# Introduction to Dislocations Plastic Deformation in Crystalline Materials Kamyar Davoudi Lecture 6 ```Introduction to Dislocations
Plastic Deformation in Crystalline Materials
Kamyar Davoudi
Lecture 6
Fall 2015
Dislocations
slip
Perfect Crystal
A half crystal has been displaced by
lattice vector b along the cut plane A.
This does not change the atomic
structure inside the crystal. If we
assume the two half crystals have sled
over each other, in the first lecture we
showed that the theoretical shear
stress will be ~ &micro;/10 which is much
larger than the observed value.
no slip
Because the theoretical shear
strength is much larger than the
measured shear strength, the
concept of dislocations was
assuming that two half crystals have
sled over each other, we assume a
dislocation, which is the boundary
between the slipped and un-slipped
areas, sweeps along the cut plane A.
[figures from Bulatov &amp; Cai, Computer Simulations of Dislocations, Oxford University Press, 2006.]
Edge Dislocations
One type of dislocations is edge dislocations. Here we can assume a
half plane is inserted in a perfect crystal or a half plane is removed
from a perfect crystal. Note that the extra half plane is not unique.
In this figure, we are dealing with a simple cubic structure.
[figure from Bulatov &amp; Cai, Computer Simulations of Dislocations, Oxford University Press, 2006.]
Screw Dislocation
[Read, W.T., Dislocations in Crystals, McGraw Hill, 1953.]
Mixed Dislocations
[Read, W.T., Dislocations in Crystals, McGraw Hill, 1953.]
Dislocations Simulated by a Bubble Raft
[Read, W.T., Dislocations in Crystals, McGraw Hill, 1953.]
Line Direction
Line direction ξ is a unit vector tangent to the dislocation line.
Burgers Vector
Relation between b
and u?
FS/RH convention when!line direction ξ points into the paper.
For edge dislocations: b ⊥ ξ̂
b=∫
! du
or
bi = ∫
! dui =∫!
For screw dislocations:
!
b &quot; ξ̂
∂ui
∂xk
dxk
[figures from Hirth &amp; Lothe, Theory of Dislocations, and here ]
Edge and Screw Dislocations
•  For screw dislocations:
•  For screw dislocations:
!
b ⊥ ξ̂
!
b &quot; ξ̂
•  Edge component:
!
! ! !
be = ξ &times; b &times; ξ
(
)
•  Screw component:
!
! ! !
bs = b i ξ ξ
(
)
[Hirth &amp; Lothe, Theory of Dislocations, Wiley, 1982]
Termination of Dislocations
•  A dislocation cannot end within an otherwise
perfect crystal, but must terminate at
–  Free surface
–  Another dislocation
–  Grain boundary
–  Some other defects
•  Proved by Nabarro with formal elasticity
theory
Kirchhoff’s law
!
! !
b1 = b2 + b3
Axiom: Suppose N dislocations meet at a node. If all the ξ are taken as
positive taken from the node, we will have
!
∑ bi = 0
N
i=1
[Hirth &amp; Lothe, Theory of Dislocations, Wiley, 1982]
Plastic Strain around Edge Dislocartion
y
y
x
x
Ω
z
slip
Plastic strain on half plane Ω
no slip
1
ε = b δ( y)H(−x)
2
p
xy
[figures from Bulatov &amp; Cai, Computer Simulations of Dislocations, Oxford University Press, 2006, AND Mura,
Micromechanics of Defects in Solids, 2nd ed, Springer, 1987 ]
Plastic Strain around Screw Dislocation
z
y
z
x
y
B
x
A
C
Plastic strain on half plane Ω
1
ε = b δ( y)H(−x)
2
p
yz
[figures from Read, Dislocations in Crystals, McGraw Hill, 1953, AND Mura, Micromechanics of Defects in Solids,
2nd ed, Springer, 1987 ]
Elastic Fields around Screw Dislocation
⎫
⎛ y ⎞⎟ π
⎪
⎪
b
b ⎧
−1
⎪
⎜
⎪
⎡
⎤
uz =
θ=
⎨tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ + sgn( y) ⎢⎣1− sgn(x)⎥⎦ ⎬
⎪
⎜⎝ x ⎠ 2
2π
2π ⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
⎭
b
εzθ =
4πr
⇒
εxz = −
b y
,
2
4π r
εxy =
b x
4π r 2
0.5
0.2
uz &ecirc;b 0.0
uz &ecirc;b 0.0
- 0.2
2
2
1
1
y
0
0
-1
-1
-2
-2
⎛ ⎞
b
−1 ⎜ y ⎟
uz =
tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠
2π
x
- 0.52
2
1
1
y
0
0
x
-1
-1
-2
-2
⎫
⎛ ⎞ π
⎪
⎪
b ⎧
−1 ⎜ y ⎟
⎪
⎪
⎡
⎤
⎟
⎜
uz =
tan
+
sgn(
y)
1−
sgn(x)
⎨
⎬
⎟
⎢
⎥
⎜
⎟
⎣
⎦
⎪
⎜⎝ x ⎠ 2
2π ⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
⎭
1
b −y
∂ x uz =
2
4π r 2
⎤
1
b ⎡⎢ x
( p)
⎥
εzy = ε(e)
+
ε
=
∂
u
=
+
2πH(−x)δ(
y)
zy
zy
y z
⎢
2
⎥
2
4π ⎢⎣ r
⎥⎦
εzx = ε(e)
+ ε(zxp) =
zx