Secondary Education Fall 2007 KUTZTOWN UNIVERSITY

Secondary Education
Fall 2007
Kutztown, Pennsylvania
Course Description: Course Prefix, Number and Title
Education 500 – Methods of Research
This course gives a general introduction to the rationale and procedures for educational
research. Topics to be studied will include the types of research, the selection of a
research problem, the strategies necessary for manual library searches as well as the
latest computerized data information retrieval services, the collection and analysis of
data, the evaluation of research, and the technical skills needed for writing the research
report. The course provides a background for the preparation of the thesis or the research
project. It provides graduate students with the research skills which will allow them to be
life-long learners after completing their formal coursework. 3 s.h., 3 c.h.
Instructor Information
Dr. Kathleen A. Dolgos
Office: Beekey 228
Phone: (610) 683-4279
[email protected]
Required Textbook:
Gay, L., Mills. G. & Airasian, P. (2006). Educational research: Competencies for
analysis and application (8th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
Recommended Supplemental Text:
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association.
Course Rationale:
This course is required of the masters degree student in education. It meets the
research needs of any teacher or educational administrator. The primary purpose
of this course, however, is not to train educational researchers but rather to
develop intelligent consumers of educational research. It is hoped that students
will gain some understanding and appreciation for the rigors of research; that is to
say, a sense of fascination and even pleasure that can be associated with a formal
inquiry procedure. The ability to locate and evaluate research information is a
necessary skill for anyone involved in educational decision making.
The Kutztown University Teacher Education Model is introduced with the
concept of "teacher as lifelong learner" strongly emphasized. The model has a
strong liberal education knowledge base and a sound methodological foundation.
It encourages teachers to act as change agents and advocates for their profession.
Please Note:
This course incorporates the philosophy of the Kutztown University Conceptual
Framework, Teacher as Lifelong Learner, connects to the Pennsylvania Department of
Education (PDE) standards, and aligns, when appropriate, to the following standards:
National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), American Council on the Teaching of
Foreign Languages (ACTFL), National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM),
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), and National Council for Social Studies
A. Course Objectives/Student Learning Outcomes
As a result of the assigned readings, discussions, and projects required in this course, the
student is expected to:
1. display an understanding of the Teacher as Lifelong Learner Model as a
guide for the preparation and professional development of teachers.
2. develop an understanding of the place that inquiry has played in human
activity throughout history.
3. discuss the pros and cons of the strategies used in educational decision
4. identify the steps in a formal problem solving strategy
5. compare and contrast the characteristics of educational research and other
forms of scientific research.
6. classify research by purpose and method
7. develop an understanding of the nature of and procedures for observation
and measurement in educational research
8. recognize the sources of research problems
9. identify, clarify, and write a research problem statement
10. demonstrate an understanding of and ability to use the reference tools in the
library for a manual search of the literature related to a problem statement.
11. demonstrate the ability to use a computer data base information retrieval
12. develop a system for recording information located in a manual or computer
13. develop a procedure for converting this information into a single format, thus
establishing a chain of reasoning leading to a statement of a research
14. describe the characteristics and purposes of a hypothesis in educational
15. identify and explain the purposes of the individual parts of a research plan of
research design
16. review research articles and critically analyze the component parts, the
findings, and the conclusions
17. recognize and describe the nature of the six methods of educational research
(historical, qualitative, descriptive, correlational, causal-comparative and
experimental) including the steps and tools involved in conducting research for
each method
18. develop an understanding of the common descriptive and inferential
statistical tools used in educational research
19. become familiar with the advantages provided by the computer and the
computer services department
20. write a complete research proposal based on a question related to the
student's area of professional interest
21. apply the format prescribed by the American Psychological Associations
(APA) style manual for technical and stylistic guidelines in writing the
research proposal
22. evaluate research reports and apply research findings to professional
practice in education
23. present research findings through graduate seminar interactive sharing
24. continue personal and professional growth through research
B. Relationship to INTASC Standards
2, 6, 9
1, 3,4, 5
Assessment of each graduate student’s level of accomplishment with reference to the
course objectives will be based upon a subset of the following:
Thesis proposal
Midterm/Final Examination
Oral presentation of research findings
Use of APA form and style
Observation/data collection project
Active participation in class and in discussions
A. Core Assignment : Written Research Proposal
A three chaper proposal will be written using APA style in preparation for writing an
actual thesis. Resources will be included.
Problem Statement
Literature Review
Research Method
Research Cards & Outline
Class Presentation on Research
Final Project
Target- Acceptable – Unacceptable
The final proposal is worth 30 points and is grading in the following way:
26-30 points
The proposal is well
written and all sections are
well done. The proposal
shows creativity and the
work shows depth of
knowledge of the team.
24 up to 26 points
The proposal is complete
and follows the proposal
guidelines. The work
meets all requirements.
Needs some additional
Below 24 points
Parts of the proposal are
missing or are not done
correctly. Major editing
needs to be done.
B. Grading Policy
Observation Project
Computer Printouts
Class Presentation on Research
Problem Statement
Literature Review
Research Method
Research Cards & Outline
Final Project
Class Participation
Final Examination
Total :
A = 92-100 %
B = 82 up to 92 %
C = 72 up to 82 %
C. Required Projects, Tests and Assignments:
Proposal for a thesis in education, written in American Psychological Association
(APA) style, with topic approved by the instructor.
Research Projects
a. Observation Project
b. Three Computer Search Printouts
Class presentation of research findings
Midterm/Final Examination
Additional readings and exercises from the textbook as assigned.
Attend each class prepared to discuss the concepts covered in the reading
assignments. Class attendance will be taken at each class. Please turn off all cell
phones as a courtesy to your fellow classmates.
Lateness of projects will be reflected in the grade. Difficulty with a computer
printout will not be accepted as a valid excuse for lateness of a paper
Course Outline:
I. Research as Inquiry
A. Man's Nature is to Question
1. mysteries of the natural world
2. myths and songs provided some questions
3. Teacher as Lifelong Learner Model
B. Methods of Early Inquiry - Search for Truth
1. trial and error
2. common sense
3. deduction
4. induction
5. induction/deduction/problem solving
C. Applying the Scientific Method
1. a felt difficulty
2. identification of the problem
3. gathering available information
4. formulate hypothesis
5. observation
a. collect data
b. organize data
c. analyze data
6. form conclusions
7. replication
D. Ways of Making Educational Decisions
1. personal experience
2. expert judgement
3. search of research literature
4. action research
5. evaluation research
II. Characteristics of Research
A. Solution of Problems
B. Examine Relationships
1. show correlations
2. show cause and effect relationships
3. increase the power of prediction
C. Formal, systematic application of the scientific method to educational
D. Develop a Chain of Reasoning
1. logical progression
2. proceeds from problem identification through investigation to findings
E. Limitations
1. the nature of phenomena studied
2. difficulty of controls
a. legal
b. moral
c. ethical
3. complexity of human organisms
III. Classification of Research
A. By Purpose
1. basic research
2. applied research
3. evaluative research
4. research and development
5. action research
B. By Method
1. historical
2. descriptive
3. correlative
4. causal-comparative
5. experimental
IV. Nature of Observation
A. Psychological Factors
1. attention
2. sensation
3. perception
4. conception
B. Types
1. direct observation
a. definition
b. examples
2. indirect observation
a. definition
b. examples
C. Measurement
1. definition
2. levels (scales)
a. nominal
b. ordinal
c. interval
d. ratio
3. characteristics of instruments
a. objectivity
b. validity
c. reliability
d. usability
4. types of instruments
a. achievement tests
b. aptitude tests
c. intelligence tests
d. interest inventories
e. personality inventories
f. attitude scales
g. sociometric measures
h. performance tests
V. Research Problems
A. Sources
1. problems generated from practice
2. problems generated in theory construction
B. Clarification of Problems
C. Characteristics of Problems
VI. Locating Educational Information
A. Sources
1. preliminary sources
2. primary sources
3. secondary sources
B. Steps in Manually Reviewing Educational Literature
1. define the problem
2. review the preliminary sources
a. National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE) yearbooks
b. Review of Educational Research
c. Review of Research in Education
d. Books in Print
e. card catalog
3. select most appropriate secondary sources
a. Research in Education (RIE)
b. Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)
c. Education Index
d. Psychological Abstracts
e. Dissertation Abstracts International
f. other topical abstracts
4. translate problem into key words
5. search for preliminary sources
6. read primary sources
7. record all findings on bibliographic cards
8. organize notes
9. write review of related literature
C. Conducting a Computer Search of Educational Literature
1. advantages
2. sources of computer searches
a. LANS stations in library
b. Internet
c. ERIC System
1) educational documents (RIE)
2) journals (CIJE)
3. steps
a. define research problem
b. state specific purpose of search
c. select data bases
d. select descriptors (key words)
e. plan search strategy
f. conduct search
VII. Research Hypotheses
A. Purposes
B. Relationship to Literature Search
C. Statement of Hypothesis
1. characteristics
2. hierarchy of guesses
D. Use of the Hypothesis
1. states relationship of variables
2. directs design of the study
3. gives continuity to the study by providing basis on which to
draw conclusions
E. Testing the Hypothesis
1. purpose for the study
2. data gathered to test the hypothesis
3. bridges findings and problem and provides link to the conclusions
VIII. Research Design
A. Stages
1. planning
2. investigation
3. generalizing
B. Restrictions
1. legal
2. ethical
3. moral
4. practical
a. cooperation of subjects
b. training of assistants
c. cost
d. time
C. Types
1. historical
2. qualitative
3. descriptive
4. correlation
5. causal-comparative
6. experimental
D. Components
1. background of the problems
a. historical development
b. significance of the problem
c. significant related studies
2. presentation of the problem
a. the question
b. the hypothesis
c. definition of terms
d. assumptions
e. limitations
3. methodology
a. sources of information
(1) qualitative
(2) quantitative
b. subjects - population definition
c. sampling techniques
(1) random
(2) stratified
(3) cluster
(4) systematic
d. data collection
(1) quantity
(2) type
(3) sources
e. organization of data
f. treatment of data
(1) critical analysis
(2) descriptive statistics
(3) inferential statistics
g. conclusions
(1) implications
(2) recommendations
Historical Research
Definition and Purpose
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
The Process
1. identifying and isolating the problem
2. developing a research hypothesis
3. accumulating and classifying source materials
4. determining facts by criticism
a. internal criticism
b. external criticism
5. organizing facts into results
6. forming conclusions
7. synthesizing and presenting the research in organized form
Tools for Historical Research
1. the library
2. guides and handbooks
3. census data and depositories
4. computers
Definition and Purpose
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
1. size
2. type
3. representative
1. narrative
2. validity
3. triangulation
4. de facto instrument
Data Collection
1. field work
a. participant observation
b. interviews
2. data
a. field notes
b. documents
c. interview transcripts
d. photographs
e. videotapes
Data Analysis
1. logical
2. semantic
3. limited statistical analysis
4. looks for categories, patterns or themes
Data Interpretation
1. conclusion tentative
2. generalizations speculative or non-existent
Descriptive Research
A. Definition and Purposes
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
B. Types
1. survey studies
a. opinion/fact survey
b. documentary analysis
2. relationship studies
a. case study
b. correlation study
c. causal-comparative study
3. developmental studies
a. growth study
b. trend study
C. Data
1. types
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
2. sources
a. direct observation
b. measurement of attributes
c. self-reports
D. Tools for Interpreting Data
1. tables and graphs
2. measures of central tendency
a. mode
b. median
c. mean
3. measures of variability
a. range
b. variance
c. standard deviation
4. the normal curve
a. skewness
b. kurtosis
5. measures of relationship
a. Spearman Rho
b. Pearson r
6. measures of relative position
a. percentile rank
b. standard scores
7. Chi Square
XII. Correlational
A. Definition and Purpose
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
B. Correlational Research Process
1. problem selection
2. sample and instrument selection
3. procedures
4. data analysis and interpretation
C. Relationship Studies
1. purpose
2. data collection
3. data analysis and interpretation
D. Prediction Studies
1. data collection
2. data analysis and interpretation
XIII. Causal Comparative
A. Definition and purpose
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
B. Control Procedures
1. matching
2. comparing subgroups
3. analysis of covariance
C. Data Analysis and Interpretation
1. descriptive and inferential statistics
2. cautious interpretation
3. impact of de facto nature of study
XIV. Experimental Research
A. Definition and Purpose
1. characteristics
2. goals
3. definition
B. Experimental Validity
1. internal
2. external
C. Experimental Designs
1. pre-experimental designs
a. one-shot case study
b. one group pre-test - post-test
c. static group comparison
2. true experimental designs
D. Analysis of Data
1. null hypothesis
2. tests of significance
a. Type I errors
b. Type II errors
3. inferential statistics
a. t-test
(1) independent sample
(2) correlated sample
b. analysis of variance
c. factorial analysis
d. analysis of co-variance
XV. The Computer
A. Uses
1. information retrieval
b. LANS system in library
c. Internet
2. content analysis
a. analysis of questionnaire data
b. test scoring
c. analysis of primary sources
3. statistical analysis
a. (Canned) statistical packages
(1) Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
(2) UCLA Bio-medical Package
b. original programs
B. Services
1. KU computer center and laboratories
a. procedures
b. availability
2. school district services
3. Intermediate Unit services
4. Personal Microcomputers
C. Personal Microcomputers
XVI. Preparation of Research Reports
A. General Rules for Writing and Typing
B. APA Guidelines for Technical Format and Style
C. Substance of Report
1. planning
2. investigation
3. generalization
4 . reference materials
VII. Instructional Resources
Ary, D., Jacobs, L., & Razavich, A. (1996). Introduction to research in education (5th
ed.). Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace.
Best, J.W., & Kahn, J.V. (1998). Research in education ( 8th ed.). Needham, MA:
Allyn & Bacon.
Borg, W. R. (1993). Applying educational research: A practical guide for teachers (3rd
ed.). New York: Longman.
Broota, K. D. (1989). Experimental design in behavioral research. New York: Wiley.
Brubaker, D.L. (1993). The teacher as decision maker. Corwin Press.
Buchanan, N. K., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1991). Conducting research and evaluation in
gifted education. New York: Teachers College Press.
Call, J.P., Call, M.D., & Borg, W.R. (2005). Applying educational research (5th ed.).
Boston: Person Education.
Campbell, W. G., & Ballou, S. V. (1990). Form and style: Theses, reports, term papers
(8th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill
Prentice Hall.
Dooley, D. (2001). Social research methods. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall
Eisenhart, M.A., & Borko, H. (1993). Designing classroom research: Themes, issues,
and struggles. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Eisner, E. W., & Pershkin. A. (1990). Qualitative inquiry in education: The continuing
debate. New York: Teacher's College Press.
Fraenkel, J.R., & Wallen, N.E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in
Education (5th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gall, J. P., Gall, M.D., & Borg, W. R. (1999). Educational research: A practical guide
(4th ed.). New York: Longman Inc.
Gay, L. R. (1996). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application
(5th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Gaynor, A. K. (1992). Project Planning. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2000). Research methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hittleman, D. R., & Simon, A. J. (2002). Interpreting educational research ( 3rd ed.).
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill
Hofmeister, A. M. (1990). Research into practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, A.P. (2005). A short guide to action research. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2000). Educational research. Boston: Allyn and
Kennedy, C.H. (2005). Single case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon
Kerszner, L. G., & Mandell, S. R. (1995). The brief holt handbook (Revised Edition).
New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Kish, L. (1987). Statistical design for research. New York: Wiley.
Lancy, D. F. (1993). Qualitative research in education. New York: Longman.
Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Merrill.
Lomax, R. G. (1992). Statistical concepts. New York: Longman.
Lorber, M. A. (1990). Objectives, methods, and evaluation (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs,
N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
Mason, E. J., & Bramble, W.J. (1997). Research in education and the behavioral
sciences. Chicago: Brown and Benchmark.
McMillan, J.H., & Schumacher, S. (2001). Research in Education (5th ed.). New York:
Addison Wesley Longman
McMillan, J. H. (2000). Educational research. New York: Longman
Mertler, C.A., & Charles, C.M. (2005). Introduction to educational research (5th ed.).
Boston: Pearson Education.
Patt, L. (1993). Teachers are researchers: Reflection and action. Newark, Del.:
International Reading Association.
Phelps, R.P., Ferrara, L., & Goalsby, T.W. (1993). A guide to research in music
education. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow Press.
Popkewitz, T. S. (1984). Paradigm and ideology in educational research. New York:
Palmer Press.
Seidman, I. E. (1991). Interviewing as qualitative research - A guide for researchers in
education and social science. New York: Teachers College Press.
Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., & Wasik, B. A., (Eds.). (1994). Preventing early school
failure: Research, policy and practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Sprinthall, R. (1990). Basic statistical analysis (3rd ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Thomas, R.M. (2005). Teachers doing research. Boston: Pearson Education.
Thorkildsen, T.A. (2005). Fundamentals of measurement in applied research. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Tuckman, B. W. (1994). Conducting educational research (4th ed.). Fort Worth, Texas:
Vockell, E. L., & Asher, J. W. (1995). Educational research (2nd ed.). Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S.G. (2005). Research methods in education: An introduction (8th
ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Tentative Schedule
See Next Page
EDU 500 Research/Dolgos
Fall 2007
(For that class)
Library Visit
Chapter 21/22
August 29
September 5
September 12
September 19
September 26
October 3
October 10
(Third Quarter of Observation
Reports) / Midterm
Chapter 8/9
October 17
Chapter 10/11
October 24
Literature Review Due
Chapter 12/13
Reference Cards/Outline Due
(Fourth Quarter of Observation Reports)
October 31
Computer Search
Printout Due
Chapter 14/15/16
November 7
Research Method Due
Reference Section Due
Chapter 17/18
November 14
(First Quarter of Research Reports)
Topic Selection Due
Problem Statement Due
(First Quarter of Observation
(Second Quarter of Observation
No Class Wednesday before Thanksgiving
November 28
(Second Quarter of Research Reports)
December 5
Final Paper Due
(Third Quarter of Research Reports)
December 12
(Fourth Quarter of Research Reports)
Final Examination
Chapter 6/7
IX. Other Policies
A. Accommodations
Policy Statement on Discrimination
Kutztown University has established a policy of non-discrimination in compliance
with Title IX of the Educational Amendment, Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The University is
committed to eliminating discrimination based on race, religion, color, national
origin, ancestry, sex, gender, age, or disability. In compliance with Executive Order
11246, the University maintains and updates an Affirmative Action Plan. The
institution reaffirms its pledge to equal employment and educational opportunity
annually, and takes possible action to increase the participation of under-represented
groups. (The Key, p. 53)
Any student who has a need for accommodation based on the impact of a disability
should contact the Director, Office of Service to Americans with Disabilities
privately to discuss the specific situation as soon as possible. Contact Disability
Resources and Services at 610-683-4108 or in the Stratton Administration Building
to coordinate reasonable accommodations for students with documented disabilities.
B. Academic Honesty
Any acts of academic dishonesty by students, such as plagiarism on written papers or
cheating on exams, threaten to undermine the educational and ethical goals of the
University for its students. Such violations are of the utmost seriousness. The goal of
the following policy and procedures is to promote a climate of academic honesty for
all individuals at the University (The Key, p. 47).
C. Attendance Policies
Excuses for Extended Absences from Classes
Students assume the responsibility for notifying their professors when they are
expecting to be absent from class for an extended period of time, generally a week or
more, because of illness, accidents, or emergencies. Students who will be absent
from class for an extended period may contact the Vice President for Student
Services and Campus Life at 610-683-4020 for assistance in notifying professors.
Medical complications or other circumstances that require extended absences may
also be handled by the Vice President for Student Services and Campus Life. (The
Key, p. 30)