Unit 2: Greece Lets recap… The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook September 03, 2014

The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
September 03, 2014
Lets recap…
Unit 2: Greece
The City­State and Democracy
The Rise of City­States
• What is a peninsula, isthmus, and Peloponnesus? • Why was it hard for farmers to grow crops in Greece?
• What was the 1st civilization called? • Who was father of the gods? • Where do all 12 gods live?
Greek City­States
Geography divided Greece into small regions. Because of this, the basic form of
government was the city­state. Click to watch a short
video on city­states.
Greek City­states LT4: I can summarize Greek City­States and their qualities and characteristics.
• Made of a city and it's surrounding lands. • Each was Independent­ had own government (mountains separated them)
• In Greek, the word for city­state was polis
• In general, city­states were small­ formed a close community
• 2 largest Greek city­states were Athens and Sparta.
Layout of the City
• The center of the city was the agora.
• An open marketplace to do business.
• MALE citizens would meet to discuss politics.
• Temples, statues, and other public buildings were found in the agora.
The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
An Agora…an open marketplace
September 03, 2014
In addition…
• Many Greek cities had a fortified hilltop called an acropolis. • Acropolis—means “highest city”
• Used for military tactics. • Later, the Greeks built temples and palaces in the flat tops of the hills. The Acropolis
Forms of Government
• Each city­state was independent. • As a result, different city­states used different political systems. • We are going to look at 4 types. Government Monarchy
Means “rule by few.” Someone who took Ruled by the upper Ruled by a king or power in an illegal way. class or nobility. Ruled by people of queen. (with poor peoples
(inherited role) wealth or landownership. support)
Which type is led by a king or queen?
The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
Which type is “rule by a few?”
• What does the Greek word city­state mean?
• What is the difference between an agora and an acropolis?
• What different political systems evolved in the city­
states of Greece? • What political system means rule by a few?
• What political system means ruled by a king or queen?
Let’s Recap…
Yesterday we…
­looked at Greek city­states, the Greek word (polis) and the 2 largest (Athens, Sparta)
­ Agora vs. Acropolis
­4 types of government (monarchy, oligarchy, aristocracy, tyrant)
September 03, 2014
Which type means “cruel leader”, or came to “power illegally?”
Admit Slip
How is an acropolis different from an agora?
Open book to page 374 and take out a sheet of paper. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
• By helping the tyrants rise to power, the lower classes realized they could influence government. • As a result they began to demand even more power.
The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
Citizenship What is a citizen? ­According to the Greeks, a citizen is a person who is loyal to their government and who is entitled to protection by that government. September 03, 2014
To be a citizen one had to…
• 1. Had to be born to parents who were free citizens.
• 2. Had to reside in the upper class to have power. • Reforms slowly happened with the help of Solon and Cleisthenes. (clis­the­neez)
Solon and Cleisthenes
Solons Reforms
• 500 B.C­ Farmers owe way to much money and are forced to work their land for someone else or become slaves… • Lower class people are becoming angry…
• The Greeks elect SOLON to become their
new leader. Solon becomes leader and makes reforms: 1. He freed people who had become slaves because of debts. 2. He made a law that NO citizen could be enslaved.
3. He divided people into 4 classes based on wealth, not birth.
4. He allowed all citizens an active part in assembly. Solon
Cleisthenes Reforms
• 1. He increased the citizens’ power even more. • 2. He took power away from nobles.
• 3. He organized citizens into groups based on place of residence, not wealth. • 4.All citizens could VOTE
The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
Direct Democracy
September 03, 2014
Direct vs. Indirect
What is democracy?
Democracy is a government in which the citizens make political decisions. Athenian style democracy is called Direct
­this is where all citizens (MEN) meet to decide on laws. Where all citizens (MEN)Where citizens (MEN) meet to discuss laws. elect representatives to make laws. Example: Athens,
Example: United States
Limited Democracy
Athens had a limited democracy because…
ONLY FREE ADULT MALES WERE CONSIDERED CITIZENS !! Women, slaves, and foreigners could not take part. Sparta
Government and Society
• Sparta goes to war with neighboring country, and wins. • The defeated people become slaves called helots. • They worked on farms and gave Spartans half their crops.
• Spartans always put down revolts.
Sparta became a state that focused on WAR
Chapter 11: Lesson 4
Sparta and Athens
Government and Society
• Sparta’s government was part monarchy, oligarchy and democracy. • 2 kings, 5 supervisors, A Council of Elders, Spartan citizens –all played a role in government.
• 3 Social Groups
• 1. Citizens that lived in cities training to be soldiers
• 2. Free Non­citizens (who had no political rights)
• 3. Helots (slaves)
The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
Sparta Education
• Spartans goal was to have a strong ARMY
• At age 7, boys moved into military barracks • Their education stressed discipline, duty, strength, and military skill. • Boys could read enough to get by. • All citizens entered army at age 20, and served until they were 60
Athens Government and Society
• Athens had 2 governing bodies 1. The Council of 400 (day­to­day stuff) 2. The Assembly (voted on policies)
• Citizens had to serve in army when needed, serve on juries. • Slaves made up 1/3 of the population.
• Worked in homes, agriculture, industry, and mines. • Some worked along side their masters, and could buy freedom.
• Women were expected to be good wives and mothers. • Athenian citizens were FAMILY oriented! • Some women were priestesses in temples. • Athenian women had much less freedom.
• Women could obtain property ONLY if their fathers had no sons. • Girls did not attend school, they learned household duties from their mothers. • Little emphasis on reading and writing. September 03, 2014
Spartan Women
• Women were expected to be tough emotionally and physically. • Education for girls focused on making them strong. • Family life was less important because of the emphasis on the army. • Husbands and wives spent much time apart
• Women had more FREEDOM—they could own property.
• Boys from wealthy families started school at age 6 or 7. • Education prepared them to be good citizens.
• Studied logic and public speaking, reading, writing, arithmetic and music. The City­State and Democracy Ch 11 L3 Smart Board.notebook
Persian Wars
• You know PERSIA conquered much of Southwest Asia (remember Darius??)
• In the 500’s B.C. Persia conquered Anatolia, (which was a Greek colony)
• Many Greeks felt threatened and rebelled Persian rule. • Persia wanted to punish Athens for interfering with Anatolia. September 03, 2014
The War Starts
• The Persians arrive near Athens on the plain of Marathon. (the story of the boy who ran)
• Look on page 382 at the Persian Wars