The Consulate Three man governing board - Napoleon gave himself the title of First Consul. Napoleon held a plebiscite- popular vote by ballot - The French people strongly supported him, but he still held absolute power. Napoleon Reforms France “Order, security, and efficiency” replaced the French Revolution slogan of “liberty, equality, and fraternity” Concordat of 1801- kept the church under state control but recognized religious freedoms for Catholics. Opened jobs to everyone based on talent. Napoleonic Code It used Enlightenment principles- equality of all citizens, religious toleration, and abolished feudalism. Women lost most of their newly gained rights- could not exercise rights of citizenship. Continental System Napoleon’s economic warfare against GB – Blockade- forcible closing of sea ports – Napoleon ordered a blockade that cut Great Britain off from trade with the rest of Europe. Hurt France and rest of Europe worse than it hurt Great Britain. – Scarcity of goods in Europe, inflation of prices, and overall hatred of French power. Napoleon’s Empire Napoleon controlled most of Europe by military conquest, diplomacy, or alliances. Only nation that defied him was GB French and Spanish navies met up with the British navy off of the coast of Spain (Cape Trafalgar) in 1805. British navy was led by Horatio Nelson – he was killed by a French sharpshooter, but the British defeated the French. Battle of Trafalgar Significant because it… – Established GB as the #1 naval power – Forced Napoleon to give up plans of a British invasion – Britain’s Winning Strategy: Crossing the T Approach the enemy fleet at right angles Makes your fleet less of a target, while doubling your firepower against the enemy. Napoleon’s Empire Collapses The Peninsular Campaign The Spanish revolted against French rule in Spain Napoleon sent 300,000 troops to Spain, but they were ineffective. – Duke of Wellington from England assisted guerillas New type of warfare – hit and run tactics 1809 – Napoleon divorced Josephine because he wanted an heir. Married Marie Louise; 1811- Napoleon II was born. 1812 – Napoleon invaded Russia. Why? 1.) Czar Alexander I defied the Continental System and resumed selling grain to GB. 2.) Napoleon was paranoid and feared a BritishRussian alliance. The Grand Army (600,000) entered Russia in June. Logistical problems – impossible to supply such an enormous army so far away from home Rather than engage in battle, the Russian army retreated east. – scorched-earth policy: torched fields, burned crops so that the French could not live off the land. – The French were forced to euthanize army horses. Other problems: terrible roads, heavy equipment, delayed supplies September 7 – Battle of Borodino – 70 miles outside Moscow – 44,000 Russian casualities/30,000 French – Indecisive, but the Russians retreated and Napoleon entered Moscow 1 week later. Napoleon waited for a surrender for 5 weeks. Russians set fire to their city. No housing or food. October – decided to turn back for France but it was too late. Winter came early. Temps reached 30 degrees below zero. “Many of the survivors were walking barefoot, using pieces of wood as canes, but their feet were frozen so hard that the sound they made on the road was like that of wooden clogs.” – French sergeant As few as 20,000 troops made it back. Starvation, disease, hypothermia, and desertion 1813 – Battle of Leipzig – Napoleon’s enemies took advantage of his weakened state. – Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austrian joined against him. – “Battle of Nations” – largest battle before WWI. 1814- Napoleon abdicated the throne and was exiled to Elba – Received a pension and 1,000 soldiers – Louis XVIII restored to the throne 1815 – Napoleon escaped from Elba and reclaimed the French throne – “Hundred Days” back in power June 15 – Battle of Waterloo – British and Prussian armies defeated Napoleon. – Exiled to St. Helena – Died six years later in 1821.