Using A Tiered Approach to Promote Safety and Security in a Postsecondary

Using A Tiered
Approach to Promote
Safety and Security in a
Education Program
David L. Westling
Kelly R. Kelley
Seb M. Prohn
What is the UP Program?
•  The University Participant (UP) Program is a two
year, inclusive program for college-aged individuals
with intellectual disabilities.
•  Operated as a pilot program from 2007 to 2010; 2
UP students completed the program by 2010.
•  Expanded to 4 UP students in 2010, 4 additional in
2011 for a total of 8 UP students.
•  Funded as a model demonstration site in 2010 by
U.S. Department of Education.
meals on
and off
classes in
Working on
and off
meals in
Traveling on
and off
Engaging in
to various
Activities for
UP Students
by phone, text,
or social media
Safety Issues for ALL College Students
Decision making skills and increased opportunity
Relying on judgment of others
Sheltered life with protection
Opportunity to take risks and freedom from family
Liability risk to the college
Security and proactive safety measures in place
Unique to Students with Intellectual Disability:
Increased presumption of liability risk to the college
Lack of experience given to take risks
Heightened security measures for individual support
A Three Tiered Model Promoting Safety and Security
Tier 1: Prevention and Intervention
Directed Toward All Students
Universal preventions and interventions that affect ALL students on campus
•  Student Community Ethics: Educates students about rights and responsibilities within the
WCU Community Creed and Code of Student Conduct
•  Residential Living: Enforces Community Living Standards and Residential Living Conduct
•  Police Department: Employs state-certified police officers to provide security and enforce laws
for all persons on campus
•  Health Services: Meets the healthcare needs of the academic community and enhances the
physical, psychological, environmental and health education needs of the campus
•  Safety and Risk Management: Provides support for university activities and assures a safe and
healthful environment for employees, students, and visitors
•  Emergency Services: Responsible for developing and implementing institution‐wide programs
and projects that promote safety for all hazards and emergencies
•  Campus Security Authority (CSA): Persons designated by the university to notify the
university Police Department of alleged Clery Crimes reported to them
•  Disability Services: Ensures equal access for students with disabilities
Attitudes and Awareness Matter
Tier 2: Prevention and Intervention
Directed Toward All Students with ID
Proactive interventions directed specifically to students with ID
•  Campus safety training provided by University Police during UP Student Orientation
•  Review and discussion of a modified version of the WCU Community Creed and Code of Student
•  Monthly person-centered planning (PCP) meetings to discuss progress on goals, effective
learning practices, areas needing improvement, and next steps
•  Required possession and efficient use of a cell phone at all times
•  Use of natural supports (student volunteers) as necessary to assist UP students in traversing the
campus, going to classes, attending social events
•  Placement of natural supports in neighboring rooms in residence halls who can be aware of the
UP student’s presence at night and to provide any necessary support
•  Providing courses and training in key areas such as sexuality issues and self-defense on a
voluntary basis
•  Using a systematic approach to reduce support time by student supports based on
demonstration of safety precautions by UP students
Guidelines for Reducing Supports
•  Preliminary guidelines: Screening applicants with history of
criminal, troubling, or challenging behaviors along with
members of the WCU UP Admission Steering Committee
•  Consistent history of appropriate, competent, and safe
behavior during a majority of activities (based on reports from
natural supports)
•  Consensus by the student, natural supports, UP staff, and the
student’s parents or guardians that they can independently
engage in the activity
•  History of reliable cell phone use when contacted by supports
Tier 3: Prevention and Intervention Directed
Toward Individual Students in the UP Program
Interventions specifically developed for UP students exhibiting risky behaviors
•  Not a required Tier needed for all UP students, nor for a specific amount of time
•  Tier uses the least-to-most intrusive form of intervention
•  Giving advice and suggestions during PCP meetings or holding personal, individual
meetings with the student
•  Developing behavior intervention plans (self-monitoring, behavior contracts) to help
the student correct his or her own actions
•  Enforcing the student code of conduct through an appropriate university channel
•  Requiring temporary withdrawal from the program
•  Requiring permanent withdrawal from the program
•  If UP student is being bullied or threatened, we immediately report the person to
university authorities and request action be taken
•  Since 2007 and to date 18 students with ID
•  Not experienced any known physical or
psychological harm while on the WCU campus
•  Not been subjected to any punishments or
sanctions because of violating the student code of
•  Not been detained or arrested
by university or community police
Lessons Learned
The “famous runner”
“Stressed” student
The persistent “stalker” Negative “Nancy”
Final Thoughts on Safety
•  Be proactive rather than reactive
•  Be prepared for quick, individualized attention
•  Being a smaller program and community has benefits
(students know each other quickly)
•  Key ingredients for increased safety and security:
Building awareness and a larger community of
natural supports
•  Independence is increased as
responsible behavior is demonstrated
Contact us at
Dr. David L. Westling
[email protected]
Dr. Kelly R. Kelley
[email protected]