Abstract Algebra 4 meeting Materials: subring and its examples

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Abstract Algebra
4th meeting
Materials: subring and its examples
Motivation:
1.  , , ,  with ordinary operations additive (+) and multiplicative (.) are ring and  ⊂  ,
 ⊂  ,  ⊂ ,  ⊂  , ⊂ ,  ⊂ .
 a b 

=
2. M 
 a, b, c, d ∈   with additive (+) and multiplicative (x) operations on matrix is ring.
 c d 

 a b 

=
3. N 
 a, b ∈   with additive (+) and multiplicative (x) operations on matrix is ring.
 0 0 

 a 0 

=
4. K 
 a ∈   with additive (+) and multiplicative (x) operations on matrix is ring.
 0 0 

We know that K ⊂ N ⊂ M .
From this fact, the concept of subring of ring is defined as follows:
Definition 1: Let ( R, +,) be a ring, S ≠ φ and S ⊂ R . S is called subring of R if ( S , +,) is also ring.
Examples:
1.  , , ,  with ordinary operations additive (+) and multiplicative (.) are ring and  ⊂  ,
 ⊂  ,  ⊂  ,  ⊂  ,  ⊂  ,  ⊂  . So we conclude that  is subring of  ,  , and  .
Then,  is subring of  and  . And  is subring of  .
2. K is subring of N and M. Then, N is subring of M.
3. Let 15 be set of integer classes of modulo 15. Find all subring of 15 !
4. Let  7 be set of integer classes of modulo 7. Find all subrings of  7 !
Theorem 1: Let ( R, +,) be a ring, S ≠ φ and S ⊂ R . S is called subring of R if and only if for every
a, b ∈ S (i). a − b ∈ S (ii). ab ∈ S
Proof: (see sukirman, 2006, page: 36)
Theorem 2: If S and T are subrings of ring R, then S ∩ T is subring of R.
Proof: (see sukirman, 2006, page: 42)
Let S and T be subrings of ring R. Is S ∪ T subring of R? explain.
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