
of
are quite
are also
"
by typioal
other
oharaoters entirely
e
25-36 inc.).
the
of
across the cuoulluB
valva; and a
row of
with
h
base of the harpe and
with a distinct
narrower; juxta shield
two
t
and
1
and a
arising from its
es h,w"cvel". it hae
sOl' ,~ll
that there are two
groupings whioh can
differentiated OD
genitalia chartlO
two groups are
and
l,l1hG
generiC det
these
of the nominal genera in the sub-
majority of the
family
considered.
were
the lack of
the type spee
names
some
through
are
Hadeninae which have
in this
obviously
are
under rev
or else they have been
the
doubted on
material available,
t
t () be omitted
the above
.
were readily discounted
on
are:
Meyriok type
Meyriok, whioh has
an atypical bifurcate frons, although the genitalia of both sexes
are very similar to the generalised description given earlier
for the whole group of species in question: Erana Walker type
Walker t with the
crbVious coiled tube extending off
the bulbous corpus bursae in the female genitalia (Fig.44)
1
which
typical of
(Du.gdale
group of'
has a l o n g cornutal
vasieet which is not
of any
the
baing
this
thilill author
from the
very
for
in both sexes,
(Fig.45).
group of
any
This genua
to be a
Oechennei.mer
its
and
t endemic taxon:
the
~~__
on
of'
diffuse corona
the
female geni
genitalia.
of the
, the form
the
in
of the
Also the
is
has an orifioilill
these generie
the species considered
the
..
names that are left, the
of two Of
.,
genue
1928) ..
are
~~~~~~
.;;;;;,;;;;.;;;;.;..&.......___
.
Hampson type
, the name
and
for
~~__~~~
by
the mall'El
.. lit
or
15'7
and a ahort bluAt anal
the
lobe, a
the
one of the branches
the
..
to the two genera
~entioned
above with both
, it
to the
any decision on gene ria synonymies
this
intended
1l'Jithout
more information.
it is
the introduc
conclusions
on
of the phylogeny
these
fers
..
from studying the group in
The v4lue
characters
•u,,"'''' .... tel'S
cannot
are not
obvious
to be readily diso
within
to
relied
(1898., 1928)
nootuid
the
be emphal'llised too stton"l,. ..
on
that the
•
enough
1
aharketers
of J1.\.UllerO'U5
DO.C
lin the
.and
crests on
'lhe su.bsequent taxa. tended to bl\!l
by
togetbeJ:' of
that existed
of
that time.
Noctui,dae contained a
'a (1905) world
rite
in
It
in
for
• which had
past '+2
..
the
the
1
the
The aimii
Zealand
6peci~s
of
:Noctuidal9). to
uV·"''''''''t 1928) (
are
the eight
to
~~~the
epeoie:;; ..
of
li.;gg,
material
reliance on
l1!:Uli
been
genitalia
to be the only New
species
joining the
or
the
specieli, two
have becomf.!t
l!I}le
grotrpingt~
species
thfl,l
are
•
and
into the
whioh he.ve been
Hampson.
a.nd
been placed
genus
t
characterl'Ji
gener.!)l. are
band on
form of botll
..
The di
es
been
t
the text and are illul3tra'ced in
the courSilli
otber
were examiaed
of
and
c
were
ed
study, e.
the seoond part of
genera
(:!lame subfamily
om. the
the
.
nam~lH'iI
type epiaatrAA
type
last
to
genu6 ief
~\.
to both
the
in
spec
~~~~
161
A GLOSHAHY O}l'
brown.
brownish
Smoky
rust
red brovm ..
Fu<.lC
otel>taceoua!
blaok ..
rust brown.
OchreoftUilCOUS:
fUJ!3ooua
with a
01ivaceOU6~
brown
olive
yellow ..
I'eo ..
~eBtaCGOUB:
browniah
1
Firstly I
to thank Dr R .1>1.
Prof'essor R.A.
of the Entomology
College for their
and advice during
course
and experience was
goes to l'lr J. ,G.
A special
D.S.1.«.
for
OJ
scientific
and
in
especially the
I'4anaia,
Mr D.S. Fletcher.
tiab Museum (Nat. H1at.), London and
and in particular
material which was provided during this study.
point I offer my
On
Directors of the
t'luseum, Gant
War Memorial
Museum and
of time.
I would like to
co-operation
opportunity to
:for their
pherson and Mr E.R.
technical aasis
, Dominion
kindly
to the loan of material for an
thank Mrs M..
to the
e.
..
t
• 275.
0.8,1.R.0.,
,1967,.
standard names for common insects.
NeZ.
Jl .. Agric. !1!(2):
4..
!l.!!- 1956.
, J.D.
Prot eo
R.E. Owen, Government
er Wellington.
p .. 375-376"
Beirne, B.P. 1942..
l1orphology of the
of the
..
Ent .. Reo ..
..
H .. 1
"
Handbuok
• I ..
1
" 'faxonomifJ't QIii
c:nOl'Ssary of Genitalia in Inseots, 2nd eel.
8..
Common, I.F.B. 1954.
The Australian
orms of
genus
(Lepidoptera:Noc
Aust .. J .2,001.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 1970 ..
'rile Insects of' J\'I!fj
students and
..
10 ..
, s. E.
1
worke~a.
c . . 1.R.O.,
University Preas.
of the Phalaenidae ..
.. IT.S. Dept.
Cumber, Il.A. 1
100 ..
.. 11
Injury to Phormium c
N.Z. JI. So .. Technol.(A)
..
1
12.
Dent. R.
Grub.
19
S.Auat. D.Agric. Jl.
Tuxen, S.L. 1970. ed.
in
14 ..
[email protected]
2nd
~d.
on the t
1
in IJepidoptera ..
Lepia .. News. ~:67-74.
to the Forbes INotes' ..
1
• New iii..
.!2.: 169 "
to
ont!! on insect
1
on ..
d
N.Z. Jl .. Sc"
t
J.S.
19
.(A)
Larval cha.rac
) ..
New Zealand Hnnomines (
Trans. H.Sca.
18 ..
1964.
N.~.
(Zoo.) 1
Insects of Ca.mpbell
Lepidoptera:Geometridaa.
Pacif. Insec'ts
, B.G. 1894.
Classification of
194-232.
Ann. N .. 7 .. 1\0
.T.H. 1910..
of some caterpillarSlo
A
Ann. ant .. Soc .. Am.
.
1911.
g
of Sloma cat
A structural
..
The
Ann.
94-1
(
)
..
" Soo. Am .. 4 261
"
1
1916.
On
illa1"
c
0
.
.. N•Y. en t • Soc"
1
"Agric ..
1939
68 ..
The l1u601ea of the
@
genitalia.
Ann .. ent .. Soc. Am.
1954.
"
of
Notes of the
male
"
167-168 ..
" News.
Frackar, S.B. 1915.
Classific
on of LepidoptarouB larvae •
•
I
27.
Franclemont, J.G. 1951.
~Io:rwgr ..
..
;:
The species of th
group, with a
for the
1-10 "
of
ous
North America.
n~.mas
as
<
1'1'00. ent. 80c.
"
Gaskin. D.E. 1
The Butterflies
Common Moths of N••
1st ad .. Whitcombe
Zealand..
I,td,
,I
219pt
..
1
"
New Zealand Noe
of kllown mos t
to the biology of th
N. Z.
Gera6imow~
A.M. 1
•
(Lepidoptera):
61.
bibliography
up ..
E:nt ..
Zur Fraga del'
..
Borstan v(m
166
Zool. Anz.
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Bestimmungatabelle der familien von
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Stettin. ent. ztg.
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Gosse, P.H. 1882.
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HintcH'l, H.E. 1946.
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On the
setae of
arous larvae ..
1-37.
Trans" R.. ent"Soc .. Lond ..
1947.
'rhe Dorsal Cranial Areas of Cat
Ann ..
.
1
nat ..
The larvae of the
ra ..
• (S11)1!i=
@
es of
of
251
44..
Hudson, G.V. 1898.
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(Nacrolepidopt
.
144pt . 13
1924..
"
Dese
of a new noctuid
New
t's mon ..
.
Butt
of
.
]'ergul9on and
47.
19.50 ..
lr'ragmen ts of' New
and Osborne Ltd,
"
ImrilS 9
A.D.
196L~ "
01:'
A
~lethye:tl
and Co
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of Genitalia
50.
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ta" 2nd ed.
.
1970.
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of Gen
" p11
51.
• 188p, 1
.. 9th
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sary of
Tuxen, S.L •• d .. 1
in
in Insecta,
1
"
KUBnazov, N.J. 1912.
Faune de l'URSS at
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tal
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t
1
A.D.
"
A note on two
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• 1,0wer t H. F. 1
of a virus disease
(Westwd) (Lepidoptera:
)
AUst. .. J.biol ..
, M.H.
19
161-1
Problems in
.
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1
of form and
tion
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e in
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es.
1
60.
61.
_____ 1
------
larvae"
Can. Ent ..
!fhe North
968..
bas
337-340.
an
A
g
on late ina tar larvae"
Mem.ent .. Soc"Canada No.;8.
McGuffin, W.C .. 1950.
of
(
(Lepidoptera:aeometrid.e».
10,
Can. l';nt"
.
______ 1
Some
genus
of
Can.
_ _ _ _ _ 19
10 ..
Hubner
.....;w,;;;;,;..
16. "
(
of
)
with notes on other
Can ..
_ _ _ _- _ 1
of the Nearctic
(LepidoptaraIGeometridae).
. '------ 1964.
CanoEnt"supp.8 .. 104p.
Setal patterns of the anterior abdOlninal
of
of'
Call.
19
"
Immature
Durango,
the
•.2§.~841-8It9.
of some
era
0"
Can.Ent .. 2.2,: 1
.
head capsule characters
in
(
)"
specific
170
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ttleyrick, :IF.
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c
of
A
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New Zealand
,[1 r
71.
1.",
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Control of tha New Zealand Flax
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ons) ..
N•• Jl. Ag:r.io 1
1917.
Pests and
446-451.
n
New
N.Z • .11 .. Agric.j!:43 1
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"
areaB in
and Moutoa
'J.lhe
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.
N.l,.
.
1917.
Agrio
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.
N.Z. Jl ..
75.
,
L; Kjar,
•
~1artyn,
E .. 1
"
The Armyworm
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•
..
.. J ..
,
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77.
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ill
8•
.. !§,:
"
Nymphalidenraupen,
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"
of
and
-
(SYllilt .. ). 1 z 41
the
and llew
B.reas
6
m
..
1
of the seta
on the
E\rous larvae e
.. Prefect .. 6(B):
Bull. Unive
79.
Ogata,
of
t~.
Nomenclature
to thlil T
Ann
80 ..
, H"
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ance of Sacculus and Furca.
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und ihre Be
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die
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90.
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