Thermal Imaging Workshop  Hosted by the Remote Sensing Center at the Naval Postgraduate School  2009 
































































  Doug   Stow   (SDSU)   –   moderator   Mr.

  Steve   Ambrose   (NASA   Goddard   Space   Flight   Center)   • • • • • Near   real ‐ time   data   for   MODIS   and   AMSR ‐ E   What   role   will   applications   play?

  o timing,   data,   algorithm   Simple   user   interface   Establish   a   user   working   group   Æ   will   have   a   workshop   in   November   and   then   again   in   Spring   (?)   Focus:   land   and   atmosphere   Mr.

  Vince   Ambrosia   (CSUMB/NASA   Ames)   • • • • • • • • • • • NASA   “Ikhana”   UAV   Collaborating   with   Forest   Service   and   CAL   FIRE   Added   4   thermal   channels   to   better   visualize   higher   temperature   regimes   Real ‐  or   near ‐ real ‐ time   products   Delivered   as   GEOTIFS   o Converted   into   KMLs   for   Google   Earth   Send   down   associated   shapefiles   and   pixel   locations   “One   stop   shop”   for   GIS/fire ‐ related   data   Can   add   a   network   link   in   Google   Earth   to   acquire   all   data   UAVs:   long ‐ duration   capabilities   196   hours   of   data   collected   (2005   –   2008)   Want   to   integrate   airborne   and   satellite   data   for   ground   teams   Mr.

  Mark   Rosenberg   (CAL   FIRE)   • • • Location   Æ   need   to   geolocate   to   a   high   precision   o Burned/burning/unburned?

  Develop   algorithms   that   exploit   images   from   a   variety   of   sensors   Timeliness   of   information   is   VERY   important   NIROPS:   Type   II   Firewatch:   Type   III   NASA   Goddard   &   U.S.

  Forest   Service   Remote   Sensing   Applications   Center:   MODIS   • • Rapid   dissemination   of   hot   spot   detection   Allocation   of   resources   across   the   U.S.


Where   is   the   flaming   front?

  • • Location?


  King   Air   vs.

  Ikhana   • • • • • King   Air   is   good   if:   UAVs   are   not   allowed,   populations   need   to   be   flown   over   King   Air   is   not   good   if:   FAA   issues   keep   deployment   from   occurring   when   necessary   Ikhana   is   good   if:   persistence   is   needed   (can   fly   ~20   hours),   fires   are   local   Ikhana   is   not   good   if:   funding   is   an   issue   (they   are   very   expensive),   it   needs   to   move   quickly   (very   slow)   Problems   for   both:   restrictions   in   air   space,   not   getting   frequencies/clearances   The   market   segment   is   too   small   to   build   thermal ‐ focused   systems   • Community   is   forced   to   use   what   is   available   rather   than   the   optimal   system   Ikhana   Æ   utilized   by   aeronautics   • • • • Not   a   fire   imaging   platform,   but   a   platform   used   to   test/evaluate   different   sensors   $100,000  ‐  $165,000:   7   days,   two   separate   10  ‐  12   hour   missions,   full   staffing   (of   ~10   people)   A   lack   of   funding   is   pushing   to   replace   Ikhana   with   piloted   aircraft   Great   high   resolution   imaging   CDE:   available   info   from   multiple   vendors   Hazard   Guidance   System   • • From   University   of   South   Carolina   Shows   what   satellites   are   flying   over   a   specific   area   Could   a   commercial   satellite   make   money   by   putting   a   thermal   sensor   on   their   satellite?

  • • ?

  Some   satellite   companies   charge   an   annual   rate   to   image   disaster   areas   NEOS   Ltd.

  Light   Sport   Aircraft   • • • • • • Flies   at   the   2,000   –   3,000   ft   level   Æ   high   resolution   up   to   15,000   feet   Easy   to   deploy   May   interfere   with   other   hazard   crews   (if   it   flies   at   the   same   elevation   as   fire   planes?)   ~$1,000/day   for   all   imagery   that   can   be   acquired   Need   auto   georectification   Most   private   companies   charge   $5,000  ‐  $8,000/day   Fires   Services   don’t   want   staring   capability,   but   Fire   Sciences/CAL   FIRE   do   want   staring   capability   for   early   detection   (in   less   than   a   half   hour)   Platform ‐ to ‐ Ground   Data   Downlink  

• • • • INMARSAT   AirCell   (used   by   American   and   United?

  Airlines)   o Utilizes   phones   in   airplanes   o o $125,000   or   $1,500/month   Larger   bandwidth   than   INMARSAT   o Real ‐ time   info   on   hot   spot   detection   Ground   equipment   on   fire   sites   is   a   hassle   Want   data   from   all   types   of   vendors   to   be   put   into   one   spot   Prescribed   Burns   vs.

  Wildfire   Events   • • • • • “While   in   Use”   fires   (monitored   but   not   fought)   in   National   Parks   and   Forests   o Intensity,   radiative   measurements   (Temperature/Time),   plume   injection   height   (found   using   LiDAR)   Post ‐ fire:   focus   on   soil/fire   temperature,   recovery   o Soil:   want   to   determine   the   type   of   clay   that   was   present   and   what   is   left   o Fire   Temperature:   based   on   quality   of   ash   (but   ash   blows   away   quickly)   Pre ‐ /During   fire:   fuels,   severity,   extent   Some   sort   of   paint   (mentioned   by   Dr.

  Dar   Roberts)   can   be   used   to   determine   fire   temperatures   (?)   Also   want   to   know   emissivity   spectra   and   moisture   content   Possible   Sources   of   Funding   • • •

nspires ($200,000  ‐  $500,000/year)   Forest   Service:   Joint   Fire   Science   (November);   for   analytical   and   predictive   capabilities,   fire   spread   FRAP   (for   preventative   work)