Document 11920380

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)NTRODUCTION
)NTRODUCTION
-ARINEMICROALGAEAREIMPORTANTCONSTITUENTSOFTHE
MARINEFOODWEB"YCONVERTINGCARBONDIOXIDEAND
WATER INTO ORGANIC MATTER BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS THESE
ORGANISMS FORM THE BASE FOR THE HIGHER LEVELS OF
THE FOODWEB 4HE QUANTITY OF PRIMARY PRODUCTION
BYMARINEMICROALGAEDETERMINESTHEPRODUCTIONOF
CONSUMABLElSHMUSSELSOYSTERSPRAWNSANDOTHER
SEAFOOD
3OMETIMES CERTAIN MICROALGAE FORM MASSSIVE
MONOSPECIlC BLOOMS WHICH MAY CAUSE DISCOLORA
TIONOFTHEWATER%XCEPTFORADECREASEINTHERECREA
TIONALVALUEOFAREASWITHSUCHBLOOMSTHEYAREGE
NERALLYHARMLESS(OWEVERTHEYOCCASIONALLYGROW
SO DENSE THAT lSH LEAVE OR AVOID THE BLOOM AREA
$URING THE DECAY OF SUCH BLOOMS BACTERIAL RESPI
RATION MAY REACH LEVELS THAT LEAD TO ANOXIC CONDI
TIONSANDCAUSEMORTALITYOFCAGEDlSHANDORBOTTOM
FAUNA EG ,AM 9IP 0AERL ET AL 0LANKTONICSPECIESWHICHOFTENBLOOMINTHE)NDIAN
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QUINQUECORNE AND 4RICHODESMIUM ERYTHRAEUM EG
$EVASSY$EVASSYETALPERSOBS
! LIMITED NUMBER OF MICROALGAE ABOUT SPECIES OR OF THE WORLD mORA 3OURNIA MAY BE HARMFUL AS THEY ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING
TOXINS WHICH MAY RESULT IN HUMAN ANDOR MARINE
FAUNAL INTOXICATION )T IS DIFlCULT TO DElNE A CELL
CONCENTRATIONTHATCONSTITUTESAHARMFULALGALBLOOM
(!"ASSOMESPECIESARESOTOXICTHATTHEIRPRE
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(ARMFULALGALBLOOMSMAYINSTEADBEDElNED
AShEVENTSWHERETHECONCENTRATIONOFONEORSEVERAL
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TOOTHERORGANISMSINTHESEAEGBYKILLINGlSHAND
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(ARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS CONSTITUTE AN ANCIENT AND
NATURALPHENOMENON/NEOFTHElRSTREPORTEDFATAL
HUMANINTOXICATIONSFOLLOWINGINGESTIONOFSHELLlSH
AFFECTED THE CREW MEMBERS OF 'EORGE6ANCOUVERS
EXPEDITION TO "RITISH #OLOMBIA IN #APTAIN
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TRIBESTOEATSHELLlSHWHENTHEWATERSBECAMEPHOS
PHORESCENT SUCH PHOSPHORENCE CAN BE CAUSED BY
,ES MICROALGUES SONT UN MAILLON IMPORTANT DE LA
CHA¦NEALIMENTAIREMARINE%NCONVERTISSANTLEDIOX
YDE DE CARBONE ET LEAU EN COMPOS£S ORGANIQUES
PAR PHOTOSYNTHáSE CES ORGANISMES CONSTITUENT LA
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TAIRE ,IMPORTANCE DE LA PRODUCTION PRIMAIRE LI£E
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(OWEVER THERE IS AN ONGOING DEBATE WHETHER THE
APPARENTGLOBALINCREASEINTHEOCCURRENCEOFHARMFUL
ALGALBLOOMSISDUETOANINCREASEINANTHROPOGENIC
ENRICHMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT INCREASED
AQUACULTURALACTIVITIESTRANSPORTATIONOFDINOmAGEL
LATE CYSTS VIA SHIPSBALLAST WATER TRANSLOCATIONS OF
SHELLlSH STOCKS FROM ONE AREA TO ANOTHER ANDOR
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THATILLUSTRATETHEEFFECTOFINCREASEDEUTROPHICATION
ONTHEOCCURRENCEOF(!"S2ESULTSFROM4OLO(AR
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FOLDINCREASEINNUTRIENTENRICHMENTASCITEDIN
3MAYDA 3IMILARLY BETWEEN AND REDTIDE OUTBREAKS INCREASED PROGRESSIVELY ABOUT
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#/$DURING)NTHEMIDSINITIATIVES
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NUMBEROFREDTIDEOUTBREAKSDECREASEDBYAS
CITEDIN3MAYDA4HESESCENARIOSINDICATETHAT
EUTROPHICATION MAY IN SOME CASES BE AN IMPORTANT
FACTORINTHEOCCURRENCEOFALGALBLOOMS
7ITHWORLDWIDEPROBLEMSOFOVERlSHINGSMANY
COUNTRIES HAVE INCREASED AQUACULTURAL ACTIVITIES
4HESESYSTEMSMAYFUNCTIONASSENSITIVEhBIOASSAY
SYSTEMSv FOR HARMFUL ALGAL SPECIES NOT PREVIOUSLY
KNOWNTOCAUSEPROBLEMS4HEINCREASEINSHELLlSH
FARMING HAS PROBABLY LED TO MORE REPORTS OF PARA
LYTICDIARRHETICNEUROTOXICORAMNESICSHELLlSHPOI
SONING,IKEWISETHEINCREASEINlNlSHAQUACULTURE
HASDRAWNATTENTIONTOALGALSPECIESTHATMAYDAMAGE
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HIGH CELL CONCENTRATIONS CELLS OF !LEXANDRIUM SPP
WEREPRESENTINOFTHEANALYSEDSAMPLESFROM
3HIRAZI FROM +ILINDINI FROM +ILIl AND
FROM .GOMENI INDICATING THAT !LEXANDRIUM
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CIES OF DINOmAGELLATES EG !MPHIDINIUM CF CAR
TERAE 0ROROCENTRUM ARENARIUM AND 0 CONCAVUM
WERE OBSERVED -ORE EXTENSIVE SAMPLING WILL NO
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-AURITIUS
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AND0ROROCENTRUMSPP/NLYALIMITEDNUMBER
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mAGELLATE$INOPHYSISHASTATAWEREOBSERVEDINSAM
PLESFROM'RAND"AY
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EPIPHYTICDINOmAGELLATESPERGWETWEIGHTOFALGAL
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SPPAND0ROROCENTRUMSPP
/BSERVATIONS OF PLANKTON SAMPLES SHOWED THAT
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ERAE 0ROROCENTRUM ARENARIUM ET 0 CONCAVUM ONT
£T£ OBSERV£ES 5N £CHANTILLONNAGE PLUS IMPORTANT
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OBSERV£ESOCCASIONNELLEMENT£TAIENT4RICHODESMIUM
SPP$INOPHYSISSPPET0SEUDONITZSCHIACFCUSPI
DATA,ENANOmAGELL£POTENTIELLEMENTTOXIQUE0RYM
FOREVERYLOW0OTENTIALLYTOXICSPECIESOCCASIONALLY
OBSERVEDWERE4RICHODESMIUMSPP$INOPHYSISSPP
AND0SEUDONITZSCHIACFCUSPIDATA4HEPOTENTIALLY
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FOUNDINANENRICHMENTSAMPLEFROM3T0AUL"AY
:ANZIBAR
!BOUT POTENTIALLY TOXIC ALGAL SPECIES WERE
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CIESOF0SEUDONITZSCHIAWEREOBSERVEDIN3EPTEM
BER.OVEMBERAND&EBRUARY!PRILATSTATIONS)))
)6 5NFORTUNATELY NO DETAILED IDENTIlCATION BY THE
USEOFELECTRONMICROSCOPYWASMADEANDITISNOT
KNOWN WHETHER THESE SPECIES WERE TOXIC 3EVERAL
POTENTIALLYTOXICBLUEGREENALGAEFOREXAMPLE!NA
BAENASPP,YNGBYASPP/SCILLATORIASPPANDFOUR
SPECIESOF4RICHODESMIUM4CFCONTORTUM4ERY
THRAEUM4TENUEAND4THIBAUTIIWEREPRESENT3PE
CIESOF4RICHODESMIUMAPPEAREDTOBEMOSTABUNDANT
IN*ANUARYAND&EBRUARY
!LTHOUGHSAMPLINGOFDEADCORALWASDONEONLY
IN&EBRUARY-ARCHAND!PRILANDONLYATONESTA
TION A HIGH DIVERSITY OF POTENTIALLY TOXIC BENTHIC
DINOmAGELLAGELLATES WAS FOUND .INE DIFFERENT SPE
CIESOF0ROROCENTRUMWEREOBSERVEDTOGETHERWITH
'AMBIERDISCUS TOXICUS /STREOPSIS HEPTAGONA /
OVATAAND#OOLIACFMONOTIS
NESIUMCALATHIFERUMA£T£TROUV£DANSUN£CHANTILLON
ENRICHIDELABAIEDE3AINT0AUL
:ANZIBAR
%NVIRON ESPáCES DALGUES POTENTIELLEMENT TOX
IQUES ONT £T£ OBSERV£ES DE SEPTEMBRE Ü JUIN
$ES ESPáCES DE 0SEUDONITZSCHIA ONT £T£
OBSERV£ES EN SEPTEMBRENOVEMBRE ET F£VRIERAVRIL
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IDENTIlCATION PR£CISE PAR LUTILISATION DUN MICRO
SCOPE£LECTRONIQUENA£T£R£ALIS£E,ECARACTáRETOX
IQUEDECESESPáCESNESTDONCPASCONlRM£0LUS
IEURSCYANOBACT£RIESPOTENTIELLEMENTTOXIQUESTELLES
QUE!NABAENASPP,YNGBYASPP/SCILLATORIASPP
ETQUATREESPáCESDE4RICHODESMIUM4CFCONTOR
TUM 4 ERYTHRAEUM 4 TENUE ET4 THIBAUTII £TAIENT
PR£SENTES,ESESPáCESDE4RICHODESMIUMSEMBLENT
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"IENQUEL£CHANTILLONNAGEDESCORAUXMORTSAIT
£T£ EFFECTU£ SEULEMENT EN F£VRIER MARS ET AVRIL ET
UNIQUEMENTSURUNESTATIONUNEGRANDEDIVERSIT£DE
DINOmAGELL£SBENTHIQUESPOTENTIELLEMENTTOXIQUESA
£T£ TROUV£E .EUF ESPáCES DIFF£RENTES DE 0ROROCEN
TRUM ONT £T£ OBSERV£ES ASSOCI£ES Ü 'AMBIERDISCUS
TOXICUS/STREOPSISHEPTAGONA/OVATAET#OOLIACF
MONOTIS
#ONCLUSION
4HEPRESENTSTUDYHASSHOWNTHATSEVERALPOTENTIALLY
TOXICALGAEOCCURINTHE7ESTERN)NDIAN/CEAN7)/
5NDER CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS THESE MAY
CONSTITUTE A POTENTIAL RISK TO HUMAN HEALTH ANDOR
ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE lSHERY AND AQUACULTURE
INDUSTRY)N2£UNION)SLANDANEFlCIENTMONITORING
PROGRAMME HAS BEEN CONDUCTED SINCE (ERE
CIGUATERA lSH POISONING IS COMMON CASES OF
INTOXICATIONHAVINGBEENREPORTEDDURINGTHEPERIOD
AND A RICH AND DIVERSE ASSEMBLAGE OF
POTENTIALLY BENTHIC TOXIC DINOmAGELLATES HAS BEEN
RECORDED1UOD4URQUET4URQUETETAL
4EN(AGE 4HE SAME DIVERSITY ALMOST CER
TAINLY OCCURS IN NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES )T IS NOTE
WORTHYTHATTHEMAXIMUMABUNDANCEOFPOTENTIALLY
CIGUATERICDINOmAGELLATESISGENERALLYTIMES
HIGHER IN 2£UNION THAN IN -AURITIUS !BUNDANCE
OF CIGUATERIC DINOmAGELLATES MAY BE VERY PATCHY
AND LARGE DIFFERENCES MAY OCCUR EVEN WITHIN SMALL
AREAS (OWEVER THE DIFFERENCES OBSERVED MAY ALSO
#ONCLUSION
,APR£SENTE£TUDEMONTREQUEPLUSIEURSALGUESPOTEN
TIELLEMENT TOXIQUES SONT PR£SENTES DANS LA R£GION
OUESTDELOC£AN)NDIEN7)/3OUSCERTAINESCON
DITIONS ENVIRONNEMENTALES ELLES PEUVENT CONSTITUER
UN RISQUE POTENTIEL POUR LA SANT£ HUMAINE ETOU DE
PERTES £CONOMIQUES POUR LES INDUSTRIES DE PäCHE
ET DAQUACULTURE ! L¦LE DE LA 2£UNION UN PRO
GRAMME DOBSERVATION EFlCACE EST CONDUIT DEPUIS
,INTOXICATIONPARCIGUATERAYESTCOMMUNE
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4URQUET 4URQUET ET AL 4EN(AGE
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FORTEÜLA2£UNIONQUÜL¦LE-AURICE,ABONDANCE
ENDINOmAGELL£SCIGUAT£RIQUESPEUTäTRETRáSVARIABLE
DEGRANDESDIFF£RENCESPOUVANTSERENCONTRERMäME
ENTREDEPETITESZONES#EPENDANTLES£CARTSOBSERV£S
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)/#-ANUAL'UIDESNO
BEDUETODIFFERENTSAMPLINGSTRATEGIESHANDPICKED
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WITHALGALTURFIN2£UNION)TWOULDBEINTERESTINGTO
FURTHERINVESTIGATETHISISSUE
4HEPRESENTSURVEYDIDNOTINCLUDETHENANOPLANK
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TIALLY TOXIC ORGANISMS WITHIN THIS FRACTION INCLUDE
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CONTENUS DANS CETTE FRACTION INCLUENT ENTRE AUTRES
LES ESPáCES DE #HRYSOCHROMULINA ET 0RYMNESIUM
,OBSERVATIONDE0RYMNESIUMCALATHIFERUMDANSUN
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GROUPEDOITäTRESIGNIlCATIFDANSLESEAUXTROPICALES
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0ROROCENTRUM SPP AND 3INOPHYSIS CANICULATA OR
WHICHMAYBEHARMFULDUETOPHYSICALDAMAGETOGILL
TISSUEOFlSHHAVEALSOBEENINCLUDED4OXICSPECIES
WHICHMOSTLIKELYOCCURINTHEREGIONBUTFORSOME
REASONWERENOTOBSERVEDDURINGTHEPRESENTSURVEY
HAVENOTBEENINCLUDED4HEMOSTOBVIOUSEXAMPLES
OFTHISCATEGORYARE0YRODINIUMBAHAMENSEANDVARI
OUS SPECIES OF RAPHIDOPHYTES &INALLY ONLY SPECIES
FORWHICHWEHAVEPHOTOGRAPHICDOCUMENTATIONHAVE
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SPP ET 3INOPHYSIS CANALICULATA OU QUI PEUVENT
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MENT PR£SENTES DANS LA R£GION MAIS QUI POUR PLUS
IEURS RAISONS NONT PAS £T£ OBSERV£ES DURANT CETTE
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QUANT POUR CETTE CAT£GORIE EST 0YRODINIUM BAHA
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SEULES LES ESPáCES POUR LESQUELLES NOUS AVIONS UNE
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$INOmAGELLATES
$INOmAGELL£S
4HIS GROUP OF ALGAE OR PROTISTS INCLUDES THE MOST
TOXIC SPECIES EG 3OURNIA WITH REPRESENTA
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ANDlSHKILLS
4HE MAJORITY OF DINOmAGELLATES ARE FREELIVING
UNICELLULARmAGELLATESWHICHMAYBEFOUNDINFRESH
BRACKISHANDMARINEENVIRONMENTS3PECIESMAYBE
PLANKTONICBENTHICOREPIPHYTICSOMELIVEASSYM
BIONTS FOR EXAMPLE THE ZOOXANTHELLA OF CORALS AND
OTHERINVERTEBRATESANDSOMEAREOBLIGATEPARASITES
!BOUTOFTHECADESCRIBEDSPECIESAREHE
TEROTROPHICIEOBTAINTHEIRORGANICCARBONENTIRELY
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PREDOMINANTLY OTHER PROTISTS !LTHOUGH THE
REMAINING SPECIES ARE PHOTOTROPHIC IE HAVE CHLO
ROPLASTS THERE IS INCREASING EVIDENCE THAT MANY OF
THESE ARE MIXOTROPHIC IE THEY ARE ALSO ABLE TO
FEEDONPARTICULATEORGANICMATTERFOREXAMPLEOTHER
PROTISTSEG"OCKSTHALER#OATS*ACOBSON
!NDERSON 3KOVGAARD AB 3TOECKER ET
AL 4YPICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS INCLUDE
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CHLOROPHYTESCHRYSOPHYTESCRYPTOPHYTESANDHAPTO
PHYTESOCCURINSOMESPECIES*EFFREY6ESK
$INOmAGELLATESARECHARACTERISEDBYTHEPRESENCE
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$INOmAGELLATES MAY BE DIVIDED INTO ARMOURED
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TOOBSERVEANYOFTHESECHARACTERSITISUSUALLYNECES
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mAGELLATES ARE VERY DELICATE AND WILL NOT WITHSTAND
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#INGULAR POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT HAVE BEEN
USEDASAMAINCHARACTERATTHEGENERICLEVEL&IG
&OR EXAMPLE THE GENERA 'YMNODINIUM AND 'YRO
DINIUM HAVE BEEN SEPARATED ONLY ON THE DEGREE OF
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NOT EXCEED OF THE BODY LENGTH WHEREAS IN
'YRODINIUMITISMORETHAN+OFOID3WEZY
(OWEVER IN MANY SPECIES THE DISPLACEMENT
ISAROUNDTHISBORDERLINEMAKINGTHEIRGENERICAFlL
IATION DIFlCULT &URTHERMORE CULTURE STUDIES HAVE
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ILLUSTRATESTHATCINGULARDISPLACEMENTISNOTARELIA
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INTOSEVERALNEWGENERASEE$AUGBJERGETAL
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+ARENIASONTLAFUCOXANTHINELEHEXANOYLOXYFU
COXANTHINETOULEBUTANOYLOXYFUCOXANTHIN
!MPHIDINIUM
4HECINGULUMISSTRONGLYDISPLACEDTOWARDSTHEAPEX
OF THE CELL AND THE EPICONE IS THEREFORE OFTEN VERY
SMALLTONGUESHAPEDORAPPEARINGASASMALLCAP
!MPHIDINIUM
,E CINGULUM EST SITU£ DANS LA R£GION ANT£RIEURE DE
LACELLULE$ECEFAITL£PICONEESTG£N£RALEMENTTRáS
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!MPHIDINIUM
'YMNODINIUM
&IG5NARMOUREDDINOmAGELLATESCLASSIlED
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'YRODINIUM
#OCHLODINIUM
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APICALGROOVE
MM
'YMNODINIUMAUREOLUM
MM
+ARENIAMIKIMOTOI
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5LTRASTRUCTURAL AND MOLECULAR DATA SUGGEST THAT THE
GENUS AS PRESENTLY DElNED IS POLYPHYLETIC SEE
$AUGBJERGETAL!BOUTPHOTOANDHETE
ROTROPHICSPECIESHAVEBEENDESCRIBED-OSTSPECIES
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!MPHIDINIUMCFCARTERAE(ULBURT
0LATE!
#ELLSMOREORLESSOVALANDDORSOVENTRALLYmATTENED
4HE EPICONE IS SMALL AND SLIGHTLY DISPLACED TO THE
LEFT)TMAYNOTBEPARTICULARLYCLEARINlXEDMATE
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USUALLY PERFORATED AND CONNECTS TO A LARGE CENTRAL
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,ES CELLULES SONT PLUS OU MOINS OVALES ET APLATIES
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2EMARKS 4HIS SPECIES IS VERY SIMILAR TO !MPHIDI
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SIZEISUSUALLYCONSIDERABLYLARGERTHAN!CARTERAE
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2EMARQUES #ETTE ESPáCE EST TRáS PROCHE D!MPHI
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PLASTECENTRALMULTILOB£CONTENANTUNPYR£NOÉDEET
LA TAILLE DES CELLULES EST HABITUELLEMENT BEAUCOUP
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3YNONYM !MPHIDINIUM KLEBSII +OFOID ET 3WEZY
3YNONYME !MPHIDINIUM KLEBSII +OFOID ET 3WEZY
4HIS SPECIES IS SIMILAR TO ! CARTERAE BUT DISTIN
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#ETTEESPáCEESTPROCHEDE!CARTERAEMAISSEDIS
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2EMARKS +OFOID 3WEZY CONSIDERED
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UNE NOUVELLE ESPáCE QUILS ONT APPEL£E !MPHIDIN
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0LATE !MPHIDINIUM 3INOPHYSIS &IG! !MPHIDINIUM CF
CARTERAE lXED CELL 3T -ARIE -ADAGASCAR &IG " !MPHIDI
NIUM CF OPERCULATUM 3T ,EU 2£UNION &IGS #% 3INOPHYSIS
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$INOPHYSIS
3EVERAL SPECIES OF $INOPHYSIS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
DIARRHETICSHELLlSHPOISONING$304HETOXINSPRO
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PHYSIS FORTII MAY CAUSE SHELLlSH TO BECOME SUFl
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$INOPHYSIS TYPICALLY POSSESSES THECAL PLATES
EPITHECAL HYPOTHECAL CINGULAR SULCAL AND
TWO PLATELETS SURROUNDING THE APICAL PORE 4WO OF
THEHYPOTHECALPLATESAREVERYLARGEWHILEALLOTHER
PLATES ARE SMALL 4HE PLATE PATTERN OR TABULATION IS
REMARKABLYCONSTANTWITHINTHEDINOPHYSOIDLINEAGE
AND IS NORMALLY NOT USED IN SPECIES IDENTIlCATION
)MPORTANT CHARACTERS FOR SPECIES IDENTIlCATION ARE
SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE CELL SEEN IN LATERAL VIEW THE
MORPHOLOGYOFTHELEFTSULCALLISTANDTHERIBS SUP
PORTING IT THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE CINGULAR LISTS
THESIZEOFTHEEPICONEPRESENCEABSENCEOFCHLORO
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ORHORNS&IG
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IOC Manuals and Guides
No.
Title
1 rev. 2
Guide to IGOSS Data Archives and Exchange (BATHY and TESAC). 1993. 27 pp. (English, French,
Spanish, Russian)
2
International Catalogue of Ocean Data Station. 1976. (Out of stock)
3 rev. 3
Guide to Operational Procedures for the Collection and Exchange of JCOMM Oceanographic Data.
Third Revised Edition, 1999. 38 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
4
Guide to Oceanographic and Marine Meteorological Instruments and Observing Practices. 1975.
54 pp. (English)
5 rev.
Guide for Establishing a National Oceanographic Data Centre, 1997. 42 pp. (English)
6 rev.
Wave Reporting Procedures for Tide Observers in the Tsunami Warning System. 1968. 30 pp. (English)
7
Guide to Operational Procedures for the IGOSS Pilot Project on Marine Pollution (Petroleum)
Monitoring. 1976. 50 pp. (French, Spanish)
8
(Superseded by IOC Manuals and Guides No. 16)
9 rev.
Manual on International Oceanographic Data Exchange. (Fifth Edition). 1991. 82 pp. (French, Spanish,
Russian)
9 Annex I
(Superseded by IOC Manuals and Guides No. 17)
9 Annex II
Guide for Responsible National Oceanographic Data Centres. 1982. 29 pp. (English, French, Spanish,
Russian)
10
(Superseded by IOC Manuals and Guides No. 16)
11
The Determination of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Sediments. 1982. 38 pp. (French, Spanish, Russian)
12
Chemical Methods for Use in Marine Environment Monitoring. 1983. 53 pp. (English)
13
Manual for Monitoring Oil and Dissolved/Dispersed Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Waters and on
Beaches. 1984. 35 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
14
Manual on Sea-Level Measurements and Interpretation.
Vol. I: Basic Procedure. 1985. 83 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
Vol. II: Emerging Technologies. 1994. 72 pp. (English)
Vol. III: Reappraisals and Recommendations as of the year 2000. 2002. 55 pp. (English)
15
Operational Procedures for Sampling the Sea-Surface Microlayer. 1985. 15 pp. (English)
16
Marine Environmental Data Information Referral Catalogue. Third Edition. 1993. 157 pp. (Composite
English/French/Spanish/Russian)
17
GF3: A General Formatting System for Geo-referenced Data
Vol. 1: Introductory Guide to the GF3 Formatting System. 1993. 35 pp. (English, French, Spanish,
Russian)
Vol. 2: Technical Description of the GF3 Format and Code Tables. 1987. 111 pp. (English, French,
Spanish, Russian)
Vol. 4: User Guide to the GF3-Proc Software. 1989. 23 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
Vol. 5: Reference Manual for the GF3-Proc Software. 1992. 67 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
Vol. 6: Quick Reference Sheets for GF3 and GF3-Proc. 1989. 22 pp. (English, French, Spanish,
Russian)
18
User Guide for the Exchange of Measured Wave Data. 1987. 81 pp. (English, French, Spanish,
Russian)
No.
Title
19
Guide to IGOSS Specialized Oceanographic Centres (SOCs). 1988. 17 pp. (English, French, Spanish,
Russian)
20
Guide to Drifting Data Buoys. 1988. 71 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
21
(Superseded by IOC Manuals and Guides No. 25)
22
GTSPP Real-time Quality Control Manual. 1990. 122 pp. (English)
23
Marine Information Centre Development: An Introductory Manual. 1991. 32 pp. (English, French,
Spanish, Russian)
24
Guide to Satellite Remote Sensing of the Marine Environment. 1992. 178 pp. (English)
25
Standard and Reference Materials for Marine Science. Revised Edition. 1993. 577 pp. (English)
26
Manual of Quality Control Procedures for Validation of Oceanographic Data. 1993. 436 pp. (English)
27
Chlorinated Biphenyls in Open Ocean Waters: Sampling, Extraction, Clean-up and Instrumental
Determination. 1993. 36 pp. (English)
28
Nutrient Analysis in Tropical Marine Waters. 1993. 24 pp. (English)
29
Protocols for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Core Measurements. 1994. 178 pp . (English)
30
MIM Publication Series:
Vol. 1: Report on Diagnostic Procedures and a Definition of Minimum Requirements for Providing
Information Services on a National and/or Regional Level. 1994. 6 pp. (English)
Vol. 2: Information Networking: The Development of National or Regional Scientific Information
Exchange. 1994. 22 pp. (English)
Vol. 3: Standard Directory Record Structure for Organizations, Individuals and their Research Interests.
1994. 33 pp. (English)
31
HAB Publication Series:
Vol. 1: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning. 1995. 18 pp. (English)
32
Oceanographic Survey Techniques and Living Resources Assessment Methods. 1996. 34 pp. (English)
33
Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. 1995. (English)
34
Environmental Design and Analysis in Marine Environmental Sampling. 1996. 86 pp. (English)
35
IUGG/IOC Time Project. Numerical Method of Tsunami Simulation with the Leap-Frog Scheme. 1997.
122 pp. (English)
36
Methodological Guide to Integrated Coastal Zone Management. 1997. 47 pp. (French, English)
37
Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. First Edition. 1998. 61 pp. (English, French, Spanish, Russian)
38
Guidelines for Vulnerability Mapping of Coastal Zones in the Indian Ocean. 2000. 40 pp. (French,
English)
39
Improved Global Bathymetry; Final Report of SCOR Working Group 107. (under preparation)
40
Guidelines for the Study of Shoreline Change in the Western Indian Ocean Region. 2000. 73 pp.
(English)
41
Potentially Harmful Marine Microalgae of the Western Indian Ocean
Microalgues potentiellement nuisibles de l'océan Indien occidental. 2001. 104 pp./ (English/French)
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