Doug Stow (SDSU) – moderator Mr.
Steve Ambrose (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) • • • • • Near real ‐ time data for MODIS and AMSR ‐ E What role will applications play?
o timing, data, algorithm Simple user interface Establish a user working group Æ will have a workshop in November and then again in Spring (?) Focus: land and atmosphere Mr.
Vince Ambrosia (CSUMB/NASA Ames) • • • • • • • • • • • NASA “Ikhana” UAV Collaborating with Forest Service and CAL FIRE Added 4 thermal channels to better visualize higher temperature regimes Real ‐ or near ‐ real ‐ time products Delivered as GEOTIFS o Converted into KMLs for Google Earth Send down associated shapefiles and pixel locations “One stop shop” for GIS/fire ‐ related data Can add a network link in Google Earth to acquire all data UAVs: long ‐ duration capabilities 196 hours of data collected (2005 – 2008) Want to integrate airborne and satellite data for ground teams Mr.
Mark Rosenberg (CAL FIRE) • • • Location Æ need to geolocate to a high precision o Burned/burning/unburned?
Develop algorithms that exploit images from a variety of sensors Timeliness of information is VERY important NIROPS: Type II Firewatch: Type III NASA Goddard & U.S.
Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center: MODIS • • Rapid dissemination of hot spot detection Allocation of resources across the U.S.
Where is the flaming front?
• • Location?
King Air vs.
Ikhana • • • • • King Air is good if: UAVs are not allowed, populations need to be flown over King Air is not good if: FAA issues keep deployment from occurring when necessary Ikhana is good if: persistence is needed (can fly ~20 hours), fires are local Ikhana is not good if: funding is an issue (they are very expensive), it needs to move quickly (very slow) Problems for both: restrictions in air space, not getting frequencies/clearances The market segment is too small to build thermal ‐ focused systems • Community is forced to use what is available rather than the optimal system Ikhana Æ utilized by aeronautics • • • • Not a fire imaging platform, but a platform used to test/evaluate different sensors $100,000 ‐ $165,000: 7 days, two separate 10 ‐ 12 hour missions, full staffing (of ~10 people) A lack of funding is pushing to replace Ikhana with piloted aircraft Great high resolution imaging CDE: available info from multiple vendors Hazard Guidance System • • From University of South Carolina Shows what satellites are flying over a specific area Could a commercial satellite make money by putting a thermal sensor on their satellite?
• • ?
Some satellite companies charge an annual rate to image disaster areas NEOS Ltd.
Light Sport Aircraft • • • • • • Flies at the 2,000 – 3,000 ft level Æ high resolution up to 15,000 feet Easy to deploy May interfere with other hazard crews (if it flies at the same elevation as fire planes?) ~$1,000/day for all imagery that can be acquired Need auto georectification Most private companies charge $5,000 ‐ $8,000/day Fires Services don’t want staring capability, but Fire Sciences/CAL FIRE do want staring capability for early detection (in less than a half hour) Platform ‐ to ‐ Ground Data Downlink
• • • • INMARSAT AirCell (used by American and United?
Airlines) o Utilizes phones in airplanes o o $125,000 or $1,500/month Larger bandwidth than INMARSAT o Real ‐ time info on hot spot detection Ground equipment on fire sites is a hassle Want data from all types of vendors to be put into one spot Prescribed Burns vs.
Wildfire Events • • • • • “While in Use” fires (monitored but not fought) in National Parks and Forests o Intensity, radiative measurements (Temperature/Time), plume injection height (found using LiDAR) Post ‐ fire: focus on soil/fire temperature, recovery o Soil: want to determine the type of clay that was present and what is left o Fire Temperature: based on quality of ash (but ash blows away quickly) Pre ‐ /During fire: fuels, severity, extent Some sort of paint (mentioned by Dr.
Dar Roberts) can be used to determine fire temperatures (?) Also want to know emissivity spectra and moisture content Possible Sources of Funding • • •
.nasaprs.com/ ($200,000 ‐ $500,000/year) Forest Service: Joint Fire Science (November); for analytical and predictive capabilities, fire spread FRAP (for preventative work)