Chapter 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece

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Chapter 3
Classical and Hellenistic Greece
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Delian League
From 478 B.C.E., Greeks led by Athens moved against
Persia
Aim of the Delian League was to free all Greeks under
Persian rule and sack Persian lands for compensation
Forerunner of Athenian Empire
Persians driven from Europe and Aegean cleared of pirates
Leadership of Cimon
Accepted democratic constitution of Clisthenes
Gained popularity for military successes against Persia and
friendly relations with Sparta
Replaced by Pericles
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The First Peloponnesian War
(ca. 460–445 B.C.E.)
Athens vs. Sparta
Early Athenian dominance
449 B.C.E., Athens ends war with Persia
445 B.C.E., Thirty Years’ Peace
Athens gives up mainland possessions outside Attica
Sparta recognizes Athenian Empire
Spartan hegemony on land, Athenian hegemony
on Aegean
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Athenian Empire
From alliance to empire
Athens kept one-sixtieth of Delian League’s
revenues
Lands ringing Aegean
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(a)
(b)
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Athenian Democracy
Under Pericles, freest government yet
No more class restrictions on archonship
Citizenship limited to those men with two
Greek parents
Popular assembly approves all decisions
Popular court judiciary
No standing army or police force
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Women
Excluded from most aspects of public life,
controlled by men in private sphere
Responsibility of woman to produce male heirs for
oikos—household
Contrast between real life vs. myth and drama
Aspasia
Companion of Pericles
Assertive and well-respected in Greek intellectual
circles
Treated better than most any woman of the time
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Slavery
Chattel slavery rare at first, but began to increase
around 500 B.C.E.
Worked on farms, in mines
Liberation of slaves was common
Slavery based not on racist ideology but military
prowess
In 406 B.C.E. Athenians released all slaves of
military age and granted citizenship to those who
would fight in an ongoing war
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Religion in Public Life
Participating in religious life was a matter
of patriotism and good citizenship
Acting against religious beliefs was akin to
an act against the state
Merciless punishments for blasphemies
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Great Peloponnesian War
(432–404 B.C.E.)
Corcyra-Corinth dispute
Sparta refuses to arbitrate dispute with Athens,
essentially insisting on armed conflict
Peloponnesian League vs. Athenian Empire
Athenian naval disaster ensues after ill-conceived
invasion of Sicily
Thucydides: naval leader, historian
Persia aids Sparta, Athenian subject states rebel
Athenian Empire dismantled 404 B.C.E.
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404–338 B.C.E: Struggle for
Leadership Among Greek States
Spartan Hegemony
Athenian leadership briefly replaced by Spartan
Continuing intermittent conflict with Persia
Thebes and recovered Athens ally against Sparta in two
wars
Theban Hegemony
Conflicts with Sparta and reborn Athenian Empire
Greeks weakened by two centuries of internal warfare
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Classical Greek Culture
Athenian Golden Age—between Persian &
Peloponnesian wars
Arts & letters inspired by creative tension:
Greek pride vs. fear of overreaching (hubris vs.
nemesis)
Individual vs. society
Attic tragedy—Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides
Buildings like the Acropolis honored the greatness
of Greek civilization
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Philosophy
Same humanistic focus as in art and architecture
Parmenides, Zeno: reality is fixed and unchanging,
change is illusory
Empedocles: four basic elements: fire, water,
earth, air
Atomist theory: atoms as smallest units of matter
Materialism vs. idealism
Sophists received pay for teaching rhetoric,
dialectic, and argumentation
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Philosophy (cont.)
Socrates (469–399 B.C.E.)
Dialectical method
399 B.C.E., put to death for bringing new gods into the
city and corrupting the youth
Plato (429–347 B.C.E.)
Student of Socrates; first systematic philosopher
Founded the Academy in Athens
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.)
Student of Plato; interest in biology
Tutored young Alexander the Great
Founded the Lyceum
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Hellenistic World
Three-century expansion of Greek culture
through Mediterranean & Asia
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Macedonian Conquest
Philip of Macedon (r. 359–336 B.C.E.)
Conquest of Greece, 338 B.C.E. (Athens
under Demosthenes)
League of Corinth—formed to invade
Persia under Philip
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Alexander the Great
Alexander III (356–323 B.C.E.)
Took power at 20
Conquered Egypt and Persian Empire, to
India
Vast Persian treasury released to economic
advantage
Died of illness at 33
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Alexander’s Successors
Ptolemy I, founder of Egyptian dynasty
ending in 30 B.C.E. with death of Cleopatra
Seleucus I, founder of Mesopotamian
Seleucid Dynasty
Antigonus I, founder of Antigonid Dynasty
in Asia Minor & Macedon
Economic pressures fostered class conflicts
which weakened Greek unity
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Hellenistic Culture
Macedonian conquest ended Greek independence
and the central role of the polis
Philosophy (Athens)
Epicureanism—life of withdrawn happiness possible
through reason
Stoicism
• Founded by Zeno
• Aim of humans is the virtuous life, lived in accordance with
natural law
• Divine reason, the guiding principle of nature: Logos
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Hellenistic Culture (cont.)
Alexandria, Egypt—great center of learning
under Ptolemies; museum, library
Euclid: plane & solid geometry
Archimedes: geometry
Astronomy: heliocentric theory of the solar
system (minority view)
Eratosthenes: geographer
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
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