# A Model of Coronal Helmets with Prominences Eric Greenfield Yuhong Fan

```A Model of Coronal
Helmets with Prominences
Eric Greenfield
Yuhong Fan
B.C. Low
High Altitude Observatory
Outline
Background and Motivation
Methodology
Results
Future Work
Image courtesy of NCAR, HAO
Image courtesy of NCAR, HAO
Construct a simple magnetic model of a coronal
helmet, capturing the basic characteristics of the
partially open configuration
Investigate how the shape of the helmet
depends on surface flux distribution
Investigate the possibility that a prominence
sheet within a helmet cavity can anchor the
helmet’s magnetic field, allowing magnetic
energy to build beyond the open field limit
Can this mechanism store enough energy for
driving a CME?
Outline
Background and Motivation
Methodology
Results
Future Work
Magnetic Field Constraints
The magnetic field of a coronal helmet must
satisfy certain conditions
r r
r
r &amp; A(r , + ) #
( • B = 0 ) Bhelmet = ( ' \$
*ˆ !
% r sin + &quot;
r
c r r
c
J=
+* B ) (
4.
4.r sin -
&amp; ' 2 A sin - ' &amp; 1 'A # # ˆ
\$\$ 2 + 2
\$
! !!, = 0
r '- % sin - '- &quot; &quot;
% 'r
New Coordinate System
Discretization and a Numerical
Solution
The equation must be discretized to solve
numerically
# 2 y y ( x + !x) &quot; 2 y ( x) + y ( x &quot; !x)
=
2
#x
!x 2
#y y ( x + !x) &quot; y ( x &quot; !x)
=
#x
2!x
Outline
Background and Motivation
Methodology
Results
Future Work
Same Problem, Different Solutions
Open vs. Partially Open vs. Closed
Changing the Shape of the Helmet
equator
Introducing a Prominence
In order to ensure that the helmet can
store enough magnetic energy to surpass
the open field limit, a prominence must be
introduced to the model to act as an
anchor

This is done by applying an additional
boundary condition as a current sheet
New Boundary Condition
Helmet with Prominence
After adding the prominence, a closed system of
field lines is now present in the helmet cavity
Energy and Prominence Mass
In one case we set the amount of flux
passing through the sheet to be equal to
15% that of the entire Sun

The resulting ratio E/Eopen = 1.86 is well
beyond the open field limit
Prominence Mass
1
Mp =
GM sun
1
! [B B
r
ssh
&quot;
] &micro; =0
1
ds
5
s
For the case of E/Eopen=1.86, the mass of the
prominence comes out to be 6.6 e16 g
Minimum Case
In order to just exceed the open field limit
only 5% of the Sun’s flux density need


E/Eopen = 1.003
Mp = 1.31 e16 g
Exceeding the Open Field Limit
A “Normal” Configuration
Mp = 3.306 e16 g
Outline
Background and Motivation
Methodology
Results
Future Work
Future Work
This model examines only a very idealized case
of a coronal helmet

The model can be improved by combining the
prominence with a varying surface flux function
Construct a prominence with a normal rather
than inverse configuration
The helmet can also be moved away from the
equator


The current sheet at the top of the helmet must still go
to the equator
This would mean solving a boundary value problem
with the curved shape of the current as an unknown
Resources
Fong, B., B. C. Low, and Y. Fan. “Quiescent
Solar Prominences and Magnetic-Energy
Storage.”
Low, B. C., B. Fong, and Y. Fan. &quot;The Mass of a
Solar Quiescent Prominence.“
Low, B. C. “Models of Partially Open
Magnetospheres with and without Magnetodisks”
William, Press H., and Brian P. Flannery.
Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77. 2nd ed. 1992.
Questions?
```