The Sustainable Built Environment:

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The
Sustainable
Built
Environment:
Delivering on
the Potential
Kirsten Ritchie
Director, Environmental Claims Certification
Scientific Certification Systems
Agenda
• A little about SCS
• Leading US Sustainability Drivers
• LCA and Labeling
About SCS
• Multidisciplinary scientific organization
founded in 1984
• Internationally recognized third-party
evaluation and certification organization
• Conduct operations in North, Central,
and South America, Asia, Europe
• Programs span the economy: food and
agriculture, energy, manufactured goods,
forestry and fisheries.
• Services include certification
assessment and standards/program
development.
SCS Technical Expertise
Masters and PhD degrees in:
¾ Organic Chemistry
¾ Marine Biology
¾ Microbiology
¾ Microchemistry
¾ Wildland Resources
¾ Industrial Science
¾ Civil Engineering
¾ Mechanical Engineering
¾ Entomology
¾ Toxicology
¾ Agronomy
¾ Food Engineering
¾ Forestry
¾ Resource Management
¾ Economics
¾ Business
SCS Accredited Certification
Programs
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is a nongovernmental organization whose purpose is to preserve
marine resources worldwide
The Forest Stewardship Council
(FSC) is an international non-profit
organization founded in 1993 to
support environmentally appropriate,
socially beneficial, and economically
viable management of the world's
forests.
CERTIFIED BY
SCIENTIFIC CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS
SCS-COC-0036
The National Organic Program (NOP), directed
by USDA, establishes standards for the
production and handling of organic products
(food and non-food).
SCS Developed 3rd Party Certification
Programs
•Highlights growers’ and
manufacturers’ efforts to
address specific environmental
concerns
•Provides independent
verification of environmental
claims appearing on products
and packaging (1000s of
products)
Eddystone
Coal
Power
XYZ Coal
Power
PlantPlant
Environmental
Profile
EnvironmentalImpact
Impact Profile
(1500 MW Capacity; 2,296 GWH Annual Production)
Sustainability of Energy Resources
Net Depletion - energy resources (equiv. tons of oil)
Amt.
51,800
*
•Specifications developed by
SCS and others (ISO, ASTM)
to establish scientifically
defensible, field verifiable,
performance thresholds
Scale of Impacts
Ecosystem Disruption
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres)
Key Species (% increased mortality)
4,600
NA
Emission Loadings and W astes
Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO 2)
1,545,000
Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO 2)
300
Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O 3)
180
Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10)
310
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113)
-Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg)
0.008
Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )
-equiv. = equivalent
-- is used to denote negligible results
* Per 1,000 GWh
Lower
Higher
PJM Average Impacts (1998)
SCS Certification Programs for
Manufactured Goods
• Single Environmental Attributes (ie No
VOCs, Biodegradability, Recycled
Content, No Added Formaldehyde) –
Type II Labeling
• Life Cycle Assessment (environmental
accounting methodology)
• Certified EcoProfile (Type III Labeling)
• Environmentally Preferable Products and
Services (Type I Labeling)
Some of our clients
http://www.scscertified.com
Leading US Sustainability Drivers
LEED
LOHAS
LABELING
LIFECYCLE
LEED
Growth in LEED Accredited Professionals
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Jun-02 Sep-02 Dec-02 Mar-03 Jun-03 Sep-03 Dec-03 Mar-04 Jun-04
Growing number of LEED products
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LEED NC - New Construction
LEED CI – Commercial Interiors
LEED EB – Existing Buildings
LEED CS – Core & Shell
LEED Residential
LEED Multi-Use
LEED Application Guides (Retail, Health
Care,….)
LEED Canada
LEED India
LEED ………
LOHAS
LOHAS
•LOHAS is an acronym that stands for Lifestyles of
Health and Sustainability.
•Consumers who value health, the environment,
social justice, personal development and
sustainable living.
•Approximately 30 percent of adults, or 63 million
consumers
•$226.8 billion U.S. marketplace
•Sustainable Economy $76.5 Billion
•Healthy Lifestyles $27.5 Billion
•Alternative Healthcare $30.7 Billion
•Personal Development $10.6 Billion
•Ecological Lifestyles $81.2 Billion
Source: http://www.lohas8.com/market/index.html
LOHAS compared to other groups
What’s the population mix?
What is LOHAS interested in?
Examples of LOHAS Markets
ORGANIC FOODS ($16 Billion market):
20% growth annually since 1990: Stonyfield Farm, built on a sustainability
platform, expects to become the third largest manufacturer of yogurt.
ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION ($2 Billion market):
Toyota and Honda already in the market with gas/electric hybrids; Ford and
other auto manufacturers have announced hybrid product launches; fuel cell
technology expected to reach market in 2006. More...
RENEWABLE POWER ($900 Million market):
BP Amoco is the largest funding source of solar power research and has
repositioned itself with the slogan “Beyond Petroleum.” More...
ECO-TOURISM ($77 Billion market):
Eco-travel networks, green tourism, Eco-volunteering trips, Active sports trip
programming, and environmentally responsible tourism are among the
fastest growing travel trends. More...
SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTING ($2 Trillion under management):
In the first half of 2002, there was a net asset inflow of 3% to SRI mutual
funds, while there was a net asset outflow of 9.5% from all funds.
LABELING
Growth in International Ecolabeling
Source: Environmental Labeling Issues, Policies and Practices Worldwide
EPA 742-R-98-009
Countries with Ecolabeling programs
Product Categories in EcoLabeling Programs
Programs by Organization Type
Programs by Methodology
LIFECYCLE
LCA and Labeling
Option 1 – Life Cycle Assessment resulting in
informational Environmental Product
Declarations (Report Cards, Score Cards, EcoProfiles), aka Type III Labeling
Option 2 – Life Cycle Attribute approach focusing
on key indices from within the product’s life cycle,
resulting in ‘seal of approval’ aka Type I Labeling
Understanding lifecycle – ISO 1402x
“The objective of reducing environmental
impacts and not merely transferring
impacts across media or stages of the
product life cycle is best served by
considering the whole product life cycle
when setting product environmental
criteria.
Life cycle stages to be taken into
account when developing the product
environmental criteria should include:
extraction of resources,
manufacturing, distribution, use and
disposal relating to relevant crossmedia environmental indicators.”
Section 5.4 Life Cycle Consideration,
ISO 14024 – Type 1 Environmental
Labeling, Principles and Procedures
Option 1 - Life Cycle Assessment Approach
Ideal case - The determination of environmental preferability
established using life-cycle impact assessment (LCA) as
defined in ISO 14042.
1. Perform a life cycle inventory (measuring all inputs and outputs)
2. Select the impact categories, category indicators and models (ie
global warming, acidification, fossil fuel depletion)
3. Assign LCI results to their appropriate impact categories (ie carbon
dioxide to global warming)
4. Calculate category indicators (assess impacts)
5. Report results (with or without a baseline)
6. Make a determination (usually done by the customer)
XYZ Coal
Power
Plant
Eddystone
Coal
Power
Plant
Environmental
EnvironmentalImpact
Impact Profile
Profile
(1500 MW Capacity; 2,296 GWH Annual Production)
Sustainability of Energy Resources
Net Depletion - energy resources (equiv. tons of oil)
Amt.
51,800
*
Scale of Impacts
Ecosystem Disruption
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres)
Key Species (% increased mortality)
4,600
NA
Emission Loadings and W astes
Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO 2)
1,545,000
Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO 2)
300
Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O 3)
180
Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10)
310
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113)
-Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg)
0.008
Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )
-equiv. = equivalent
-- is used to denote negligible results
*
Per 1,000 GWh
Lower
Higher
PJM Average Impacts (1998)
ABC Hydropower
PlantPlant
Conowingo
Hydropower
Environmental Impact
Environmental
ImpactProfile
Profile
(512 MW Capacity, 1714 GWH Annual Production)
Sustainability of Energy Resources
Net Depletion - energy resources (equiv. tons of oil)
Amt.
209
*
Scale of Impacts
Ecosystem Disruption
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres)
American Shad (% increased mortality)
1610
< 50%
Emission Loadings and Wastes
Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO2)
Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO2)
Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O3)
Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10)
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113)
Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg)
Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )
equiv. = equivalent
-- is used to denote negligible results
* Per 1,000 GWh
1,022
0.2
-----Lower
Higher
PJM Average Impacts (1998)
Eddystone Coal Power Plant
XYZ Power
Environmental
Impact Profile
(1500 MW Capacity; 2,296 GWH Annual Production)
Sustainability of Energy Resources
Net Depletion - energy resources (equiv. tons of oil)
Amt.
51,800
*
Scale of Impacts
Ecosystem Disruption
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres)
Key Species (% increased mortality)
4,600
NA
Emission Loadings and W astes
Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO 2 )
1,545,000
Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO 2)
300
Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O 3 )
180
Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10)
310
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113)
-Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg)
0.008
Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )
-Lower
equiv. = equivalent
-- is used to denote negligible results
* Per 1,000 GWh
Higher
PJM Average Impacts (1998)
Conowingo Hydropower Plant
ABC Power
Environmental
Impact Profile
(512 MW Capacity, 1714 GWH Annual Production)
Sustainability of Energy Resources
Net Depletion - energy resources (equiv. tons of oil)
Amt.
209
*
Scale of Impacts
Ecosystem Disruption
Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats (equiv. acres)
American Shad (% increased mortality)
1610
< 50%
Emission Loadings and Wastes
Greenhouse Gases (equiv. tons CO2)
Acidifying Chemicals (equiv. tons SO2)
Ground Level Ozone (equiv. tons O3)
Particulates (equiv. tons PM-10)
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (equiv. tons CFC-113)
Hazardous Air Pollutants (equiv. tons Hg)
Haz./Radioactive Waste (tons IBHP U ore equiv. )
equiv. = equivalent
-- is used to denote negligible results
* Per 1,000 GWh
1,022
0.2
-----Lower
Higher
PJM Average Impacts (1998)
Which
would you
chose?
Challenges to the LCA approach
1. Consistent transparent data sources – LCI
Database Project
2. Consistent methodology for allocation – mass,
molecular, economic
3. Consistent impact categories and indicators –
Land use, global warming
4. Consistent characterization factors –
sustainability of non-renewable resources,
carbon sequestration in wood
5. Technical limitations for 1000+ part products
6. Limited availability of LCA practitioners
Option 2 - Life Cycle Attribute Approach
1. Practical case - The determination of
environmental preferability is established
through evaluation of key attributes
(considerations) within the product’s
lifecycle
2. Environmentally labeled products under this
approach should cause fewer environmental
problems and pose less hazard to health
than other products having the same
purpose and judged to have the same
relative quality.
Current Market Environmental Interests
RECYCLED
CONTENT
ORGANIC
LOW
EMITTING
ENERGY
EFFICIENT
ISO 14000
Focus on
Product
Attributes –
Product
Content,
Emission
Profile,
Performance
Characteristics
EPP
Focus on
Process –
Energy
Consumption,
Defects,
Waste
Generation,
Air and Water
Emissions
CHLORINE FREE
BIODEGRADABLE
Where we are heading –
Environmentally Preferable,
Well Managed, Sustainable
ISO 9000
LCI/LCA
SA 8000
Examples of Type I Programs
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international nonprofit organization founded in 1993 to support environmentally
appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable
management of the world's forests.
CERTIFIED BY
SCIENTIFIC CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS
SCS-COC-0036
Sustainable
Manufacturing &
Marketing
Initiative
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
is a non-governmental organization
whose purpose is to preserve marine
resources worldwide
Chlorine Free Products Association provides third party certification
that validates the sustainability and chlorine free manufacturing
process to the range of forest products supply chain participants,
from raw materials producers to manufacturers to end users and
consumers.
SCS is an environmentally focused product certification
company and has developed a number of EPP Product
Standards including Carpet, Carpet Fiber, and Flooring
Management Systems
EPP Carpet Specification
9 Resource Conservation
9 Product Manufacturing
9 Product Performance
9 Extended Product
Responsibility
9 Innovation
™ 28 Attributes
™ Need 75 of 100 points to
be certified
™ Minimum of 50% in each
category except
innovation
EPP Flooring Management Systems
9 Installation Management
9 Maintenance and
Restoration
9 Extended Product
Responsibility
9 Corporate Responsibility
9
Innovation
™ 20 Attributes
™ Need 75 of 100 points to
be certified
™ Minimum of 50% in each
category except
Innovation
Installation Management
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
IM-1: Environmentally Preferable Product Preference
IM-2: Effective Estimating
IM-3: Installation Waste Management Plan
IM-4: Minimizing Installation Waste
IM-5: Waste Diversion
IM-6: VOC Emissions from Flooring Materials
IM-7: VOC Emissions from Adhesives and Sealants
IM-8: Standard Practice for Moisture Vapor Emissions
Testing
ƒ IM-9: Standard Practice for Alkalinity Testing
ƒ IM-10: Standard Installation Policies and Procedures
Maintenance & Restoration
ƒ MR-1: Standard Maintenance Policies and Procedures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Facility Evaluation
Preventive Maintenance
Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly and Annual Maintenance activities
Spot Cleaning Protocols
Product and Service Warranty
Training and Evaluation of Maintenance Teams
Customer Service Satisfaction
ƒ MR-2: Cleaning Chemical Performance Evaluation
Procedure
ƒ MR-3: Environmental Attributes of Cleaning Products
ƒ MR-4: Standard Environmental Requirements for
Vacuum Cleaners
ƒ MR-5: Energy Star for Equipment?
ƒ Moisture Management during and after cleaning?
Product and Corporate Responsibility
Extended Product Responsibility
ƒ EPR-1: Standard Removal Policies and Procedures
•Site Evaluation
•Removal Plan
•Assessment of floor after removal
•Training and Evaluation of Removal Teams
•Customer Service Satisfaction
ƒ EPR-2: Waste Diversion
ƒDivert at least 50% of removed flooring materials to reuse/recycling
programs
Corporate Responsibility
ƒ
ƒ
CR-1: Continual Improvement Policy
CR-2: Public Disclosure
Conclusions
¾ Remember LEED, LOHAS,
LABELING and LIFECYCLE
¾ Try to consider the full life-cycle in
making your building and
purchasing choices
¾ Don’t be afraid to the demand the
best from your suppliers.
“Be the change
you want to see in the world.”
M. K. Gandhi
http://www.scscertified.com
Kirsten Ritchie
Director, Environmental Claims Certification
510-452-8009
[email protected]
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