Hkkjrh; vk/kqfud f'k{kk o"kZ 34 vad 4 viSzy 2014

advertisement
ISSN 0972-5636
jft- ua- [email protected]
Hkkjrh; vk/kqfud f'k{kk
o"kZ 34
vad 4
viSzy 2014
^Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk* jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqlaèkku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ dh ,d =kSekfld
if=kdk gSA bl if=kdk dk eq[; mís'; gS f'k{kdksa] f'k{kd&izf'k{kdksa] 'kSf{kd iz'kkldksa rFkk 'kks/
drkZvksa dks ,d eap iznku djuk] f'k{kk ds fofHkUu vk;keksa tSls µf'k{kkn'kZu] f'k{kk euksfoKku]
f'k{kk dh ledkyhu leL;k,¡] ikB~;Øe ,oa izfof/ lacaèkh uohu fodkl] varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij
f'k{kk dk Lo:i] fofHkUu jkT;ksa esa f'k{kk dh fLFkfr vkfn ij ekSfyd rFkk vkykspukRed fparu
dks izksRlkfgr djuk vkSj f'k{kk ds lq/kj vkSj fodkl dks c<+kok nsukA ys[kdksa }kjk O;Dr fd,
x, fopkj muosQ vius gSaA vr% ;s fdlh Hkh izdkj ls ifj"kn~ dh uhfr;ksa dks izLrqr ugha djrs
blfy, bl laca/ esa ifj"kn~ dk dksbZ mÙkjnkf;Ro ugha gSA
,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- osQ izdk'ku izHkkx osQ dk;kZy;
vdknfed laiknd
jktjkuh
,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- oSaQil
Jh vjfoan ekxZ
u;h fnYyh 110 016
vdknfed laikndh; lfefr
jatuk vjksM+k
e/wfydk ,l iVsy
vydk (ts-ih-,I+kQ-) m"kk 'kekZ
izdk'ku izHkkx osQ lnL;
izHkkxkè;{k
eq[; laiknd
eq[; O;kikj izca/d eq[; mRiknu vf/dkjh
(izHkkjh)
laiknd
js[kk vxzoky
mRiknu lgk;d
izdk'k ohj flag
108, 100 iQhV
jksM
gkssLosQjs gYyh ,DlVsa'ku
cuk'kadjh III LVst
casxyq# 560 085
I+kQksu % 080&26725740
,u- osQ- xqIrk
'osrk mIiy
xkSre xkaxqyh
v#.k fprdkjk
uothou VªLV Hkou
Mkd?kj uothou
vgenkck­n 380 014 I+kQksu % 079&27541446
lh-MCY;w-lh- oSaQil
/udy cl LVkWi osQ lkeus
ifugVh
dksydkrk 700 114 I+kQksu % 033&25530454
lh-MCY;w-lh- dkWEIySDl
ekyhxk¡o
xqokgkVh 781021
vkoj.k
vfer oqQekj
,d izfr % ` 50
Cover 2nd & 3rd.indd 2
I+kQksu % 011&26562708
ewY;
I+kQksu % 0361&2674869
okf"kZd % ` 200
10-04-2015 PM 04:48:16
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk
o"kZ 34
vad 4
viSzy 2014
bl vad esa
laikndh; fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z Ckky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj µ czts'k oqQekj oekZ
vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr vYila[;d ,oa cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk dk vè;;u
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mÙkj izns'k osQ µ jfoUnz flag
jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr ftyksa esa lesfdr f'k{kk ij osadVs'ojyq
rqyukRed vè;;u
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl µ Hkkjrh
Kku vkSj ewY; µ enjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa µ lwfI+kQ;k uk”kuhu
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk µ lat; oqQekj lqeu
Hkk"kk&uhfr o cgqHkkf"kd f'k{kk
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkstµ µ nhfIr JhokLro ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa 'kksHkk
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
µ jf'e JhokLro
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr µ galjkt iky 9oha d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd uhye oekZ
dk f'k{kdksa dh izfrfØ;kvksa osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu vk'kk iky
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk µ jkts'k oqQekj JhokLro
lapkfyr fo|ky;ksa dk leh{kkRed vè;;uµmÙkj
izns'k osQ xk”khiqj ftys osQ lanHkZ esa
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed] xq.kkRed µ jkts'k oqQekj tloky
fodkl ,oa futhdj.k
Prilm.indd 1
3
5
13
22
36
50
59
72
80
93
102
4/13/2015 3:38:12 PM
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATIONAL
PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (NUEPA)
(Declared by the GOI under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956)
17-B Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016 www.nuepa.org
ADMISSION NOTICE 2015-16
(i) M.Phil. Programme (ii) Ph.D. Programme (iii) Part-time Ph.D. Programme
The National University of Educational Planning and
Administration (NUEPA), a Deemed University fully
funded by Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Government of India is engaged in capacity building
and research in educational policy, planning and
administration.
NUEPA offers M.Phil., Ph.D. and Part-time Ph.D.
programmes in educational policy, planning and
administration from a broader inter-disciplinary social
science perspective. The research programmes of
NUEPA cover all levels and types of education from both
national and international development perspectives.
NUEPA invites applications from eligible candidates
for admission to its M.Phil., Ph.D. and Part-time Ph.D.
programmes for the year 2015-16.
Fellowships
All candidates selected for the M.Phil. and Ph.D. (full-time)
shall be offered NUEPA fellowship. The NET qualified
candidates, who have been awarded Junior Research
Fellowship by the UGC and who fulfil the required
qualifications, are encouraged to apply. However, parttime Ph.D. candidates are not entitled for any fellowship.
Eligibility Criteria
Full-time Programmes
(a) A candidate seeking admission to the M.Phil. and
Ph.D. programmes shall have a minimum of 55% marks
(50% marks for SC/ST candidates and Persons with
Disabilities) or its equivalent grade in Master’s Degree in
social sciences and allied disciplines from a recognized
university. Candidates possessing Master’s Degree
in other areas may also be considered if he/she has
teaching experience or experience of working in the
area of educational policy, planning and administration.
(b) A candidate seeking admission to Ph.D. programme
shall have an M.Phil. degree in an area closely related
to educational planning and administration and/or
exceptionally brilliant academic record coupled with
publications of high quality. (c) M.Phil. graduates of
NUEPA will be eligible for admission to the Ph.D.
Programme after due scrutiny by a Selection/Admission
Committee, if they obtain a FGPA of 6 or above on the
ten point scale.
Part-time Programme
A candidate seeking admission to Part-time Ph.D.
programme is required to meet the following criteria:
(i) Should possess the educational qualifications as
mentioned in Para (a) above; (ii) Currently, should be
in full-time employment; (iii) Should be a senior level
educational functionary with a minimum of five years work
experience in teaching/research in educational policy,
planning and administration.
It will be compulsory to attend one-year full-time
course work by all part-time and full time candidates.
Mode of Selection
NUEPA will follow all mandatory provisions in the
reservation policy of the Government of India. Admissions
to M.Phil., Ph.D. and Part-time Ph.D. programmes will be
made purely on the basis of merit following the prescribed
criteria of the University.
The University reserves the right to decide the number
of seats to be filled in the year 2015-16; the criteria for
screening of applications; and the selection procedure
of candidates for admission to its M.Phil. and Ph.D.
programmes. The mode of selection of candidates will be
as under:
Initial short-listing of applications will be carried out on
the basis of relevance and quality of the brief write-up (in
the prescribed format) in the proposed area of research
to be submitted along with the application form. Shortlisted candidates will be required to appear for a written
test and those qualifying in written test will be subjected
to personal interviews to assess their motivation and
potential leading to final short-listing and preparation of
panel of selected candidates, in order of merit.
Candidates must be possessing the eligibility
qualification and submit marks statement at the time
of written test on 20.06.2015.
How to Apply
Candidates may apply in the prescribed form for admission
to M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes of the University along
with three copies of the brief write-up (in the prescribed
format) on the proposed research topic of a contemporary
issue within the broad framework of educational policy,
planning and administration. For further details, please
refer to the M.Phil.-Ph.D. Prospectus, 2015-16 of the
University.
The application form and the Prospectus can
be obtained from NUEPA by remitting a sum of `
200/- (` 100/- for SC/ST candidates) by demand
draft in favour of Registrar, NUEPA, payable at New
Delhi if required by Post or purchased in person.
The Prospectus can also be downloaded from our
website: www.nuepa.org by making online payment of
` 200/- (` 100/- for SC/ST candidates) and attach the
receipt/confirmation slip with the application at the time of
submission to NUEPA.
Last Date of Applications
Application should reach the Registrar, NUEPA, 17-B,
Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016 on or before
15 May 2015. For further details, please visit our website
www.nuepa.org
– Registrar
Prilm.indd 2
4/13/2015 3:38:12 PM
laikndh;
gky gh esa bZ-,I+kQ-,- oSf'od fuxjkuh fjiksVZ [email protected] i<+us dk ekSdk feyk] ftlosQ vk¡dM+s crkrs gSa
fd 2015 rd ge oSf'od f'k{kk osQ y{;ksa dks izkIr dj losQaxs] blesa lansg gSA ;|fi blosQ fy,
gj ns'k esa iz;kl tkjh gSaA gekjs ns'k esa f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e dks ykxw gq, pkj o"kZ chr
pqosQ gSaA lekpkj i=kksa esa Nih [kcjsa] oqQN ljdkjh o xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa }kjk fd, x;s losZ{k.kksa
osQ ifj.kke pkSadkus okys gaS] tks ;g crkrs gSa fd f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vkt Hkh cgqr ls cPpksa dh
igq¡p ls ckgj gS] fo'ks"k :i ls xq.koÙkkiw.kZ f'k{kkA ;g vf/fu;e f'k{kk dk gd de”kksj o fiNM+s
oxZ osQ cPpksa] ckfydkvksa] vYila[;d leqnk;ksa o fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa dks fn;s tkus
osQ fy, fo'ks"k iz;klksa dh ek¡x djrk gSA ijarq D;k ge iw.kZ :i ls ,slk dj ik;s gSa ;g fo'ys"k.k
o euu dk fo"k; gSA
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk dk ;g vad bl cqfu;knh vf/dkj ls tqM+s oqQN ys[k izLrqr dj jgk gSA
czts'k oqQekj ^oekZ* dk ys[k cgqla[;d o vYila[;d oxZ osQ vfHkHkkodksa dh f'k{kk osQ vf/dkj
vf/fu;e osQ izfr vfHko`fÙk dk rqyukRed fooj.k n'kkZrk gSA jfoUnz flag vkSj osadVs'o#yq dk
ys[k mÙkj izns'k osQ nks ftyksa esa loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr lekos'kh f'k{kk O;oLFkk dh rqyuk
djrs gq, bafxr djrk gS fd lekos'kh d{kk;sa fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ fy, vf/d
ykHkdkjh gSa ijarq blosQ fy, f'k{kdksa dh rS;kjh ij fo'ks"k è;ku fn;s tkus dh ”k:jr gSA Hkkjrh
}kjk vuqokfnr ys[k Hkh lekos'kh f'k{kk dks liQyrkiwoZd ykxw djus osQ fy, f'k{kdksa dh is'ksoj
rS;kjh vkSj fujarj fodkl dh flI+kQkfj'k djrk gS vkSj blosQ fy, f'k{kd&izf'k{k.k esa cnyko ij
”kksj nsrk gSA
EkqfLye vYila[;d leqnk; osQ cgqr ls cPps vkt Hkh enjlksa esa f'k{kk izkIr djrs gSa] lwfiQ;k
uk”kuhu osQ ys[k esa eqfLye fo|kfFk±;ksa esa uSfrd ,oa jk"Vªh; ewY; fodflr djus esa enjlk rkyhe
dh Hkwfedk ij ppkZ dh xbZ gSA
cPpksa dh ekr`Hkk"kk o LowQy dh Hkk"kk esa varj gksus dh otg ls vkt Hkh cgqr ls cPps ;k rks
LowQyh f'k{kk ls ckgj jgrs gSa ;k chp esa gh i<+kbZ NksM+ nsrs gaSA lat; oqQekj lqeu us vius ys[k
esa fo'ys"k.k fd;k gS fd fdl izdkj gekjs ns'k esa cgqr&lh LFkkuh;] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh
Hkk"kk,¡ yqIr gksrh tk jgh gSaA ys[kd dk ekuuk gS fd ;fn ge vYila[;d o vkfnoklh leqnk;ksa
osQ lHkh cPpksa dks f'kf{kr djus dk y{; izkIr djuk pkgrs gSa rks LowQyh f'k{kk dk ekè;e cPpksa
dh ekr` Hkk"kk gksuh pkfg,A lkFk gh vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa osQ fodkl osQ fy, Bksl
iz;kl fd;s tkus pkfg,A
Prilm.indd 3
4/13/2015 3:38:12 PM
4
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
bl vad esa f'k{kk O;oLFkk ls tqM+s oqQN vU; ys[k Hkh 'kkfey gSaA nhfIr JhokLro vkSj 'kksHkk
dk 'kks/ijd ys[k ,d xSjljdkjh vkokl esa jgus okys cPpksa dh vkok”kksa osQ ekè;e ls cpiu dh
ladYiuk dh iM+rky djrk gS vkSj crkrk gS fd cPps Lo;a osQ dk;ks± }kjk vius vkSj nwljksa osQ ckjs
esa ,d fuf'pr le> dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA jf'e JhokLro dk ys[k i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh vko';drk
nksgjkrs gq, mlosQ fozQ;kUo;u dh O;k[;k djrk gSA galjkt iky] uhye 'kekZ vkSj vk'kk iky dk
ys[k eè;izns'k jkT; }kjk fufeZr ekè;fed Lrj dh foKku ikB~;iqLrd osQ fo'ys"k.kkRed ewY;kadu
ij vk/kfjr gSA jkts'k oqQekj JhokLro us vius ys[k esa mÙkj izns'k osQ xk”khiqj ftys esa osaQnzh;
ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ }kjk ekU;rk izkIr 11 fo|ky;ksa dh dk;Ziz.kkyh dh leh{kk is'k dh gSA var
esa jkts'k oqQekj tloky dk ys[k vkt osQ cnyrs ifjos'k osQ vuq:i xq.koÙkkiw.kZ mPp f'k{kk dh
ek¡x dks nksgjkrk gSA
vdknfed laikndh; lfefr
Prilm.indd 4
4/13/2015 3:38:12 PM
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z Ckky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj
vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr vYila[;d ,oa
cgql[a ;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk dk vè;;u
czts'k oqQekj oekZ·
izLrqr 'kks/ i=k esa fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ
izzfr vYila[;d ,oa cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk dk vè;;u fd;k x;k gSA
vè;;u gsrq 'kks/drkZ us o.kZukRed losZ{k.k fof/ dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA iznÙkksa osQ ladyu gsrq
LofufeZr ^^fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;eµ2009 iz'ukoyh**
dks 120 osQ U;kn'kZ ij iz'kkflr fd;k x;kA vè;;u osQ ifj.kkeLo:Ik Kkr gqvk fd
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;eµ2009 osQ izfr cgqla[;d
vfHkHkkodksas dh vfHko`fÙk vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh rqyuk esa vf/d ldkjkRed gSA
bl fu"ifÙk osQ ihNs ;g dkj.k gks ldrk gS fd cgqla[;d oxZ dh lk{kjrk nj dk
izfr'kr vYila[;d oxZ dh lk{kjrk nj osQ izfr'kr ls ”;knk gS] vr% os fofHkUu ljdkjh
;kstukvksa o vfèkfu;eksa osQ izfr vf/d ldkjkRed eukso`fÙk j[krs gSaA vU; fu"ifÙk esa ;g
Kkr gqvk fd bl vfèkfu;e osQ izfr iq#"k oxZ osQ vfHkHkkod pkgs os vYila[;d gksa ;k
cgqla[;d] efgyk oxZ dh vfHkHkkodksa (vYila[;d o cgqla[;d) dh rqyuk esa vf/d
ldkjkRed vfHko`fÙk dk izn'kZu djrs gSaA bl ifj.kke osQ ihNs dkj.k gks ldrk gS] fd
efgykvksa ij iq#"kksa dh rqyuk esa vfrfjDr ifjokj ,oa cPpksa dh ns[kHkky dk nkf;Ro
gksrk gS] ftlls os bl vf/fu;e osQ izfr lfØ;rk iznf'kZr ugha dj ikrh gSaA loZ f'k{kk
vfHk;ku osQ y{; dks vkSj csgrj <ax ls izkIr djus osQ fy, lHkh vfHkHkkodksa] pkgs os
vYila[;d gksa ;k cgqla[;d gksa] dks pkfg;s fd os bl vf/fu;e osQ izfr ldkjkRed
vfHko`fÙk fodflr djsa rHkh u osQoy loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ y{; dks csgrj <ax ls
izkIr fd;k tk losQxk oju~ f'k{kk osQ vf/dkj vf/fu;e dk dk;kZUo;u Hkh mfpr <ax
ls gks losQxkA
·[email protected]] vkokl fodkl dkyksuh] eSuiqjh (m-Ikz-)
Chap-1.indd 5
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
6
izLrkouk
f'kf{kr gksuk gj O;fDr dk tUe fl¼ vfèkdkj
gSA isLVkykWth us Hkh blh ckr dks dgk gS
^^f'k{kk gekjk tUe fl¼ vf/dkj gSA** ysfdu
;g rHkh laHko gS tc bldh igq¡p lekt osQ
lcls fupys Lrj rd lqfuf'pr gksA 1 vizSy
2010 ls iwjs Hkkjr esa tEEkw ,oa d'ehj dks
NksM+dj fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vfèkdkj vfèkfu;eµ2009] 6&14 vk;q oxZ osQ
cPpksa osQ fy, ykxw gks pqdk gSA fo'o esa ,sls
de gh ns'k gSa] tgk¡ cPpksa dks fu%'kqYd ,oa
vfuok;Z f'k{kk nsus dh O;oLFkk ykxw gSA bl
n`f"V ls ;g vf/fu;e Hkkjr dks izkjafHkd f'k{kk
osQ {ks=k eaas fodkl y{;ksa dks izkIr djus dh
vk/kj Hkwfe miyC/ djk jgk gSA bl vf/fu;e
esa 6 ls 14 o"kZ dh vk;q oxZ osQ gj ,d cPps
dks fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk iznku djus osQ
fy, fofHkUu izkoèkku ,oa mu izko/kuksa dks iw.kZ
djus osQ fy, dÙkZO; ,oa nkf;Ro fu/kZfjr gSaA
,sfrgkfld n`f"Vdks.k ls 1870 esa fczVsu
us vfuok;Z f'k{kk vf/fu;e ikfjr gksus osQ
mijkar Hkkjr esa loZizFke izR;sd cPPks dks
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk iznku djus dh
ek¡x T;ksfrckiqQys th }kjk 1882 esa gaVj deh'ku
ls dh x;h FkhA 1906 esa bEihfj;y ysftlysfVo
vlsEcyh ls Jh xksiky o`Q".k xks[kys }kjk
Hkkjrh; cPpksa dks fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk
dk vf/dkj iznku djus dh ek¡x dh x;h Fkh]
foaQrq mUgas Hkh liQyrk izkIr ugha gqbZA 1937 esa
egkRek xka/h th us o/kZ esa jk"Vªh; f'k{kk ifj"kn~
dh cSBd esa leLr cPpksa osQ fy, lkoZHkkSfed
f'k{kk dk izLrko j[kk Fkk foaQrq foÙkh; lalkèkuksa
Chap-1.indd 6
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
osQ vHkko dk dkj.k crkdj cPpksa dks ;g
vf/dkj iznku ugha fd;k x;k FkkA 1948&49
esa lafo/ku lHkk osQ le{k Hkh ;g iz'u
mRiUu gqvk ijarq lafo/ku lHkk dh lykgdkj
lfefr us bls EkkSfyd vf/dkj u ekurs gq,
uhfr funsZ'kd fl¼kar dh lwph esa Lohdkj
fd;kA uhfr funsZ'kd fl¼kar osQ vuqPNsn
45 osQ vuqlkjµ ^^jkT; bl lafoèkku osQ
ykxw gksus osQ 10 lky dh vof/ esa leLr
cPpksa osQ fy, tc rd fd os 14 lky dh
vk;q dks izkIr ugha dj ysrs gSa] fu%'kqYd
,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk miyC/ djkus dk Ikz;kl
djsxkA**
lHkh cPpksa osQ fy, f'k{kk dh O;oLFkk osQ
laca/ esa mPpre U;k;ky; }kjk 1993 esa fn,
x, fu.kZ; esa ;g dgk x;k fd ^^f'k{kk osQ
fcuk thou dk vf/dkj viw.kZ gS vkSj 14 o"kZ
rd osQ lHkh cPpksa dks fu%'kqYd izkjafHkd f'k{kk
iznku djuk jkT; dk egRoiw.kZ nkf;Ro gSA**
bl fu.kZ; osQ Ik'pkr~ 86ok¡ laoS/kfud la'kks/u]
2002 osQ varxZr ewy vf/dkjksa esa vuqPNsn 21,
lfEefyr fd;k x;k ftlosQ vuqlkjµ ^^jkT;
6&14 o"kZ osQ vk;q oxZ okys leLr cPpksa osQ
fy, fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk miyC/ djkus
dk] ,slh jhfr ls tks jkT; fof/ }kjk vo/kfjr
djs] mica/ djsxkA** blosQ lkFk gh lafo/ku
osQ vuqPNsn 45 osQ fy, fuEufyf[kr vuqPNsn
LFkkukiUu fd;k ^^jkT; leLr cPpksa dks tc rd
fd os viuh 6 o"kZ dh vk;q iwjh ugha dj ysrs
gSa] cpiu iwoZ lqj{kk miyC/ djkus dk iz;kl
djsxkA** lafo/ku osQ vuqPNsn 51&, esa /kjk
(ts) osQ ckn vxzfyf[kr èkkjk tksM+h x;h gS &
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z Ckky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e 2009---
èkkjk (osQ) ^^;fn ekrk&firk ;k laj{kd gSa] 6
o"kZ ls 14 o"kZ rd dh vk;q oxZ okys vius]
;FkkfLFkfr ckyd ;k izfrikY; osQ fy, f'k{kk
osQ volj iznku djsa**
blosQ ifj.kkeLo:Ik izkjafHkd f'k{kk dks
,d ekSfyd vf/dkj dk ntkZ izkIr gqvk vkSj
leLr cPpksa dks ;g vf/dkj miyC/ djkus
osQ fy, iz;Ru izkjaHk gq,A blh Øe esa o"kZ
2006 esa f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e dk
,d ekWMy fo/s;d fodflr fd;k x;k tks
4 vxLr 2009 dks fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky
f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;eµ2009 osQ :Ik
esa ikfjr gqvk rFkk 27 vxLr 2009 dks Hkkjr
osQ jkti=k esa izdkf'kr gqvkA varr% Hkkjr osQ
leLr cPpksa dks fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk
izkIr djkus dh ;k=kk] yXkHkx ,d 'krkCnh osQ
ckn 2010 esa eaf”ky izkIr dj ldh vkSj 1
vizSy 2010 ls f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vf/fu;e
ykxw gks x;k gSA f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vc 6
ls 14 o"kZ rd osQ leLr cPpksa osQ fy, ,d
ekSfyd vf/dkj gS rFkk jkT; lHkh cPPkksa dks
d{kk 8 rd fu%'kqYd f'k{kk miyC/ djkus osQ
fy, mÙkjnk;h gSA
vf/fu;e osQ izeq[k izko/ku
•
6&14 o"kZ rd osQ izR;sd cPps osQ fy,
u”knhdh fo|ky; esa izkFkfed f'k{kk
vfuok;Z ,oa eqÝ+r gksxhA
• bl mez osQ cPpksa ls fdlh Hkh izdkj dk
dksbZ 'kqYd ugha fy;k tk,xk vkSj u gh
mUgsa fdlh 'kqYd vFkok [kpZ dh otg ls
izkFkfed f'k{kk ysus ls jksdk tk losQxkA
Chap-1.indd 7
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
7
;fn 6 ls vf/d mez dk dksbZ Hkh cPpk
fdUgha dkj.ko'k fo|ky; ugha tk ikrk
gS rks] mls f'k{kk osQ fy,] mldh mez
osQ vuqlkj mfpr d{kk esa izos'k fnyok;k
tk,xkA
bl vf/fu;e osQ izko/kuksa dks fØ;kfUor
djus osQ fy, lacaf/r ljdkj rFkk
LFkkuh; iz'kklu dks ;fn vko';d gqvk
rks fo|ky; Hkh [kksyuk gksxkA
bl vf/fu;e osQ rgr ;fn fdlh {ks=k
esa fo|ky; ugha gS rks ogk¡ ij rhu o"kks±
esa fo|ky; dk fuekZ.k djok;k tkuk
vko';d gSA
bl vf/fu;e osQ izko/kuksa dks vey esa
ykus dh f”kEesnkjh osaQnz rFkk jkT; ljdkj
nksuksa dh gS rFkk blosQ fy, gksus okys [kpZ
esa Hkh budh leorhZ f”kEesnkjh jgsxhA
bl vf/fu;e osQ izko/kuksa osQ vuqlkj osQa nz
ljdkj us jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqlèa kku vkSj
izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ (,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-) dks
'kSf{kd ikB~;Øe ewY;kadu izfØ;k osQ fy,
vf/o`Qr fd;k gSA bldk ize[q k dk;Z izkjafHkd
f'k{kk rFkk blosQ fy, vko';d ikB~;Øe
dk jk"Vªh; Lrj ij fodkl djuk gSA
ljdkjh fo|ky; rks fu%'kqYd f'k{kk iznku
djsaxs gh] futh vkSj fo'ks"k Js.kh okys
fo|ky;ksa dks Hkh vkfFkZd :Ik ls fucZy
leqnk;ksa osQ cPpksa osQ fy, d{kkvksa esa 25
izfr'kr LFkku vkjf{kr djuk gksxkA
fdlh Hkh cPps dks 'kkjhfjd naM ugha fn;k
tk,xk ;k mldk ekufld mRihM+u ugha
fd;k tk,xkA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
8
cPpksas osQ le>us dh 'kfDr vkSj mls
mi;ksx djus dh ;ksX;rk dk O;kid vkSj
lrr~ ewY;kadu fd;k tk,xkA
• fdlh Hkh cPps dks fdlh d{kk esa jksdk
ugha tk,xk rFkk izkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh fd,
tkus rd fu"dkflr ugha fd;k tk,xkA
• izR;sd cPps dh f'k{kk xzg.k djus osQ
lkeF;Z dk fu/kZj.k fd;k tk,xk vkSj
rnuqlkj ;Fkk visf{kr vfrfjDr f'k{k.k
iznku fd;k tk,xkA
• cky vuqowQy vkSj cky osaQfnzr jhfr esa
fØ;kdykiksa] [kkst vkSj izdVhdj.k
}kjk f'k{k.k iznku fd;k tk,xkA
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 cPpksa rd ekè;fed
rFkk mPp f'k{kk igqp
¡ kus dh n`f"V ls Hkh ,d
egRoiw.kZ dne gSA bldk lokZf/d ykHk Jfedksa
osQ cPps] cky e”knwj] izoklh cPps] fo'ks"k
vko';drk okys cPps ;k fiQj tks lkekftd]
lkaLo`Qfrd] vkfFkZd] HkkSxksfyd] Hkk"kk;h vFkok
tsMa j dkjdksa dh otg ls f'k{kk ls oafpr cPpksa
dks feysxk vkSj os vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh djosQ
ekè;fed f'k{kk esa dne j[k losQxa As
vYila[;d vfHkHkkod
bl vè;;u esa iz;qDr ikfjHkkf"kd
'kCnkoyh
1- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
vYila[;d ,oa cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa
dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj ugha gSA
2- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
vYila[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa ,oa efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd
varj ugha gSA
•
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vfèkdkj vf/fu;eµ2009
bl vf/fu;e esa 6 ls 14 o"kZ dh vk;q osQ
gj ,d cPps dks fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk
iznku djus osQ fy, fofHkUu izko/ku ,oa mu
izko/kuksa dks iw.kZ djus osQ fy, drZO; ,oa
nkf;Ro fu/kZfjr fd, x, gSaA
Chap-1.indd 8
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa ls rkRi;Z eqfLye
laiznk; osQ vfHkHkkodksa ls gSA
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkod
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa ls rkRi;Z fganw laiznk;
osQ vfHkHkkodksa ls gSA
vfHko`fÙk
vfHko`fÙk fdlh fof'k"V izdj.k osQ izfr O;fDr
dh izo`fÙk;ksa] Hkkoukvksa] iwokZxzgksa] i{kikrksa] iwoZ
fufeZr vfHkizk;ksa] fopkjksa] Hk;] nckoksa rFkk
ekU;rkvksa dk oqQy ;ksx gSA
vè;;u osQ mís';
1- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk dk
vè;;u djukA
2- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk dk
vè;;u djukA
vè;;u dh ifjdYiuk,¡
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
9
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z Ckky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e 2009---
3- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;e 2009 osQ izfr
cgqla[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa ,oa efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd
varj ugha gSA
vè;;u dk ifjlhekadu
1- izLrqr vè;;u esa eSuiqjh ftys osQ
lqYrkuxat fodkl [kaM osQ vYila[;d
,oa cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dks fy;k
x;k gSA
2- izLrqr vè;;u esa vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa
ls vk'k; eqfLye vfHkHkkodksa ls rFkk
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa ls vk'k; fganw
vfHkHkkodksa ls gSA
3- izfrn'kZ osQ :Ik esa 60 vYila[;d
vfHkHkkodksa rFkk 60 cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa
dk p;u fd;k x;k gSA
'kks/ fof/& izLrqr 'kks/ vè;;u esa o.kZukRed
vuql/
a ku dh los{Z k.k fof/ dk iz;ksx fd;k
x;k gSA
U;kn'kZ& izLrqr 'kks/ vè;;u esa U;kn'kZ
osQ :Ik esa 60 vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa rFkk
60 cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dk p;u fd;k
x;k gSA 60 vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa esa 40
vfHkHkkod iq#"k gSa rFkk 20 vfHkHkkod
efgyk gSa vkSj 60 cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa
esa 42 iq#"k vfHkHkkod gSa rFkk 18 efgyk
vfHkHkkod gSaA U;kn'kZ p;u osQ fy, fof/
Stratified
Random
Sampling
(SRS) dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
vè;;u esa iz;qDr midj.k
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr vYila[;d
vfHkHkkodksa ,oa cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh
vfHko`fÙk dk vè;;u djus osQ fy, 'kks/drkZ
us LofufeZr iz'ukoyh dk fuekZ.k fd;k gSA bl
iz'ukoyh esa 30 iz'u gSaA
lkaf[;dh; fof/;k¡& ,df=kr iznÙkksa osQ
fo'ys"k.k gsrq eè;eku] ekud fopyu ,oa Vh
VsLV dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
iznÙkksa dk fo'ys"k.k ,oa O;k[;k
'kwU; ifjdYiuk 1µ fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ
izfr vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa ,oa cgqla[;d
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj
ugha gSA
Rkkfydk 1
Chap-1.indd 9
oxZ
N
M
vYila[;d vfHkHkkod
60
35-10 5-80
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkod
60
39-17 7-03
S.D
MD
sD
4-07
1-38 2-94
T
Df
lkFkZdrk
Lrj
0-01 Lrj ij
118
lkFkZd varj gSA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
10
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
t rkfydk esa df = 118 ns[kus ij t dk
eku 0-01 Lrj ij 2-62 gS tcfd iznÙkksa dk
lkaf[;dh; fo'ys"k.k djus ij ifjxf.kr t
vuqikr dk eku 2-94 izkIr gqvk tks 0-01
lkFkZdrk Lrj osQ ekuksa ls vf/d gS vr%
'kwU; ifjdYiuk 1 ^^fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ
izfr vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa ,oa cgqla[;d
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj
ugha gS** fujLr gksrh gS vFkkZr~ 99 izfr'kr fo'okl
osQ lkFk dgk tk ldrk gS fd vYila[;d
vfHkHkkodksa rFkk cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh
vfHko`fÙk esa lkFkZd varj gS vFkkZr~ vYila[;d
vfHkHkkodksa rFkk cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh
vfHko`fÙk leku ugha gSA
'kw U ; ifjdYiuk 2 fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vfèkfu;e&2009 osQ
izfr vYila[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa rFkk efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj
ugha gSA
t rkfydk esa df = 58 ns[kus ij t dk
eku 2-66 gS tcfd iznÙkksa dk lkaf[;dh;
fo'ys"k.k djus ij ifjxf.kr t vuqikr dk
eku 5-76 izkIr gqvk tks 0-01 lkFkZdrk Lrj
osQ ekuksa ls vf/d gSA vr% 'kwU; ifjdYiuk 2
^^fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj
vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr vYila[;d iq#"k
vfHkHkkodksa ,oa efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj ugha gS** fujLr gksrh gS
vFkkZr~ 99 izfr'kr fo'okl osQ lkFk dgk tk
ldrk gS fd vYila[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa
rFkk efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa lkFkZd
varj gS vFkkZr~ vYila[;d iqq#"k vfHkHkkodksa
rFkk efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk leku
ugha gSA
'kwU; ifjdYiuk 3 fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ
izfr cgqla[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa rFkk efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa dksbZ lkFkZd varj
ugha gSA
rkfydk 2
Chap-1.indd 10
oxZ
N
M
S.D
vYila[;d iq#"k
vfHkHkkod
vYila[;d efgyk
vfHkHkkod
40
36-7
3-95
20
26-9
6-96
MD
sD
t
9-8
1-7
5-76 58
df
lkFkZdrk Lrj
0-01 Lrj ij
lkFkZd varj gSA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
11
fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z Ckky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e 2009---
rkfydk 3
oxZ
N
M
S.D
cgqla[;d iq#"k
vfHkHkkod
cgqla[;d efgyk
vfHkHkkod
42
42-16
5-78
18
32-17
4-11
MD
sD
t
9-99
1-4
7-13 58
t rkfydk esa df = 58 ns[kus ij t dk
eku 0-01 Lrj ij 2-66 gS tcfd iznÙkksa dk
lkaf[;dh; fo'ys"k.k djus ij ifjxf.kr t
vuqikr dk eku 7-13 izkIr gqvk tks 0-01
lkFkZdrk Lrj osQ ekuksa ls vf/d gS vr% ;g
0-01 lkFkZdrk Lrj ij lkFkZd varj gS vr%
'kwU; ifjdYiuk 3 ^^fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ
izfr cgqla[;d iq#"k oxZ osQ vfHkHkkodksa ,oa
efgyk oxZ osQ vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa
dksbZ lkFkZd varj ugha gS** fujLr gksrh gS]
vFkkZr~ 99 izfr'kr fo'okl osQ lkFk dgk tk
ldrk gS fd cgqla[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa rFkk
efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa lkFkZd
varj gS vFkkZr~ iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa rFkk efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk leku ugha gSA
fu"d"kZ
1- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa ,oa cgqla[;d
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa lkFkZd
varj ik;k x;k vkSj ;g ns[kk x;k fd
Chap-1.indd 11
df
lkFkZdrk Lrj 0-01
Lrj ij
lkFkZd varj gSA
cgqla[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
vYila[;d vfHkHkkodksa dh rqyuk esa
vf/d ldkjkRed gSA
2- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
vYila[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa ,oa efgyk
vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa lkFkZd
varj ik;k x;k vkSj ;g ns[kk x;k fd
vYila[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh rqyuk esa vf/d
ldkjkRed gSA
3- fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ izfr
cgqla[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
rFkk efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
esa lkFkZd varj ik;k x;k vkSj ;g ns[kk
x;k fd cgqla[;d iq#"k vfHkHkkodksa dh
vfHko`fÙk efgyk vfHkHkkodksa dh vfHko`fÙk
ls vf/d ldkjkRed gSA
'kSf{kd fufgrkFkZ& vè;;u osQ ifj.kkeksa
osQ vk/kj ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd
fdlh O;fDr fo'ks"k dh vfHko`fÙk mlosQ
euksHkko vFkok fo'okl dks bafxr djrh gSA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
12
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
vfHko`fÙk crkrh gS fd O;fDr D;k eglwl
djrk gS vFkok mlosQ iwoZ fo'okl D;k gSa\
;fn vfHkHkkod pkgas os vYila[;d gksa ;k
fiQj cgqla[;d gksa] fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z
cky f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009
osQ izfr vf/d ldkjkRed vfHko`fÙk j[ksaxs
rHkh os vius cPpksa dks f'k{kk izkIr djus
osQ fy, vfHkizsfjr dj losaQxs vkSj rHkh loZ
f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ y{; ^^lc i<s+a lc c<+sa**
dks vf/d rRijrk ls izkIr fd;k tk losQxkA
;g 'kks/ vè;;u bafxr djrk gS fd bl
vf/dkj osQ ckjs esa vYila[;d leqnk; dks
vkSj vf/d crk, tkus dh vko';drk gSA
blosQ vf/d izpkj&izlkj rFkk tkx:drk osQ
fy, vkSj vf/d iz;kl fd, tkus pkfg, D;ksafd
lgh vkSj O;kid tkudkjh ls Hkh n`f"Vdks.kksa eas
lq/kj vkrk gS tks fd nwjxkeh gksxkA bl izdkj
bl vf/fu;e dh lgh tkudkjh vfHkHkkodksa
vkSj vè;kidksa dh vfHko`fÙk esa ifjorZu dk ,d
lgh o ldkjkRed mik; fl¼ gks ldrh gSA
lanHkZ
Mk;V eSuiqjh- 2010- laokn] jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :Ikjs[kk&2005 vkSj fu%'kqYd ,oa vfuok;Z cky f'k{kk dk
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 osQ lanHkZ esa f'k{kd gLriqfLrdk- loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku (m-iz-)
cqp] ,e-ch- 1979- lSosaQM losZ vkWI+kQ fjlpZ bu ,tqosQ'ku- cM+kSnk lkslk;Vh I+kQkWj ,tqosQ'ku fjlpZ ,aM MsoyiesaV
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~- 1991- FkMZ ,aM iQksFkZ losZ vkWI+kQ fjlpZ bu ,tqosQ'ku- u;h fnYyh
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~- 1997- fI+kQÝFk losZ vkWI+kQ fjlpZ bu ,tqosQ'ku- u;h fnYyh
Chap-1.indd 12
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:04
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mÙkj izns'k osQ
jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr ftyksa esa lesfdr f'k{kk
ij rqyukRed vè;;u
jfoUnz flag·
osadVs'ojyq··
f'k{kk izkIr djuk lHkh cPpksa dk vf/dkj gS rFkk lHkh dks f'k{kk osQ leku volj izkIr
gksus pkfg,A vkt Hkkjr esa Hkh bl ckr ls dksbZ budkj ugha dj ldrkA 6 ls 14 o"kZ rd
osQ vk;q oxZ osQ cPpksa osQ fy, 86osa lafo/ku la'kks/u }kjk f'k{kk dks ,d ekSfyd vf/dkj
?kksf"kr dj fn;k x;k gSA f'k{kk osQ lkoZHkkSehdj.k osQ fy, loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku dks ,d
fe'ku osQ :i esa 6 ls 14 o"kZ dh vk;q oxZ osQ lHkh cPpksa dks thou mi;ksxh f'k{kk ij
”kksj nsus osQ lkFk larks"ktud ,oa xq.koÙkkiw.kZ f'k{kk iznku djus dk y{; Hkkjr ljdkj
}kjk j[kk x;k gSA lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ varxZr gksus okys mi;qDr lHkh fozQ;kdykiksa dk eq[;
mís'; Nk=kksa osQ eu ls ghuHkkouk dks nwj dj muesa lgu'khyrk] ln~Hkkouk] lekurk ,oa
vuq'kklu dh Hkkouk fodflr dj mudks iw.kZ :i ls vkRefuHkZj cukuk gSA
izLrkouk
lHkh O;fDr;ksa dks vius thou dks csgrj rjhosQ
ls thus dk vf/dkj gS] ysfdu nqfu;kHkj osQ
cgqr lkjs cPps bl volj osQ vHkko esa gh th
jgs gSa] D;ksafd mUgsa çkFkfed f'k{kk tSls vfuok;Z
ewyHkwr vf/dkj Hkh eqgS;k ugha djk;s tk jgs gSaA
Hkkjr esa cPpksa dks lk{kj djus dh fn'kk esa
pyk;s tk jgs dk;ZØeksa osQ ifj.kkeLo:i 94
çfr'kr xzkeh.k cPpksa dks muosQ ?kj ls ,d
fdeh- dh nwjh ij çkFkfed fo|ky; ,oa rhu
fdeh- dh nwjh ij mPp çkFkfed fo|ky; dh
lqfo/k,¡ miyC/ gSaA ekuo lalk/u fodkl
ea=kky; dh okf"kZd fjiksVZ 2012&13 osQ
vuqlkj] iwjs ns'k esa 32 yk[k fo'ks"k vko';drk
okys cPpksa dh igpku dh xbZ gSA buesa ls
28 yk[k (86.27%) cPps LowQyksa esa ukekafdr
gSa rFkk ,d yk[k ckjg g”kkj cPpksa dks 23
jkT;ksa vkSj osaQnz 'kkflr izns'kksa }kjk LowQy jsfMusl
Ikzksxzke (School Readiness Programme)
osQ ekè;e ls doj djus dk ladYi fy;k
x;k gSA Hkkjr ljdkj dk y{; bl la[;k dks
100% rd igq¡pkuk gSA bl y{; dks ikuk rHkh
laHko gS tc ns'kHkj osQ cPpksa dks de ls de
· 'kks/ Nk=k] ,I+kQbZ,,l] ,etsih #gsy[kaM ;wfuoflZVh] cjsyh (m-iz-)
·· IkzksI+ksQlj (Lis'ky ,stqosQ'ku)] ,lvksbZ] bXuw] u;h fnYyh
Chap-2.indd 13
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
14
izkFkfed fo|ky; osQ ekè;e ls mPp Lrjh;
LowQyh lqfo/k,¡ miyC/ djkbZ tk,¡A
f'k{kk osQ lkoZHkkSehdj.k osQ }kjk lekos'kh
f'k{kk osQ y{; dks izkIr djus osQ fy, lHkh
cfLr;ksa esa LowQyh f'k{kk lqfo/kvksa osQ lkFk
cPpksa osQ 100% ukekadu vkSj izfr/kj.k dk
y{; j[kk x;k gSA Hkkjr ljdkj us lu~ 2000
esa f'k{kk osQ lkoZHkkSehdj.k osQ fy, loZ f'k{kk
vfHk;ku dks ,d fe'ku osQ :i esa 6 ls 14
o"kZ dh vk;q oxZ osQ lHkh cPpksa osQ thou osQ
fy, f'k{kk ij ”kksj nsus osQ lkFk larks"ktud ,oa
xq.koÙkkiw.kZ f'k{kk iznku djus osQ y{; dks lu~
2015 rd lHkh jkT;ksa osQ lkFk lk>snkjh esa j[kk
x;k gSA
mÙkj izns'k esa loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku lkoZHkkSfed lk{kjrk osQ
izeq[k ljksdkjksa vkSj blosQ dk;kZUo;u osQ fy,
,d mRlkgh fip gSA ;g Hkkjr osQ lokZf/d
vkcknh okys jkT;ksa osQ lkFk lHkh jkT;ksa esa
vfuok;Z gSA loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku }kjk Hkkjr
ljdkj dk izeq[k 'kSf{kd dk;ZØe 192 djksM+
cPpksa dks cqfu;knh f'k{kk fnykus dk gSA f'k{kk
osQ y{; dks iwjk djus osQ fy, mÙkj Ikzns'k esa
9570 u;s izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa vkSj 13177 mPp
izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa osQ fuekZ.k dk y{; j[kk
x;k gS tcfd 4832 izkFkfed vkSj 1218 mPp
izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa dks iqu% fuekZ.k osQ varxZr
j[kk x;k gS vkSj 7338 u;s 'kkSpky;] 1]21]199
vfrfjDr d{kkvksa dh la[;k] 2 yk[k vfrfjDr
f'k{kdksa ,oa iSjk&f'k{kdksa dh fu;qfDr rFkk 1%66
izfr'kr ls 1%45 izfr'kr osQ f'k{kd&Nk=k vuqikr
Chap-2.indd 14
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ vizSy 2014
dks uhps yk;k x;k gSA mÙkj izns'k ljdkj us
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr izkFkfed f'k{kk
osQ Lrj dks c<kus osQ fy, fuEufyf[kr :i
ls iwohZ {ks=kksa esa& cgjkbp] xks.Mk] cyjkeiqj]
gjnksbZ] oqQ'khuxj vkfn vkSj i'fpeh {ks=kksa esa
cjsyh] ,Vk] ihyhHkhr vkSj jkeiqj vkfn rFkk
osaQnzh; {ks=k yfyriqj] cqansy[k.M vkfn ftyksa dks
izkFkfedrk nh gSA
jkeiqj ftys esa loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku
jkeiqj ftyk izkFkfed f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa ,d
vR;ar fiNM+k {ks=k gSA ;gk¡ efqLye tula[;k
vf/d gksus osQ dkj.k 'kSf{kd fLFkfr Hkh vR;ar
fiNM+h gqbZ gS D;ksafd f'k{kdksa dh cgqr vf/d
deh gS rFkk vkfFkZd fLFkfr Hkh vR;ar [kjkc gS]
ftlosQ dkj.k vf/d xjhCkh gS rFkk cPpksa dh
i<+kbZ dk Lrj Hkh dkI+kQh fxjk gqvk gSA jkeiqj esa
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku lu~ 2002 esa 'kq: gqvk FkkA
ml le; iwjs ftys esa 1272 LowQy FksA dksbZ
Hkh fo'ks"k vko';drk okyk cPpk LowQy esa
ukekafdr ugha Fkk vkSj u gh dksbZ fo'ks"[email protected]/u
f'k{kd fu;qDr FkkA
jkeiqj ftys esa vYila[;dksa dh vf/drk
osQ dkj.k f'k{kk dk Lrj iwjs mÙkj izns'k esa
fuEure Lrj ij gSSA ;wfulsI+kQ (United Nations
Children's Educational Fund) }kjk ,d
vkg~oku dk;ZØe l=k 2010&11 esa 'kq: fd;k
x;k gSA bl dk;ZØe osQ }kjk iwjs ftys osQ lHkh
LowQyksa esa ,d d{k dks f'k{k.k vf/xe lkexzh
}kjk ltkdj fjlkslZ :e rS;kj djk;k x;k FkkA
bl fjlkslZ :e esa lkekU; cPpksa osQ lkFk fo'ks"k
vko';drk okys cPpksa dks Hkh i<+k;k tkrk
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mRrj izns'k osQ jkeiqj---
gSA loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku 'kq: gksus osQ ckn ls
;gk¡ fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa dh f'k{kk
osQ fy, fo'ks"k lalk/u f'k{kdksa dh fu;fqDr
dh xbZA bu fo'ks"k lalk/u f'k{kdksa }kjk fo'ks"k
vko';drk okys cPpksa dh igpku dh xbZ rFkk
fcztdkslZ lsaVj ,oa izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa esa f'k{kk
nh tkus yxhA vr% fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa rFkk lkekU; cPpksa osQ lh[kus dh ;ksX;rk
esa ldkjkRed ,oa okafNr lq/kj gqvk gSA
ihyhHkhr ftys esa loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku
ihyhHkhr ftys dh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr vPNh u
gksus osQ dkj.k 'kSf{kd fLFkfr vR;ar [kjkc gSA
blosQ fy, HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr dkI+kQh gn rd
f”kEesnkj gS] D;ksafd ;gk¡ dkI+kQh la[;k esa ufn;k¡
gSa tks gj o"kZ tqykbZ ls flracj rd rhu eghus
ckfj'k gksus ls ck<+ osQ :i esa dgj <krh jgrh
gSa] ftlosQ dkj.k LowQyksa esa i<+us okys cPpksa
dh i<+kbZ izHkkfor gksrh jgrh gSA lkFk gh lkFk
bl ftys dh ,d lhek iM+kslh ns'k usiky ls
yxh gqbZ gSA 'kkjnk unh osQ fdukjs cls xk¡o
unh osQ ikuh esa cg tkrs gSa] ftlls LowQyksa dh
fLFkfr cnyrh jgrh gS vkSj bu cPpksa dh f'k{kk
izHkkfor gksrh jgrh gSA
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ 'kq: gksus ls igys
ihyhHkhr ftys dh 'kSf{kd fLFkfr vPNh ugha
Fkh D;ksafd ;gk¡ f'k{kdksa dh dkI+kQh deh FkhA
ihyhHkhr ftyk f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa iwjs izns'k esa
fuEu Lrj ij Fkk] ;gk¡ fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa dh f'k{kk osQ fy, loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku
lu~ 2002 esa 'kq: gqvk Fkk ml le; iwjs ftys
esa 1143 LowQy rFkk dksbZ Hkh fo'ks"k vko';drk
Chap-2.indd 15
15
okys cPps LowQy esa ukekafdr ugha Fks vkSj u
gh dksbZ fo'ks"[email protected]/u f'k{kd gh fu;qDr Fkk]
ftlosQ dkj.k f'k{kk dh fLFkfr vR;ar [kjkc FkhA
ijarq Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk lapkfyr dk;ZozQe loZ
f'k{kk vfHk;ku }kjk bu fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa dks i<+kus osQ fy, fo'ks"k lalk/u f'k{kd
fu;qDr fd;s x;sA bu f'k{kdksa us cPpksa dh
igpku djosQ LowQyksa esa ukekadu djk;kA bl
izdkj bu fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa dks
lkekU; f'k{kdkas }kjk ,oa lkekU; cPpksa osQ lkFk
i<+k;k tkus yxkA
fodykax cPpksa osQ fy, lesfdr f'k{kk
lu~ 1960 esa fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa dks
lesfdr djus dh ladYiuk dbZ ns'kksa esa 'kq:
dh xbZ FkhA lu~ 1970 esa Hkh lesfdr f'k{kk osQ
{ks=k esa u;h igy osQ lkFk vf/d vko';drk
eglwl dh xbZ rFkk fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa osQ fy, tkx:drk vfHk;ku tSlh lsok,¡
'kq: dh tkus yxhaA fodykaxrk o"kZ 1980 osQ
ckn ls nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls yksxksa osQ lkeus ;s
rF; vkus yxs fd fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa fo'ks"k
vko';drk okys cPpksa dh cgqr cM+h la[;k
fo|eku gS] tks mu ns'kksa osQ fy, ,d pqukSrhiw.kZ
fLFkfr cu xbZ gSA ;wfulsI+kQ }kjk vuqekfur 100
fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa 6 ls 15 o"kZ osQ 150
djksM+ cPps fodykax Js.kh esa vkrs gSa] ftlesa ls
Hkkjr esa 30 yk[k cPps ,d ;k ,d ls vf/d
fodykaxrk dh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA fodykaxrk osQ
lkFk yksxksa dk izfr'kr lu~ 1931 dh tux.kuk
dh oqQy tula[;k dk 1-83 izfr'kr Fkk tks lu~
2001 dh tux.kuk dh oqQy tula[;k dk 2-13
izfr'kr gks x;kA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
16
Chap-2.indd 16
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ vizSy 2014
iwjs ns'k esa fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa
osQ fy, LowQyh f'k{kk fn, tkus dh pqukSrh
gS] blosQ fy, Hkkjr ljdkj us lu~ 1971
esa lesfdr f'k{kk 'kq: fd;s tkus dh ?kks"k.kk
dh Fkh] ftlosQ varxZr fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa osQ fy, fu;fer LowQy rFkk fo'ks"k LowQyksa
esa f'k{kk eqgS;k djkbZ xbZ gSA lesfdr f'k{kk
dk okLrfod vFkZ gS fd ^fo'ks"k vko';drk
okys cPpksa dks mudh vko';drk osQ vuqlkj
lesfdr fo|ky;ksa esa f'k{kk fnykuk rFkk mUgsa
f'k{kk dh eq[;/kjk ls tksM+uk* ftlls ;s cPps
vius thou dks vkSj vf/d vPNh rjg ls th
losaQ rFkk lekt osQ vU; lkekU; cPpksa osQ
lkFk i<+ losaQA
bl izdkj fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ
fy, vyx ls LowQy [kksys tkus yxs rFkk mudh
f'k{kk osQ fy, vusd egRoiw.kZ lfefr;k¡ ,oa
laxBu lkeus vkus yxsA tSls& ekrk&firk ijke'kZ
la?k] rFkk vU; ,u-th-vks- (NGO) [kksys x;s gSaA
ljdkj bu cPpksa dh i<+kbZ osQ lkFk&lkFk eqÝ+r
Mªsl] [kkuk] fdrkcsa rFkk vU; vko';d f'k{k.k
lkexzh miyC/ djkrh gSA
vk;q osQ lkekU; ckydksa esa vf/d Loho`Qr
,oa lek;ksftr gksaxsA blls muosQ Locks/ ,oa
vkRefo'okl esa o`f¼ gksxh rFkk mudk O;ogkj
,d lkekU; ckyd osQ O;ogkj osQ leku gksxkA
vFkkZr~ vius ifjos'k esa jgrs gq, lHkh izdkj
osQ fodykax cPpksa dks izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa esa
f'k{kk dh eq[;/kjk ls tksM+uk lekos'kh f'k{kk
gSA lekos'kh f'k{kk ls rkRi;Z gS fd ^izpfyr
'kSf{kd i¼fr esa lkekU; cPpksa osQ lkFk ml
oxZ dks tksM+us ls gS tks fdlh rjg dh v{kerk
vFkok fodykaxrk osQ dkj.k izpfyr i¼fr osQ
vuqowQy ugha i<+ losQ ;k oafpr jg x;sA*
lekos'kh f'k{kk
ifjdYiuk
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ varxZr gksus okys mi;qDr
lHkh fØ;kdykiksa dk eq[; mís'; ,sls Nk=kksa osQ
eu ls ghuHkkouk dks nwj dj muesa lgu'khyrk]
lnHkkouk] lekurk ,oa vuq'kklu dh Hkkouk
fodflr dj mudks iw.kZ :i ls vkRefuHkZj
cukuk gSA vFkkZr~ fof'k"V ckydksa dks lkekU;
ckydksa osQ lkFk jgdj muosQ lkekftd rFkk
'kSf{kd vuqHkoksa dks lexz :i ls izLrqr
fd;k tk,A bl izdkj fof'k"V ckyd viuh
1- izkFkfed Lrj ij fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ lekos'ku esa xq.kkRed ,oa
ek=kkRed lq/kj gksxkA
2- izkFkfed Lrj ij fof'k"V vko';drk okys
cPpksa osQ lekos'ku esa fo'ks"[email protected]/u
f'k{kdksa dh vfHko`fRRk èkukRed gksxhA
3- fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dh 'kSf{kd
miyfC/ ij lekos'kh f'k{kk dk /ukRed
izHkko gksxkA
vè;;u dk mís';
1- izkFkfed Lrj ij fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa osQ lekos'ku dk vè;;uA
2- izkFkfed Lrj ij fo'ks"k vko';drk okys
cPpksa osQ lekos'ku esa fo'ks"[email protected]/u
f'k{kdksa osQ joS;s dk vè;;uA
3- izkFkfed Lrj ij lekos'kh fo|ky;ksa esa
i<+us okys fo'ks"k vko';drk okys cPpksa
dh miyfC/ dk vè;;u
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
17
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mRrj izns'k osQ jkeiqj---
tula[;k
midj.k
izLrqr vè;;u osQ fy, tula[;k osQ :i esa
eqjknkckn e.My osQ jkeiqj ftys ,oa cjsyh
e.My osQ ihyhHkhr ftys osQ mu izkFkfed
fo|ky;ksa dk p;u fd;k x;k] ftuesa loZ f'k{kk
vfHk;ku lapkfyr fd;k tk jgk gSA
vè;kid vfHko`fÙk ekiuhA
U;kn'kZ (Sample)
orZeku vè;;u osQ fy, U;kn'kZ osQ :i esa
eqjknkckn e.My osQ jkeiqj ftys ,oa cjsyh
e.My osQ ihyhHkhr ftys osQ izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa
esa lesfdr f'k{kk ls lacaf/r lHkh fo'ks"[email protected]/u
f'k{kdksa vkSj d{kk Ikk¡p osQ fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa dk pquko fd;k ftudk fooj.k
fuEu izdkj gS&
vè;;u fof/
orZeku vè;;u osQ mís';ksa dh iwfrZ gsrq iznÙkksa
osQ ,d=khdj.k gsrq losZ{k.k fof/ (Survey
Method) dk iz;ksx fd;k x;kA
ekiu dh izfozQ;k
'kks/drkZ us vè;;u gsrq i;Zos{kd dh enn ls
izkFkfed Lrj ij fo'ks"k vko';drkvksa okys
cPpksa osQ lekos'ku osQ ckjs esa irk djus osQ
fy, vè;kid vfHko`fÙk ekiuh dk fuekZ.k
fd;k gSA izkjaHk esa iz'ukas dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k
vkSj blosQ i'pkr~ bl {ks=k ls lacaf/r nl
fo'ks"kK f'k{kdksa dks bls vkykspukRed <ax
ls i<+us osQ fy, fn;k x;kA fo'ks"kK f'k{kdksa
fo'ks"[email protected]/u f'k{kd
oqQy ¾ 40
jkeiqj
20 fo'ks"[email protected]/u f'k{kd
ihyhHkhr
20 fo'ks"[email protected]/u f'k{kd
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPps
oqQy ¾ 175
;kn`fPNd Ikzfrp;u
l=k
Nk=k la[;k
Chap-2.indd 17
2005&06 2006&07
25
25
2007&08
2008&09
2009&10
2010&11
2011&12
25
25
25
25
25
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
18
osQ ewY;oku lq>koksa vkSj mudh lykg osQ
vuqlkj vfHko`fÙk ekiuh esa ifjorZu fd;k x;kA
blosQ i'pkr~ bls Vªk;y osQ fy, fn;k x;k vkSj
blesa vko';drkuqlkj ifjorZu vkSj ifjektZu
fd;k x;kA var esa i;Zos{kd dh rduhdh enn
ls vfHko`fÙk ekiuh dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA blosQ
mijkar vè;;u osQ mís'; dh iwfrZ gsrq izLrqr
fd;k x;kA
lekos'kh f'k{kk gsrq vè;kidksa dh vfHko`fÙk
ekius gsrq 20 iz'uksa dks lfEefyr fd;k x;k gAS
bl ekiuh esa /ukRed vkSj ½.kkRed nksuksa gh
izdkj osQ iz'uksa dks lfEefyr fd;k x;k gSA
izR;sd iz'u dh vuqfØ;k gsrq vè;kidksa osQ
le{k rhu Jsf.k;ksa ;kfu lger] ekywe ugha vkSj
vlger dks is'k fd;k x;kA
vkadM+kas dk fo'ys"k.k
lekos'kh f'k{kk O;oLFkk }kjk d{kk ik¡p osQ fof'k"V
vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ fu"ifÙk Lrj ij izHkko
dks ns[kus osQ fy, cPpksa osQ iwo&Z ijh{k.k ,oa
Ik'p&ijh{k.k }kjk muosQ 'kSf{kd fu"ifÙk Lrj dh
tk¡p dh xbZA d{kk ik¡p osQ fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ d{kk pkj dh okf"kZd ijh{kk osQ
vadksa dks d{kk ik¡p osQ iwo&Z ijh{k.k osQ :i esa
Lohdkj fd;k x;kA Ik'p&ijh{k.k osQ :i esa
fof'k"V vko';drk okys d{kk ik¡p osQ cPpksa dh
okf"kZd ijh{kk esa bu cPpksa osQ ”kfj, gkfly fd,
x;s vadksa dks Ik'p&ijh{k.k osQ vadksa dh 'kDy
esa Lohdkj fd;k x;kA
lekos'kh f'k{kk O;oLFkk dk d{kk ik¡p osQ
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ muosQ 'kSf{kd
fu"ifÙk Lrj ij izHkko dks tkuus osQ fy, bu
Chap-2.indd 18
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ vizSy 2014
cPpksa }kjk iwoZ&ijh{k.k vkSj Ik'p&ijh{k.k izkIr
fu"ifÙk izkIrkadksa osQ eè;eku] ekud fopyu
vkSj fiQj ^Vh* VSLV dh x.kuk dh xbZA
izeq[k fu"d"kZ
1- n`f"V ckf/r] Jo.k ckf/r] ekufld :i ls
fof{kIr] 'kkjhfjd fodykax] vf/xe fof{kIr
Jsf.k;ksa osQ varxZr fof'k"V vko';drk okys
cPpksa dh jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr ftys osQ
izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa dh lekos'khs d{kkvksa esa
ukekadu dh nj ?kVh gSA
2- jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr esa lesfdr f'k{kk osQ
varxZr fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa esa
izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa }kjk forfjr midj.kksa
esa ls ,d ;k nks midj.kksa dks NksM+dj
ckdh midj.kksa dh fLFkfr larks"ktud ugha
gSA blesa igys osQ o"kks± dh rqyuk esa
fxjkoV vkbZ gSA
3- jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr ftys osQ izkFkfed
fo|ky;ksa esa lesfdr f'k{kk osQ varxZr
f'k{kk izkIr djus okys fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ fy, fu;qDr fo'ks"k lalk/u
f'k{kdksa dh la[;k cgqr de ikbZ xbZ gSA
4- izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa }kjk fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa dh igpku osQ fy, lapkfyr
esfMdy vlslesaV oSaQi dh la[;k
larks"ktud gSA
5- lesfdr d{kkvksa osQ varxZr vè;;u
djus okys izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa osQ fof'k"V
vko';drk okys cPpksa dh LowQyksa esa
vkus&tkus dh lqfo/k osQ fy, i;kZIr ek=kk
esa jSEi dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
19
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mRrj izns'k osQ jkeiqj---
6- jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr nksuksa ftyksa osQ fo'ks"k
lalk/u f'k{kd ;g ekurs gSa fd lekos'kh
f'k{kk] fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ
fy, vR;ar ykHkdkjh gSA budh vfHko`fÙk
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ izfr /ukRed ikbZ xbZA
7- lekos'kh okrkoj.k dk jkeiqj ,oa ihyhHkhr
ftys osQ d{kk ik¡p osQ fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ fu"ifÙk Lrj ij /ukRed
izHkko iM+k gSA blls ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd
lekos'kh f'k{kk] fof'k"V vko';drk okys
cPpksa dh 'kSf{kd ”k:jrksa dks iwjk djus esa
l{ke gSA
fu"d"kZ
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dh 'kSf{kd
”k:jrksa vkSj leL;kvksa dks ysdj cgqr ls
'kks/&dk;Z gq, gSa vkSj buosQ fu"d"kZ ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd bu cPpksa dh ”k:jrsa lkekU;
cPpksa ls vyx gksrh gaS vkSj ftudh iwfrZ u gksus
osQ dkj.k og d{kk esa nwljs lkekU; cPpksa ls
fiNM+rs tkrs gSaA fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa
osQ 'kSf{kd fu"ifÙk osQ Lrj ij muosQ ekrk&firk
vkSj muosQ f'k{kdksa dk cgqr vf/d izHkko
iM+rk gSA izLrqr vè;;u dh iz—fr o.kZukRed
vkSj rqyukRed nksuksa gh rjg dh Fkh] D;ksafd
izLrqr vè;;u esa ,d vksj rks blesa fof'k"V
vko';drk okys izkFkfed Lrj osQ cPpksa
dk mudh lesfdr d{kkvksa esa lekos'ku dk
vè;;u fd;k x;kA ogha nwljh vksj d{kk osQ
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ 'kSf{kd Lrj
ij lekos'ku osQ izHkko dks tkuus ,oa le>us
osQ fy, muosQ fu"ifÙk izkIrkadksa dh iwoZ&ijh{k.k
Chap-2.indd 19
,oa i'p&ijh{k.k (Post-Test) osQ
vk/kj ij rqyuk dh xbZA ;g ,d cgqr gh
etcwr rF; gS fd Hkkjr esa vHkh Hkh f'k{kdksa
vkSj ekrk&firk dks ^lekos'kh f'k{kk* osQ ckjs esa
Li"V tkudkjh ugha gSA os lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ
Li"V izR;; ls vufHkKrk j[krs gSaA
izLrqr vè;;u osQ fu"d"kksaZ ls ;g Li"V gksrk
gS fd izkFkfed fo|ky;ksa esa fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa dh igpku cgqr ”k:jh gSA bu cPpksa
dh igpku osQ ckn budks ,d ,slk lekos'kh
okrkoj.k iznku fd;k tkuk pkfg,] ftlls fd
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPps] lkekU; cPpksa
osQ lkFk feydj viuh izfrHkk dk izn'kZu dj
losQa vkSj vius O;fDrRo dk lok±xh.k fodkl
dj ldasA
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dh vxj
muosQ ekrk&firk o f'k{kdksa vkSj d{kk osQ
lkfFk;ksa }kjk iquyZf{kr fd;k tk, vkSj mudh
enn dh tk, rks fuf'pr rkSj ij mudks ykHk
feysxkA fo'ks"k d{kkvksa ;k fo'ks"k O;oLFkk
dh rqyuk esa fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa
osQ fy, lekos'kh O;oLFkk ykHkdkjh gksrh gS]
D;ksafd lekos'kh O;oLFkk esa fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPps vius vkidks vyx&Fkyx eglwl
ugha djrs gSaA lHkh lekU; cPps mUgsa lh[kus
osQ fy, vfHkizsfjr djrs gSa vkSj os muls LoLFk
'kSf{kd eqdkcyk djrs gSaA fof'k"V fo|ky;ksa esa
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPps vius vkidks
'kSf{kd rkSj ij de”kksj eglwl djrs gSa vkSj
os buI+kQhfj;ksfjVh dkWEysDl dk f'kdkj gks
tkrs gSa] ftldh otg ls mudh 'kSf{kd izxfr
dk Lrj de jgrk gSA lekos'kh f'k{kk dk
(Pre-Test)
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
20
pqukSrhiw.kZ vkSj lg;ksxkRed 'kSf{kd okrkoj.k
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa esa Lo;a ij
fo'okl dh Hkkouk dks tkx`r djrk gSA
vySDtsaMj o vU; (2011) osQ erkuqlkj
f'k{kd] lekos'kh f'k{kk dks ykxw djus esa
egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk djrs gSaA ifjorZu osQ
fy, lHkh vè;kidksa dh fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ izfr /ukRed vfHko`fÙk ,d vge
Hkwfedk vnk dj ldrh gSA orZeku vè;;u esa
;g ns[kus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k fd fo'ks"k
lalk/u f'k{kd] lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ izfr oSQlh
vfHko`fÙk j[krs gSa vkSj blesa mudh D;k Hkwfedk
gS\ vè;;u osQ fu"d"kks± esa ;g ik;k x;k fd
vf/dka'k fo'ks"k lalk/u f'k{kd dh lekos'kh
f'k{kk osQ izfr vfHko`fÙk /ukRed Fkh] ijarq oqQN
f'k{kdkas dh vfHko`fÙk ½.kkRed Hkh FkhA
'kSf{kd fufgrkFkZ
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dks] 'kSf{kd
lkexzh dks lh[kus vkSj le>us esa dfBukbZ
gksrh gSA ftruh tYnh ekrk&firk vkSj f'k{kd
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dks fpfg~ur
dj ysaxs] mruh tYnh gh bl fLFkfr ls tqM+s
?kVdksa dh igpku dh tk ldrh gSA fof'k"V
vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ fy, mipkjkRed
lkexzh cgqr ykHknk;d fl¼ gks ldrh gSA
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa osQ fy, mu
f'k{k.k&fof/;ksa] izfof/;ksa vkSj f'k{k.k&lkexzh
dh [kkst dh tkuh pkfg, tks lekos'kh f'k{kk
O;oLFkk esa lHkh cPpksa osQ fy, mi;ksxh fl¼
gks losQA
Chap-2.indd 20
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ vizSy 2014
bu cPpksa dh ;g fo'ks"krk gksrh gS fd mudk
vkRe lEeku de gksrk gS] ftldh otg ls
muosQ O;fDrxr fodkl osQ ekxZ esa ck/k mRiUu
gks tkrh gSA ,sls cPps ;g fo'okl djus yxrs gSa
fd mudh lIk+ Qyrk vkSj vlIk+ Qyrk muosQ oaQVªky
s
ls ckgj gS] ftldh otg ls os vius mís';ksa dks
izkIr djus gsrq dfBu ifjJe dk lgkjk ugha ysrs
gSAa nwljs 'kCnksa es]a os dfBu ifjJe djuk NksM+
nsrs gaAS vr% fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa ls
lacfa /r lHkh yksxks]a tSlµ
s ekrk&firk] f'k{kd]
d{kk osQ lkfFk;ksa osQ fy, ;g ”k:jh gS fd os
,dtqV gksdj budh 'kSf{kd lIk+ Qyrk osQ fy,
iz;kl djsAa d{kk esa f'k{kd osQ le{k ;g ,d
cgqr cM+h pqukSrh gS fd og tYnh ls tYnh
fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa dh igpku djs]a
ftlls fd le;kuqlkj mudk funku vkSj mipkj
fd;k tk losQA
vkerkSj ij ?kjksa esa ekrk&firk vkSj
fo|ky;ksa esa f'k{kd cPpksa dh i<[email protected][kus
vkSj orZuh dh =kqfV;ksa dks u”kj vank”k dj
nsrs gSaA os ;g le>rs vkSj ekurs gSa fd tc
cPpk cM+k gks tk,xk rc ;s leL;k,¡ Lor% gh
lekIr gks tk,¡xh] ysfdu bldk mYVk gksrk gSA
vr% bl ckr dh l[r ”k:jr gS fd tYnh
ls tYnh ,sls cPpksa dh igpku dh tk, vkSj
budk mipkj fd;k tk,A bl dk;Z osQ fy,
izkpk;ks±] f'k{kdksa] ekrk&firk] LowQy osQ lkfFk;ksa
vkSj nwljs lkekftd laxBuksa dks vkxs vkuk
gksxkA f'k{kdksa dks lekos'kh d{kk&d{k esa ,ssls
cPpksa dks vfHkizsfjr djuk pkfg, vkSj muij
viuk fo'ks"k O;fDrxr è;ku nsuk pkfg,A
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
21
loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ varxZr mRrj izns'k osQ jkeiqj---
vkt fo'ks"[email protected]/u f'k{kdksa osQ le{k ;g
,d cgqr cM+h pqukSrh gS fd os O;fDrxr fHkUurk
okys vf/xedrkZvksa osQ fy, vè;kidksa dks
oSQls rS;kj djsaA vkt bl ckr dh l[r ”k:jr
gS fd f'k{k.k&izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa esa fof'k"V
vko';drk okys cPpksa dh vko';drkvksa
vkSj fo'ks"krkvksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, mfpr
I+ksQj&cny fd;k tk,A
orZeku vè;;u osQ fu"d"kks± ls ;g ckr fl¼
gksrh gS fd lekos'kh f'k{kk ls fof'k"V vko';drk
okys cPpksa osQ 'kSf{kd fu"ifÙk Lrj esa lq/kj gqvk
gSA vr% f'k{kdksa dk ;g mÙkjnkf;Ro curk gS fd
os fof'k"V vko';drk okys cPpksa ij lkekU;
cPpksa dh rjg gh è;ku nsa vkSj mUgsa lHkh lqfo/k;sa
iznku djsa ftlls fd muosQ O;fDrRo dk lok±xh.k
fodkl vkReh;rk ls laHko gks losQA
lanHkZ
vjksM+k] vkj- 2011- , LVMh vkWI+kQ n bI+kSQDV vkWI+kQ lSYI+kQ ,LVhe] ,MfIVo fcgsfo;j ,aM baVjilZuy fjys'kuf'ki
vkWu vphoesaV vkWI+kQ fpYMªu fon~ Lis'ky uhM~l bu bUDywflo ,aM Lis'ky LowQyl] ih,p-Mh- (,tqosQ'ku)]
,e-ts-ih- #gsy[kaM ;wfuoflZVh] cjsyhvySD”ksaMj] ,V- vkWy- 2011- ^^jsX;wyj Ikzkbejh LowQy VhplZ ,VhV~;wM VwoM~Zl bUDywflo ,tqosQ'ku**] baVjus'kuy
tuZy vkWI+kQ bUDywflo ,tqosQ'ku] 15(3),e,pvkjMh] xoues±V vkWI+kQ bafM;k- 2013- ,suqvy fjiksVZ 2012&13] fMikVZesaV vkWI+kQ izkbejh ,aM lsosQaMjh
,tqosQ'ku] u;h fnYyh[kku] ts- 2012- , LVMh vkWI+kQ n ,sVhV~;wM~l vkWI+kQ VhplZ ,aM isjsaV~l VwoM~Zl bUDywflo ,tqosQ'ku ,aM n
biSQDV vkWI+kQ bUDyw”ku vkWu ,phoesaV vkWI+kQ fpYMªu fon~ Lis'ky uhM~l] ih,p-Mh- (,tqosQ'ku)] ,e-tsih- #gsy[kaM ;wfuoflZVh] cjsyhnhif'k[kk] ,l- 2010- pSysaftl bu bUDywflo ,tqosQ'ku ,aM lfoZl izksfo”kUlµikWfylh”k ,aM IkzSfDVfl”k bu
bafM;u dkWUVSDLV- us'kuy ;wfuoflZVh vkWI+kQ ,tqosQ'kuy Iykfuax ,aM ,MfefuLVªs'ku] u;h fnYyhuk;d] ts-lh- 2008- ^^,sVhV~;wM vkWI+kQ isjsaV~l ,aM VhplZ VwoM~Zl bUDywflo ,tqosQ'ku**] ,tqVªSDl- 7(6)] 18&20-
Chap-2.indd 21
10-04-2015 PM 04:41:31
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl·
Hkkjrh··
fiNys n'kdksa ls ^lekos'kh f'k{kk dh vksj* fo'oO;kih vkanksyu] lHkh cPpksa dks leku
'kSf{kd volj miyCèk djkus osQ mís'; ls py jgk gS] rkfd lHkh cPps 'kSf{kd]
lkekftd] laosxkRed vkSj 'kkjhfjd {kerkvksa osQ mPpre Lrj rd igq¡p losaQA gkyk¡fd]
buesa ls cgqr&ls cPPks fHkUu dkj.kksa tSls fd vfèkxe v{kerk vkSj O;ogkfjd leL;kvksa
bR;kfn osQ dkj.k viuh {kerk ls de Lrj rd gh igq¡p ikrs gSaA cgqr ls ns'kksa us vius
dkuwuksa esa vuqowQyu fd;k gS] rkfd fHkUu vko';drk okys O;fDr;ksa osQ fy, f'k{kk dks
”;knk lekos'kh cuk;k tk losQ] ysfdu O;ogkfjd vH;kl, uhfr;ksa dh rqyuk esa dkI+kQh
fiNM+s gq, gSaA Nk=kksa dh vko';drkvksa vkSj miyCèkrk Lrjksa dh fofoèkrkvksa dh ns[[email protected]
iwfrZ esa f'k{kdksa dks dfBukbZ vk jgh gSA vfèkxe vojksèk vuqHko djus okys cPpksa osQ lcls
cM+s lewg esa vDlj ^vn`'; v{kerk* gksrh gSA muesa ^igpkuh u xbZ* vfèkxe v{kerk
gks ldrh gS vFkok vDlj O;ogkfjd pqukSrh mifLFkr gksrh gS vFkok è;ku osaQfnzr djus
esa eqf'dy gks ldrh gSA mudh miyfCèk ;k rks vDlj vYi gksrh gS ;k fiQj og 'kSf{kd
O;oLFkk ls gh ckgj pys tkrs gSaA blosQ vfrfjDr f'k{kdksa esa bu cPpksa osQ vuq:i mfpr
O;ogkj ,oa vH;kl nsus osQ dkS'ky vkSj izf'k{k.k dk vDlj vHkko gksrk gS] blosQ
iQyLo:i] cgqr&ls ,sls cPps ftuesa vfèkxe v{kerk,¡ vFkok pqukSrhiw.kZ O;ogkj gksrk gS]
os d{kk&d{k O;ogkjksa ls vf/dk¡'kr% ykHkkfUor ugha gks ikrs gSaA
fofoèkrk ,d ,slh fo'ks"krk gS ^tks lHkh cPpksa
vkSj ;qokvksa esa leku :i ls gksrh gS* izR;sd
O;fDr esa vkarfjd vkSj O;fDr;ksa osQ vkilh
rqyukRed :i] nksuksa gh rjg lsA
fofoèkrk esa ,d 'kfDr gS D;ksafd fofoèkrk
dh voèkkj.kk esa Loho`Qfr vkSj vknj nksuksa gh
lfEefyr gSAa ;kfu fd izR;sd O;fDr vrqyuh; gS
vkSj O;fDr;ksa esa fHkUurk,¡ gksrh gSAa blfy, ;g mu
lHkh dh f”kEesnkjh gks tkrh gS tks i<+k jgs gSa vkSj
tks f'k{kdksa dks mudh f'k{k.k {kerk esa lgk;rk
djrs gS]a fd og fo'okl j[ksa fd lHkh lh[k ldrs
gSa vkSj lHkh dks lh[kus dk vfèkdkj gSA
· izLrqr ys[k
‘Professional Development For Inclusive Education’
Vol.IV, No. 4, Nov. 2013- January, 2014) dk vuqokn gSA
uked ys[k
(Published in Navtika,
·· vuqoknd ,oa vflLVsaV izksI+ksQlj] MhbZth,l,u] ,ulhbZvkjVh] u;h fnYyh
Chap-3.indd 22
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:03
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
fofoèkrk dks Lohdkjuk
lekos'kh f'k{kk fofoèkrk dh iwfrZ esa enn
djrh gSA ;g osQoy v{kerk okys cPpksa vkSj
;qokvksa vFkok fo'ks"k fo|ky;ksa dk fodYi
[kkstus rd gh lhfer ugha gSA Hkk"kk;h vkSj
{ks=kh; vYila[;d leqnk;ksa] xjhch vFkok nqxZe
xk¡oksa esa jgus okys cPps fo|ky; dh i<+kbZ
dks csgn dfBu ikrs gSaA bu cPpksa dks 'kk;n
ikB~;p;kZ v#fpiw.kZ vkSj f'k{kd fu#Rlkfgr
djus okys yxrs gkasxs] vFkok fo|ky;h laLo`Qfr
ijxzgh vFkok vuqns'ku dh Hkk"kk igq¡p ls
ckgj vFkok cgqr ls vojksèk eglwl gksrs gksaxsA
lekos'kh iz.kkyh bu vojksèkksa dks le>us vkSj
,sls fo|ky; fodflr djus dh dksf'k'k gS]
tks bu vfèkxe vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus
easa l{ke gksA
lekos'kh f'k{kk] fo'ks"k f'k{kk dks lqèkkjus
osQ ckjs esa ugha gS] vkSj u gh lekos'kh fo|ky;
og fo|ky; ek=k gS tks v{kerk okys oqQN
cPPkksa dks f'kf{kr djrk gSA lekos'kh f'k{kk rks
lHkh rjg osQ vfèkxe vojksèkksa dks de djus
vkSj lkekU; 'kkykvksa dk ,slk fodkl pkgrh gS
ftlesa lHkh cPpksa dh vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ
gks losQA
lkeatL;rk dh vko';drk vkSj fofoèkrk
dks Lohdkj djus dh le> tks varjkZ"Vªh; O;ogkj
vkSj ml jk"Vªh; eq[; fcanq ij vkèkkfjr gS] ftl
ij gky gh osQ f'k{kk osQ vfèkdkj dkuwu&2009
esa ”kksj fn;k x;k gS] mls lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ
izksRlkgu esa yxs leLr dk;kZfèkdkfj;ksa osQ lkFk
lk>k djus dh ”k:jr gSA
Chap-3.indd 23
23
f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj dkuwu&2009] ftls 1
vizSy 2010 ls ykxw fd;k x;k] osQ vuqlkj
v{kerk okys cPps os cPps gSa tks v{kerk
okys cPpksa vkSj O;fDr;ksa osQ nks eq[; dkuwuksa
osQ varxZr vkrs gSa] ;s dkuwu gSa&v{kerk okys
O;fDr;ksa osQ fy, leku volj] vfèkdkj dh
lqj{kk vkSj laiw.kZ Hkkxhnkjh dkuwu&1995 vkSj
cgq v{kerkvksa] ekufld eanrk] lsjsczsy ikylh
vkSj Lokèkhurk okys O;fDr;ksa dh HkykbZ osQ fy,
jk"Vªh; VªLV dkuwu&1999
bu nksuksa gh dkuwuksa esa vHkh lqèkkj gks
jgk gS vkSj blfy, vHkh buesa vU; rjg dh
v{kerkvksa osQ lekos'ku dk volj gSA ;g
okdbZ ,d vxzxkeh dne gSA
gekjs lekt esa gekjh fo|ky;h O;oLFkk
og osaQnzh; LFkku gS] tgk¡ lHkh i`"BHkwfe;ksa
ls vkus okys O;fDr lkFk jguk lh[krs gSaA
lekos'ku] O;ogkfjd] 'kkjhfjd vFkok
vfèkxe nks"k okys mu oqQN cPpksa osQ ckjs
esa ugha gS ftUgsa eq[;èkkjk fo|ky;ksa esa j[kk
tk jgk gSA ;g ,sls lekt fuekZ.k osQ ckjs
esa gS* tgk¡ lHkh yksx viuk vuqie LFkku
ik losaQ vkSj lHkh dks ykHk igq¡pkus gsrq
,d lkFk dke dj losaQA ;fn ;g dke
fo|ky; esa 'kq: ugha gks ldrk rks lekt
osQ :i esa ge D;k mEehn dj ldrs gSaA
pqukSrh fHkUUkrkvksa dks gVkus esa ugha gS cfYd
fHkUurkvksa dks ;Fkkor~ j[kdj] muosQ lkFk
,d gks tkus esa gSA
& johanzukFk VSxksj
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
24
v{kerk okys cPpksa osQ vykHkkfUor lewgksa
okyh Js.kh esa] Li"V lekos'ku ls dkuwuh rkSj
ij f'k{kk osQ vfèkdkj dkuwu dh lHkh èkkjk,¡]
fo'ks"kdj xSj&HksnHkko okyh l'kDr èkkjk]
v{kerkvksa okys cPpksa ij Hkh ykxw gksaxhA vc
;s cPps 25 izfr'kr dh ml Js.kh esa vk
tk,¡xs] ftUgsa futh fo|ky;ksa dks nkf[kyk nsuk
gh gksxkA blosQ vfrfjDr v{kerk okys ckydksa
osQ ikydksa dks vc 'kkyk izcaèk lehfr;ksa esa
'kkfey djuk gh gksxkA mEehn gS fd bl Lokxr
;ksX; dne dk fo|ky; fodkl ;kstuk ij
ldkjkRed izHkko iM+sxkA
bu cnykoksa ls ^lHkh osQ fy, f'k{kk* dh
izfrc¼rk dks 'kfDr feysxhA lgh Hkkouk ls
ykxw fd;s tkus ij ;g eq[; èkkjk fo|ky;
O;oLFkk esa v{kerk okys cPpksa dh f'k{kk esa
egRoiw.kZ ykHk ns ldrs gSaA
fiNys iz;ksxksa ls vkxs c<+uk
vU; ns'kksa dh gh rjg] ,sfrgkfld :i ls Hkkjr
esa Hkh fo'ks"k f'k{kk vkSj ,dho`Qr f'k{kk osQ fy,
dne mBk;s x;s] tks fd lekos'kh O;ogkjksa dh
vksj c<+rs orZeku eq[; fcanq (focus) ls igys
dh ckr gSA Hkwrdky dk fo'ys"k.k b'kkjk djrk gS
fd fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa dh Hkwfedk] fo|kyk;ksa eas
v{kerk okys f'k{kkfFkZ;[email protected]èkxedrkZvksa dks
Lohdkjs tkus vkSj muosQ lkeatL; osQ lekukarj
gh jgh gSA 'kq#vkr esa cgqr&ls fo'ks"k f'k{kk
f'k{kdksa dks lkekU; fo|ky;ksa dk Hkkx ugha
ekuk tkrk FkkA muosQ cPpksa dh gh rjg mUgsa Hkh
lkekU; f'k{kk ls vyx j[kk tkrk FkkA vyxko
osQ vkèkkj Fksµos dgk¡ i<+krs gSa (vDlj fo'ks"k
Chap-3.indd 24
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
fo|ky;ksa vFkok fo|ky; osQ vanj fo'ks"k {ks=k)]
os D;k i<+krs gSa (vyx vkSj fHkUu ikB~;p;kZ)
vkSj og oSQls i<+krs gSa (,slh fo'ks"k rduhdksa
vkSj O;ogkjksa }kjk ftudk iz;ksx lkekU; f'k{kk
f'k{kd ugha djrs gSa)A lkekU; vkSj fo'ks"k f'k{kk
f'k{kdksa osQ eè; Hkh mruh gh xgjh lhek js[kk,¡
f[kaph Fkha ftruh fd lkekU; vkSj fo'ks"k f'k{kk
okys ckydksa osQ chp FkhaA cgqr ls lkekU; f'k{kk
f'k{kd] iz'kkld vkSj cPpksa osQ vfHkHkkod
larq"V Fks fd oqQN pqus gq, f'k{kd v{kerk okys
cPpksa dh ^lsok* djus osQ fy, rS;kj gSa vkSj
dj ldrs gSaA gkyk¡fd] vyxko osQ ckotwn Hkh
fo'ks"k f'k{kk us lkekU; f'k{kk dks cgqr oqQN
fl[kk;k gSA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] bldk eq[; fcanq
gS Nk=kksa dh vko';drkuqlkj f'k{k.k dks <kyuk
,oa mlesa ifjorZu] funkukRed vkdyu dk
mi;ksx] vius cPpksa osQ vfèkxe esa vfHkHkkodksa
dh Hkkxhnkjh vkSj ,slk gh cgqr oqQN tks f'k{kk
osQ fy, csgn mi;ksxh gSA ewy :i ls fo'ks"k
f'k{kk esa fodflr cgqr&lh fofèk;ksa dks ysdj
mudk vuqowQyu mu cgqla[; Nk=kksa dks ykHk
igq¡pkus gsrq fd;k x;k gS tks fo'ks"k f'k{kk dk;Z
{ks=k esa ugha vkrsA lekos'kh f'k{kk dh vksj
vxzlj orZeku igy dh vko';drk gS] Li"V
:i ls ifjHkkf"kr fl¼karksa ij vkèkkfjr xfr'khy
O;oLFkk dh izfozQ;kA izpfyr eqgkojksa esa Hkh
tsaMj Hksn gSaA
• ^vkSjrksa osQ lkFk iq#"k dHkh fodkl ugha
dj ldrs* (r”kkfdLrku] jf'k;k)_
• ^yM+dk lksuk gS] yM+dh lwr gS* (dacksfM;k)_
• ^vkSjrksa osQ cky yacs vkSj fnekx NksVk gksrk
gS* (eaxksfy;k)_
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
25
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
• ^gkFkh osQ vxzikn vkneh gSa tcfd i`"Bikn
vkSjrs gSaA* (FkkbZySaM)
• ^[kkus osQ le; fiz; ifrnso dks isV Hkjus
rd [kkus nks] iRuh dks ckn esa [kkus osQ
fy, bar”kkj djuk vko';d gS (ykvksl)_
• ^,d csVk cPps gSa] nks csfV;k¡ oqQN Hkh
ugha* (fo;ruke)_
• ^,d csVh dks ikyuk vkSj mldh ns[kHkky
djuk oSlk gh gS tSlk fdlh vkSj osQ cxhps
dh ns[kHkky djuk* (usiky)_
• ^Tkc ,d yM+dh iSnk gksrh gS rks èkjrh ,d
Ik+ Qq V floqQM+ tkrh gSA tc yM+dk iSnk gksrk
gS rks mldk Lokxr djus osQ fy, èkjrh
,d Ik+ Qq V Åij mBrh gS* (usiky)A
f'k{kdksa dk O;olkf;d fodkl
cnyko dh lai.w kZ O;oLFkk dk ,d vfHkUu vax gS
O;olkf;d fodkl] D;ksfa d lkekU; fo|ky;
f'k{kdksa vkSj iz'kkldksa nksuksa gh osQ lkeus u;h
eq[; pqukSfr;k¡ gSa fd og o`gn~ fofoèkrkvksa vkSj
fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa dks tokc nsa tks vius dk;Z
ifjos'k vkSj mlosQ osQa nz fcanq dks cgqr cM+s rjhosQ
ls cnyrk gqvk eglwl dj jgs gSAa
,d 'kksèk osQ vuqlkj lkekU; fo|ky;h
f'k{kdksa us dHkh Hkh fo'ks"k f'k{kk esa dksbZ
izf'k{k.k ugha ik;k gS vkSj u gh mudk v{kerk
okys cPpksa dks i<+kus dk gh dksbZ vuqHko gh gSA
'kksèk n'kkZrs gSa fd f'k{kdksa esa dkS'kyksa dk vHkko
lekos'kh f'k{kk ifj;kstuk osQ lI+kQy fØ;kUo;u
esa ckèkk igq¡pkrk gS (LØxzl ekLVªksfi;jh 1996]
Lo:i 2001A cgqr ls ys[kdksa us bafxr fd;k gS
fd fo|ky;h O;oLFkk,¡ fo'ks"k :i ls cnyko
Chap-3.indd 25
dk izfrjksèk djrh gSa_ u;s fopkjksa dks 'kq: djuk
vkSj muosQ fozQ;kUo;u dk izfrjksèk gksrk gS] ;fn
muosQ ikl ,sls f'k{kd gSa] ftuosQ ikl visf{kr
cnyko osQ fozQ;kUo;u osQ fy, mfpr Kku vkSj
dkS'ky ugha gSA
if'peh ns'kksa osQ vuqHko n'kkZrs gSa fd
'kSf{kd lqèkkjksa dk fozQ;kUo;u vklku ugha
jgk gSA fHkUu Jsf.k;ksa dh ”k:jrsa uhps nh xbZ gSaµ
Ekq[; vojksèk ;g gS fd fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa
dk izf'k{k.k eq[;èkkjk f'k{kdksa osQ izf'k{k.k
ls vyx rjg ls vk;ksftr fd;k tkrk
gSA blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i fo'ks"k vko';drk
f'k{kkµf'k{kd vkSj f'k{kdksa osQ izf'k{kd
Lo;a dks nks fHkUu O;oLFkkvksa esa dk;Zjr ikrs
gSa] vkSj blfy, viuh fo'ks"krk lk>k djus
esa dfBukbZ eglwl djrs gSaA
'kkssèk us bafxr fd;k gS fd y?kq&dkyhu
lsok izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQe osQ ctk,] f'k{kdksa dks
mu lsokdkyhu dk;ZozQeksa ls ykHk igq¡prk gS tks
O;oLFkk;h deZpkfj;ksa osQ fodkl dh nh?kZdkyhu
ifj;kstuk dk fgLlk gksrs gSaA
f'k{kdµf'k{kk
lsokdkyhu f'k{kdµf'k{kk
vkSipkfjd f'k{kk O;oLFkk] fo'ks"k f'k{kk rFkk
,dho`Qr f'k{kk osQ lkFk&lkFk lekos'kh f'k{kk
(IE) O;ogkjksa dks lek;ksftr djrh gSA lekos'kh
f'k{kk dks ckfèkr djus okys dkS'ky vojksèk gSaµ
• lekos'kh f'k{kk dh voèkkj.kk dks iwjh rjg
u le> ikukA
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
26
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
• f'k{kk'kkL=kh; Kku vkSj dkS'kyksa osQ fodkl
dh vko';drkA
• izf'k{k.k osQ fujarj voljksa }kjk vfHko`fÙk
vkSj ewY;ksa dk fodklA
• iqufoZpkj vkSj cgl osQ vkSj voljksa dks
'kkfey u djukA
vko';drk gS fd eq[; fopkj fcanq gksaµ
• vfHkO;fDRk esa cnyko vkSj O;ogkj fuek.kZ
osQ fy, f'k{kdksa osQ orZeku dkS'kyksa vkSj
dk;Z fLFkfr;ksa dks LohdkjukA
• lekos'kh d{kk d{kksa dh O;ogkfjdrkvksa
vkSj okLrfodrkvksa dk è;kuA
• fofoèkrk }kjk mBk;s x;s f'k{kk'kk=kh; eqísA
• f'k{kdksa esa ^^vosQysiu dh ckèkk** dks nwj
djus esa ennA
• fo|ky;&vkèkkfjr nyksa dh LFkkiuk vkSj
f'k{kd lk>snkjh ij ”kksjA
• lkekftd&lkaLo`Qfrd jhfr;ksa vkSj èkkj.kkvksa
osQ izfr laosnu'khyrk
• lekos'kh f'k{kd vFkok lekos'kh fo|ky;
cukus osQ fy, dksbZ uqL[kk (recipe)
miyCèk ugha gSA
• lHkh izdkj osQ os O;ogkj tks varr% ^^vPNs
f'k{k.k** O;ogkj gSa] os lekos'kh f'k{kk dh
vksj ys tkrs gSaA
lsokiwoZ f'k{kd f'k{kk
fo"k;oLrq vkSj fofèk&
• fof'k"V Kku nsus osQ fy, vko';d fo"k;
oLrq dk i;kZIr u gksukA
ozQ- laf'k{kdksa osQ fy,
1- lkekU; f'k{kk f'k{kd
2-
34-
5-
Chap-3.indd 26
vko';drk,¡
lekos'kh iz.kkfy;ksa esa izf'k{k.k rkfd orZeku f'k{kk osQ vyxkooknh
:i dks izfrLFkkfir fd;k tk losQA
fo'ks"k f'k{kd
• lykg&e'kojs osQ dkS'kyksa osQ u;s nk;js dh ”k:jr_ eq[;èkkjk
ikB~;p;kZ dk laizs"k.k (transaction)] d{kk d{k lekos'kh
O;ogkjksa dk izksRlkgu bR;kfnA
• fo|ky; osQ ckgj fo'ks"kKksa vkSj vfHkHkkodksa osQ lkFk dke
djukA
f'k{kd izf'k{kd
lekos'kh O;ogkjksa osQ ckjs esa le> vkSj vfèkd KkuktZuA
Ikz'kkld
• f'k{k.k vfèkxe dh u;h i¼fr;ksa osQ iz;ksx esa f'k{kdksa
dh lgk;rk vkSj izksRlkgu djukA
• vU; f'k{kkfonksa dks 'kkfey djukA
lgk;d O;olk;drkZvksa
• ,d nwljs dh Hkwfedk vkSj dkS'kyksa dh le> osQ fy,
(lkekftd dk;ZdrkZvksa]
la;qDr izf'k{k.kA
LokLF; dk;ZdrkZvksa]
• lekos'kh f'k{kk (IE) osQ izfr mfpr vfHk#fp fuekZ.kA
euksoSKkfudksa] mipkjdrkZvksa • lkekU; fo|ky;ksa esa lekos'kh okrkoj.k esa fodflr gks
(Therapist) bR;kfn
jgs cPpksa osQ egÙo dks le>ukA
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
27
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
• izf'k{k.k dk lacaèk fo|ky;@vfèkxe osaQnz
osQ fodkl ls gksuk pkfg,As
• fofoèkrkvksa dh O;ogkfjd mi;ksfxrk vkSj
d{kk d{kksa dh okLrfodrkvksa ij iwjk è;ku
(fl¼karksa dks O;ogkj ls tksM+uk)A
• Nk=k f'k{kdksa dks vuqHkoh f'k{kdksa osQ lkFk
dke djus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr djukA
• Nk=k f'k{kdksa dks iqufoZpkj (reflection)
osQ volj nsukA
• f'k{k.k izf'k{k.k laLFkkuksa esa vuqHkoh fo|ky;
f'k{kdksa dks lfEefyr djukA
• lajpukRed ckèkkvksa ij iqunZ`f"VA
• gkf'k;s ij [kM+s lewgksa ls Nk=kµf'k{kdksa dks
mfpr fn'kk dh vksj izksRlkfgr djukA
EkSa bl Mjk nsus okys fu"d"kZ ij igq¡ph gw¡
fd d{kk d{k dk fu.kkZ;d rÙo eSa gw¡A ;g
esjh gh O;fDrxr iz.kkyh gS tks okrkoj.k
fuekZ.k djrh gSA ;g esjk gh nSfud eu
gS tks ekSle cukrk gSA ,d f'k{kd osQ
ukrs] esjs ikl cPPks osQ thou dks [kq'[email protected]
vkuaniw.kZ vFkok nq%[kn cuk nsus dh vlhe
'kfDr gSA eSa vR;kpkj dk vkS”kkj vFkok
izsj.kk dk lzksr gks ldrh g¡wA eSa viekfur
dj ldrh gw¡ vFkok lEekfur] eSa ?kko
ns ldrh gw¡ vFkok Bhd dj ldrh gw¡A
lHkh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa] ;g esjk gh izfr;qÙkj
gksrk gS tks fuèkkZfjr djrk gS fd fdlh
ladViw.kZ fLFkfr dks c<+k;k vFkok ?kVk;k
tk, vkSj ,d cPps dk ekuohdj.k vFkok
vekuohdj.k fd;k tk,A
µ(vKkr f'k{kd)
Chap-3.indd 27
Ikzf'k{k.k izcaèk
f'k{kdksa osQ orZeku dkS'ky Lrjksa vkSj lekos'kh
f'k{kk dk;ZozQe osQ izHkkoh] fozQ;kUo;u osQ fy,
visf{kr dkS'kyksa osQ chp osQ vHkko dks izf'k{k.k
}kjk de djuk furkar vko';d gSA fu;[email protected]
lkekU; fo|ky; f'k{kd tks igys ls gh dk;Z
ny dk fgLlk gS] mls O;olkf;d fodkl
osQ i;kZIr volj fn, tkus pkfg,A Hkkjr esa
f'k{kdksa dh la[;k vfèkd gksus vkSj vkfFkZd
lkèkuksa dh lhfer miyfCèk osQ dkj.k izLrkfor
gS fd bu f'k{kdksa osQ fy, izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa
dks izf'k{kd izf'k{k.k izfr:i (train the
trainer model) osQ }kjk vk;ksftr fd;k
tk,A igys Lrj ij] izR;sd fo|ky; ls ,d
f'k{kd dks izf'kf{kr fd;k tk,A ftlosQ ckn
;g f'k{kd vius fo|ky; osQ ckdh lHkh
f'k{kdksa osQ izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQe vk;ksftr [email protected]
djsxhA gkyk¡fd bl izfreku dk lI+kQyrkiwoZd
mi;ksx Hkkjr&vkLVªsfy;k izf'k{k.k vkSj {kerk
fuekZ.k dk;ZozQe esa fd;k x;k gS] fiQj Hkh oqQN
fo'ks"kK (foMsy 2005) lkoèkku djrs gSa fd
bl izfreku dk ifj.kke 'kk;n fujarj ,d lk
u gksA foMsy (2005) roZQ nsrs gSa fd d{kk
d{k esa visf{kr de vFkok ”;knk 'kSf{kd
cnyko osQ fozQ;kUo;u osQ fy, ;g vko';d
gS fd 'kSf{kd cnyko vk;kstd (fu;kstd)
;g lqfuf'pr djsa fd ftruk laHko gks mruk
lg;ksx f'k{kdksa dks iwjh rjg ls vius rRdkfyd
,oa foLr`r dk;Zdkjh okrkoj.k ls feysA ;gh
dkj.k gS fd vk;kstdksa dks fo|ky;&vkèkkfjr
,sls f'k{kd f'k{kk vkSj O;olkf;d fodkl
dks izksRlkfgr dk;ZozQeksa dh LFkkiuk ij vo';
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
28
è;ku nsuk pkfg, ftlosQ }kjk f'k{kdksa dks
dk;ZLFky ij gh LFkkuh; lanHkZ esa izf'kf{kr
fd;k tk losQ] rkfd muesa yacs le; rd dh
xq.koÙkk esa lqèkkj dh {kerk vk losQA Hkkjr osQ
uhfr&fuekZrkvksa osQ fy, ;g ,d fodYi gks
ldrk gS] fo'ks"k :i ls v{kerk okys O;fDr;ksa
osQ] dkuwu osQ la'kksfèkr izk:i dh èkkjk 23 L
(2) osQ lanHkZ esa] ftldk lacaèk f'k{kdksa dh
;ksX;rkvksa ls gS] ftlosQ izkoèkku gSa fd leLr
f'k{kdksa dks] v{kerk okys ckydksa dks lekos'kh
d{kkµd{k esa i<+kus dk izf'k{k.k fn;k tkuk
pkfg,A blls iwjs Hkkjr esa lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ
fy, f'k{kdksa dh ;ksX;rk esa vR;fèkd LFkk;h
:i ls lqèkkj laHko gks losQxkA
;g ;kn j[kuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd lHkh cPps
i<+ ldrs gSa (;fn vfèkxe dks i<+us&fy[kus
vkSj xf.kr ls O;kid :i esa le>k tk,)
vkSj ;g Hkh fd lHkh cPpksa dk lekos'kh
vkSj cky fe=k ifjos'k esa lqj{kk] ns[kHkky
vkSj f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj gSA
Cknyko osQ ,d ek=k lkèku osQ :i esa
gesa y?kq izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa ij cgqr ”;knk
fuHkZj ugha jguk pkfg,A laiw.kZ O;oLFkk fofèk
(Whole System Approach) dks viuk;k
tkuk pkfg, vkSj izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa dh ;kstuk
fujarj pyus okys o`gn dk;ZozQe osQ] Hkkx osQ
:i esa cukbZ tkuh pkfg, vkSj muesa ifjfLFkfr
osQ vuqlkj cnyko dh xqatkb'k gksuh pkfg,A
okLrfod O;ogkj ,oa vH;kl osQ volj iSnk
Chap-3.indd 28
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
fd, tkus pkfg,] vkSj izf'k{k.k osQ nkSjku bUgsa
okLrfod ifjfLFkfr esa iz;ksx dj vuqHko lk>k
djuk pkfg,A UNESCO osQ izHkkoh izf'k{k.k
lkexzh esa 'kkfey gSa&
• Teacher Education Resource
Pack: Special needs in the
Classroom.
• Embracing diversity: The toolkit
for creating inclusive learning
friendly environments.
• Toolkit for promoting gender
equality in education.
• Open file on inclusive education:
Support material for managers
and administrators.
• Changing teaching practices:
Closing curriculum differentiation
to respond to students diversity.
• EENET
(Enabling
Education Network), Global
(www.eenet.org.uk),
EENET
Asia(www.idp_europe.org/eenet,[email protected]
eenet.org.uk) and other regional
networks.
lekos'ku dks le>uk
ppkZ vkSj iqufoZpkj osQ voljksa osQ lkFk&lkFk]
lekos'ku ^dc*] ^D;ksa* vkSj ^oSQls* dh O;kid
le> dk fodkl csgn egRoiw.kZ gS vkSj bls
O;olkf;d fodkl dh lHkh igydnfe;ksa esa
”kksj 'kksj ls 'kkfey fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
v{kerk okys f'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ ijs tkdj ns[k
ikuk vkSj mldk egÙo le>us dh vko';drk
gS D;ksafd vfèkdkjksa osQ fozQ;kUo;u dks dHkh
Hkh osQoy fdlh ,d lewg osQ cPpksa rd
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
29
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
lhfer ugha fd;k tk ldrkA blosQ vfrfjDr]
mfpr lanHkZ laxr ;kstuk cukus osQ fy, izpfyr
ikSjkf.kd èkkj.kkvksa (Myths) dks lacksfèkr djuk
o 'kkyk ls oafpr vFkok 'kkyk NksM+ pqosQ cPpksa
dks djhc ls ns[kuk vkSj buosQ ckg~;hdj.k osQ
lkekftd] vkfFkZd] Hkk"kk;h vFkok fdlh vU;
vkèkkj osQ fo'ys"k.k dh vko';drk gSA lHkh
izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa esa Kku vkSj dkS'kyksa osQ
vykok lkekftd cnyko dh izfozQ;k dks Hkh
'kkfey fd;k tkuk pkfg, vkSj blosQ lkFk gh
,sls volj miyCèk djkus pkfg, fd lekos'[email protected]
ckg~;hdj.k osQ ckjs esa Lo ewY;ksa vkSj fo'[email protected]
èkkj.kkvksa dks djhc ls ns[kk vkSj mu ij fopkj
fd;k tk losQ tSls fd&
• f'k{kk&lHkh dk f'k{kk ij vfèkdkj gSA
• vfèkxe&lHkh cPps i<+ ldrs gSaA
• vfèkxe esa lgk;rk&lHkh dks vius vfèkxe
esa lgk;rk dh vko';drk gSA
• fHkUurk @ fofoèkrk ^fofoèkrk* dk eku
igpkuus dh vko';drk gSA
• cPps osQ vfèkxe dks c<+kok nsus dh
f”kEesnkjh& fo|ky;] f'k{kd] ifjokj vkSj
lekt lHkh dh izkFkfed f”kEesnkjh gSA
• f'k{kd&lHkh f'k{kdksa dks fujarj izsj.kkiw.kZ
lgk;rk dh ”k:jr gSA
lekos'ku dh lI+kQyrk osQ fy, vko';d gS
fd lHkh f'k{kkfonksa dks fn;k tk,&izf'k{k.k]
lg&f'k{kdksa osQ lkFk ;kstuk cukus dk le;
vkSj cPPkksa dh vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ
gsrqµi;kZIr lalkèkuA
Chap-3.indd 29
fo'ks"kKrk fodkl
gkyk¡fd 'kksèk us n'kkZ;k gS fd lekos'kh i¼fr;ksa
ls lHkh cPpksa dks I+kQk;nk gksrk gS ysfdu f'k{kd
vHkh Hkh bl fof'k"V i¼fr ls i<+kus esa LosPNk
ls igy djus esa fgpfdpkrs gSaA lekos'ku dh
lI+kQyrk osQ fy, egRoiw.kZ gS fd lHkh izf'k{kdksa
dks izf'k{k.k] lg&f'k{kdksa osQ lkFk ;kstuk cukus
dk le; vkSj cPpksa dh vko';drk iwfrZ gsrq
i;kZIr lalkèku fn, tk,¡A lekos'ku rHkh lI+kQy
gks ldrk gS tc f'k{kd iwjh rjg ls rS;kj gksaA
fo'ks"kKrk&fodkl osQ fy, cgqr ls fcanqvksa dk
è;ku j[kus dh vko';drk gSA ;s gSa&
• f'k{kd f'k{kk dh ,slh nh?kZdkfyd
lajpukvksa dh LFkkiuk dh vko';drk gS
tks lekos'kh rjhosQ ls dke djus esa l{ke
f'k{kdksa dks yxkrkj rS;kj dj losaQA
• izeq[k ckèkk ;g gS fd fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa
dk izf'k{k.k eq[;èkkjk f'k{kdksa osQ
izf'k{k.k ls vyx rjg ls fd;k tkrk gSA
blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i fo'ks"k vko';drk
f'k{kk&f'k{kd vkSj vè;kid&izf'k{kd
[kqn dks nks vyx O;oLFkkvksa esa dke
djus okyksa osQ :i esa ns[krs gSa] vkSj
blfy, mUgsa viuh fo'ks"kKrk lk>k djus
esa dfBukbZ gksrh gSA mUgsa ,slk yxus yxrk
gS fd dfBukbZ okys ckydksa dks fo'ks"k
vko';drk f'k{kk O;oLFkk esa Hkst nsuk gh
loksZÙke fodYi gSA bl ifjfLFkfr ls mcjus
osQ fy,] O;oLFkk esa cgqLrjh; izf'k{k.k
O;oLFkk dh ”k:jr gSA
• lHkh f'k{kdksa esa d{kk d{k osQ lekos'kh
vf/xeµO;ogkjksa dh le> gksuk
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
30
vko';d gS] bldk O;olkf;d fodkl
nksuksa gh rjhdksa ls ;kfu 'kq#vkrh lsokiwoZ
izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQe vkSj lsokdkyhu lrr~
izf'k{k.k izfozQ;k osQ }kjk gksuk pkfg,A bldk
fufgrkFkZ gS fd lHkh lsokiwoZ f'k{kdksa dks
lekos'kh izz.kkfy;ksa dh oqQN le> gksuh
pkfg,A blosQ }kjk ppkZ gksuh pkfg, fd
fofoèkrk dks eq[;èkkjk f'k{kk dk;ZozQeksa esas
fof'k"V Kku osQ ^iSosQt* (tSls fd Jo.k
fodkj] 'kkjhfjd v{kerk osQ izdkj] vFkok
cgqHkk"kk;h vkSj cgqlkaLo`Qfrd f'k{k.k) dks
tksM+ nsuk ek=k dkiQh ugha gksxkA blosQ
ctk, lsokiwoZ f'k{kdksa dks 'kq: ls gh ;g
lkspus dk ekSdk nsuk gksxk fd lkèkkj.k
d{kk&d{k esa f'k{k.k vkSj vfèkxe osQ fy,
Nk=kksa dh fofoèkrk osQ D;k fufgrkFkZ gaSA
• izf'k{k.k iznku djus osQ rjhdksa esa Hkh
cnyko dh ”k:jr gksxh rkfd izf'k{k.k
Li"V :i ls d{kk&d{k dh okLrfodrkvksa
ij osaQfnzr gks losQA
• gkf'k;s ij fLFkr leqnk;ksa] vYila[;d
lkaLo`Qfrd lewgksa] vkfFkZd :i ls
vykHkkafor lewgksa vkSj v{kerk okys
O;fDr;ksa dks f'k{k.k O;olk; esa vkus
osQ fy, izksRlkfgr fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
;s misf{kr oxZ osQ f'k{kdksa osQ fy, vkn'kZ
f'k{kd (role model) dh Hkwfedk fuHkk
ldrs gSa] vkSj vius futh vkSj lkekftd
Kku ls f'k{kk O;oLFkk dks le`¼ dj
ldrs gSaA
• cgqr ls f'k{kdksa] vkn'kZ :i esa gj fo|ky;
ls ,d f'k{kd dks] Nk=kksa dks eglwl gksus
Chap-3.indd 30
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
okyh lkekU; dfBukb;ksa vkSj v{kerkvksa
dks le>us osQ fy, oqQN gn rd fo'ks"kKrk
fodflr djuh gksxhA vko';drk gS fd
bu f'k{kdksa dks izf'kf{kr fd;k tk, ftlls
fd os u osQoy vius O;ogkjksa esa lqèkkj
dj ik;sa cfYd vius lewgdfeZ;ksa osQ fy,
ijke'kZnkrk vkSj lykgdkj dh Hkwfedk Hkh
vnk dj losaQA
• oqQN f'k{kdksa dks mPp Js.kh dh fo'ks"kKrk
fodflr djuh gksxhA bu f'k{kdksa dks igys
lkekU; eq[;èkkjk f'k{kd osQ rkSj ij vuqHko
vkSj dkS'ky fodflr djuk gksxk vkSj mlosQ
ckn fof'k"V fo'ks"kKrkA mUgsa ftu pqukSfr;ksa
dk lkeuk djuk gksxk mudh fofoèkrk dks
ns[krs gq, ;g csgn egRoiw.kZ gSA budh
fo'ks"kKrk dks lhfer :i lss ifjHkkf"kr
ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg, vkSj bldk fodkl
izf'k{k.k osQ 'kq:vkrh pj.k esa O;kid
fo'ks"kKrk osQ vkèkkj ij gksuk pkfg,A pw¡fd
bu f'k{kkfonksa dks lkekU; fo|ky;ksa esa ;k
rks Lo;a dke djuk gksxk] ;k fiQj muosQ
lkfUuè; esa dk;Z djuk gksxk] vr% ;g
egRoiw.kZ gS fd og eq[;èkkjk f'k{kdksa osQ
lkFk lk>snkjh esa dke djus osQ fy, vius
dkS'kyksa dks osQoy fodflr gh u djsa
cfYd viuh fo'ks"kKrk dks vfèkdkfèkd
yksxksa rd miyCèk Hkh djk;saA bUgsa ;g
Hkh tkuus dh vko';drk gS fd vU;
fo'ks"kKksa] vfHkHkkodksa vkSj fo|ky; osQ
ckgj dh laLFkkvksa osQ lkFk oSQls dke djsaA
bUgsa vfèkxe ckèkkvksa dh foLr`r Jsf.k;ksa
osQ ckjs esa oqQN tkudkjh gksus osQ lkFk]
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
ijke'kZ dkS'ky] iz'kklu ,oa izcaèk dkS'ky
esa ikjaxr gksuk Hkh vko';d gSA
,dhdj.k rc gS tc cPpk fo|ky; ls
feyrk gSµlekos'ku ogk¡ gS tgk¡ fo|ky;
cPPks ls feyrk gSA
izf'k{k.k igy
lsokiwoZ f'k{kd f'k{kk
oqQN izklafxd iz'uµ
• f'k{kdksa esa Nk=k fofoèkrk osQ izfr ldkjkRed
vfHko`fÙk fodkl esa] oSQls enn dh tk
ldrh gS\
• Nk=k f'k{kdksa esa lekos'kh O;ogkjksa osQ
fodkl dks izksRlkfgr djus osQ fy,
dkSu&ls rjhosQ iz;ksx esa ykus pkfg,\
• blosQ fodkl esa fo|ky; vH;klksa
(Practices)
osQ dkSu&ls izdkj
izHkko'kkyh :i ls lgk;d gksaxs\
• f'k{kdµf'k{kk osQ lanHkksZa esa lekos'ku osQ
fl¼karksa dks oSQls lekfgr fd;k tk;s\
• f'k{kd&izf'k{kdksa vkSj Nk=k f'k{kdksa dks
muosQ Lo&fodkl osQ fy, lekos'kh
ifjfLFkfr esa f'k{kdksa osQ lkFk lhèks dke
djus osQ dkSu ls volj iznku fd;s tk;sa\
lsok dkyhu f'k{kd f'k{kk
oqQN izklafxd iz'u&
• lsok dkyhu f'k{kd f'k{kk dk dkSu&lk
:i lekos'kh O;ogkjksa osQ fodkl dh vksj
ys tkrk gS\
• bu O;ogkjksa osQ fozQ;kUo;u esa f'k{kdksa dh
enn osQ ckjs esa ge D;k tkurs gSa\
Chap-3.indd 31
31
• fo|ky;ksa esa vfèkdkfèkd lk>snkjh dks oSQls
izksRlkfgr fd;k tk ldrk gS\
• lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ iks"k.k esa fo|ky;h
usrkvksa dh oSQls enn dh tk ldrh gS\
• fdl izdkj osQ fo|ky;h ra=kksa dh LFkkiuk
djuh gksxh\
f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj dkuwu dh lI+kQyrk osQ
fy, [kaM Lrjh; lalkèku O;fDr;ksa] lewg Lrjh;
lalkèku O;fDr;ksa vkSj f'k{kdksa dk izf'k{k.k
vge gSA lkekU; lekos'kh fo|ky;ksa esa lHkh
cPpksa osQ vfèkxe dks izksRlkfgr djus osQ fy,]
uhps lq>k;s izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa dh ;kstuk cukbZ
tk ldrh gS vkSj izf'k{k.k lkexzh esa O;kid
cnyko fd;s tkus pkfg,µ
• cM+h la[;k esa fo|ky; ls ckgj jgus okys
cPps] ftuesa v{kerk okys cPps Hkh 'kkfey
gSa] dh 'kSf{kd ,oa vU; vko';drkvksa
osQ vkdyu vkSj tYn igpku osQ fy,
”k:jh gS fd losZ{k.k djus okyksa] f'k{kdksa
vkSj vU; lacafèkr ljdkjh deZpkfj;ksa dk
izf'k{k.k vk;ksftr fd;k tk,A
• f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;e mu lHkh
cPpksa dks lkekU; fo|ky;ksa esa izkjafHkd
f'k{kk izkIr djus dk vfèkdkj nsrk gS]
tks bl vfèkfu;e esa of.kZr ekud vkSj
fu;eksa dh iwfrZ djrs gSaA bl vfèkfu;e osQ
varxZr izkjafHkd f'k{kk rd igq¡pus esa l{ke
gksus osQ fy, fu'kDrrk okys cPpksa esa oqQN
fof'k"V dkS'kyksa osQ fodkl dks c<+kok nsus
dh vko';drk gSA fu'kDrrk okys ckydksa
dks fo|ky; dh rS;kjh djus osQ fy,
f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;e osQ [kaM 4 osQ
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
32
varxZr fo'ks"k izf'k{k.k lqfuf'pr fd;k
x;k gSA ;g izf'k{k.k blh mís'; ls fu;qDr
fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa vFkok lkekU; f'k{kdksa osQ
}kjk vkoklh;] xSj vkoklh; vFkok cPPkksa
osQ ?kj ij gh fn;k tk ldrk gSA bu
izf'k{kdksa dks Hkh viuh Hkwfedk osQ fuokZgu
osQ fy, izf'k{k.k nsus dh vko';drk gSA
• iz'kkldksa osQ fy, Hkh izf'k{k.k dh
vko';drk gS rkfd os fo|ky; esa
lekos'kh vH;klksa dks ykxw dj losaQ vkSj
f'k{kdksa dks f'k{k.k&vfèkxe osQ u;s rjhdksa
dks viukus vkSj vU; f'k{kkfonksa osQ lkFk
dk;Z djus osQ fy, izksRlkfgr dj losaQ
vkSj mudh enn dj losaQA
• lgk;d O;olkf;;ksa tSls fd lkekftd
dk;ZdrkZvksa]
LokLF;
deZpkfj;ksa
euksfpfdRldksa bR;kfn osQ lkFk la;qDr
izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa dk vk;kstu fd;k tk,
rkfd os ,d nwljs dh Hkwfedkvksa vkSj
{kerkvksa dks le> losaQ vkSj muesa mfpr
vfHko`fÙk dk fuekZ.k gks losQ rFkk muesa
lekos'kh d{kkd{k osQ 'kSf{kd xq.kksa dh
le> dk fodkl gks losQA
• jktdh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku ,oa izf'k{k.k
ifj"kn~ (SCERT) f”kyk f'k{kk ,oa
izf'k{k.k laLFkku (DIET) lewg vkSj [kaM
lalkèku osQnzksa osQ fy, ”k:jh gS fd os
lekos'kh 'kS{kf.kd O;ogkjksa osQ izksRlkgu
osQ fy, LFkkuh; eqíksa dks lacksfèkr djrs
gq, vius [kqn dh vFkok mfpr cnyko
dh izf'k{k.k lkexzh ij vkèkkfjr izf'k{k.k
dk;ZozQeksa dh ;kstuk cuk,¡A
Chap-3.indd 32
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
• loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ izf'k{k.k ekWM~;wYl
ij iqufoZpkj djus dh vko';drk gS]
fo'ks"kdj f'k{kdksa osQ fy, chl fnolh;
lsokdkyhu izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQe esa mfpr
fo"k;oLrq vkSj f'k{k.k'kkL=kh; O;ogkjksa osQ
lekos'ku osQ fy,A
• lekos'kh fLFkfr esa Nk=kksa dh enn oSQls
djsa vkSj bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa lHkh cPpksa osQ
vfèkxe vkSj fodkl osQ egÙo dks le>us
osQ fy, 'kkyk izcaèku lfefr;ksa (SMC)]
vfHkHkkodksa vkSj leqnk; osQ vU; lnL;ksa
dks laosnu'khy cukus dh ”k:jr gSA
• foosaQnzho`Qr lalkèku lgk;rk iznku djus osQ
fy,] lewg Lrj ij lekos'kh f'k{kk lalkèku
f'k{kdksa osQ :i esa dk;Zjr] izf'kf{kr fo'ks"k
f'k{kdksa dks lrr~ izf'k{k.k osQ ekè;e ls
lewg osQ vU; lnL;ksa dks izf'kf{kr djuk
pkfg, vkSj tkx:drk iSQykus osQ fy,
lkeqnkf;d Lo;alsodksa dks Hkh xfr'khy
cukuk pkfg,A ;s Lo;a lsod cnyko osQ
LFkkuh; izfrfufèk osQ :i esa dke dj
ldrs gSaA
f'k{kk dk vfèkdkj vfèkfu;e (RTE
ACT) osQ varxZr lksph xbZ jk"Vªh; lykgdkj
ifj"kn~ vkSj jktdh; lykgdkj ifj"kn~ esa Hkh
ekxZn'kZu] rduhdh vkSj 'kS{kf.kd lgk;rk
nsus osQ fy, fu'kDrrk okys O;olkf;;ksa dks
'kkfey djuk vfr vko';d gSA blh rjg ls
jk"Vªh; cky vfèkdkj lqj{kk vk;ksx (NCPCR)
osQ lkFk&lkFk flfDde cky&vfèkdkj lqj{kk
vk;ksx (SCPCR) esa Hkh v{kerk okys
O;olkf;;ksa dks 'kkfey djuk pkfg, rkfd
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
lekos'kh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa igpkus x, Nk=kksa osQ
eqíksa dh ns[kHkky dh tk losQA bu O;olkf;;ksa
dh dk;Z lanfHkZr ”k:jrksa dks izf'k{k.k igyksa osQ
}kjk lsokdky esa gh le>dj lacksfèkr fd;k
tkuk vko';d gSA
vU; laLFkkvksa dh Hkwfedk
Hkkjrh; iquokZl ifj"kn~ (Rehabilitation
Council of India) fo'ks"k dk;ZozQe pykrh
gS tks fof'k"V v{kerkvksa ij osaQfnzr gS] ysfdu
;g fo'ks"k f'k{kd dks lkekU; 'kSf{kd ikB~;p;kZ
vkSj f'k{kk'kkL=k esa l{ke ugha cukrhA lekos'kh
f'k{kk dks izksRlkfgr djus osQ fy,] vko';d
dk;Z ny dks lekos'kh O;ogkjksa osQ fy, rS;kj
djus dh ;kstuk cukus dh T+k:jr gSA
jk"Vªh; vè;kid f'k{kk ifj"kn~ (NCTE) }kjk
izLrkfor vè;kid f'k{kk dh :ijs[kk osQ vkèkkj
ij lsokiwoZ izf'k{k.k] lekos'kh n`f"Vdks.k dks
fozQ;kfUor fd;k tkuk pkfg,A NCTE }kjk
cuk;s x;s dk;Zdkjh lewgksa esa Hkh lekos'kh f'k{kk
osQ fozQ;kUo;u dk vuqHko j[kus okys lnL;ksa
dks 'kkfey djuk pkfg,A blosQ vfrfjDr ;g
lq>ko Hkh gS fd NCTE fozQ;kUo;u :ijs[kk
dks lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ n`f"Vdks.k ls iqu% ns[kk
tk;s vkSj dk;Zdkjh lewgksa dks LukRkdksÙkj Lrj
ij lekos'kh dk;ZozQe fodflr djus osQ fy,
izksRlkfgr fd;k tk;sA
'kS{kf.kd dk;ZozQeksa esa vkewy cnyko
ns'k osQ lHkh lkekU; f'k{kk dk;ZozQeksa ftlesa
B.Ed Hkh 'kkfey gS] dk iqu% fuekZ.k djuk
Chap-3.indd 33
33
tc lekos'kh f'k{kk dks iwjh rjg ls viuk
fy;k tkrk gS rc ge bl fopkj dks NksM+
nsrs gSa fd lalkj esa ;ksxnku nsus osQ fy,
cPpksa dks ^lkekU;* cuuk gksxkA ge leqnk;
dk ekuuh; lnL; cuus osQ ikjaifjd rjhdksa
ls ijs ns[kuk 'kq: dj nsrs gSa vkSj ,slk
djrs gq, lHkh cPpksa dks [email protected]+ko dh
okLrfod Hkkouk iznku djus osQ ,sls mís';
dks igpkuuk 'kq: dj nsrs gSa ftls iwjk
djuk laHko gSA
µ(ukWjeu oqQu)
”k:jh gS rkfd lHkh f'k{kd d{kkµd{k esa
fofoèkrkvksa dks lacksfèkr dj ik;saA lsokdkyhu
lkekU; f'k{kdksa osQ fy, fu'kDrrk okys cPpksa
osQ lkFk dke djus dk izf'k{k.k nsus osQ fy,
NCTE dks fof'k"V ozsQfM;j vkèkkfjr izf'k{k.k
dk;ZozQe cukuk pkfg, rkfd le; osQ lkFk
lkekU; f'k{kd Hkh fo'ks"kKrk izkIr n{k f'k{kd
cu losaQA blosQ lkFk] fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa dks Hkh
fHkUu ekè;eksa ftlesa nwjLFk f'k{kk 'kkfey gS]
ls lkekU; f'k{kk izf'k{k.k (B.Ed) izkIr dj
ysuh pkfg, rkfd og Hkh eq[;èkkjk ls tqM+s
fo|ky;ksa esa dke djus esa l{ke gks losaQA
jk"Vªh; vè;kid f'k{kk ifj"kn~ (NCTE)]
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqlaèkku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~
(NCERT) vkSj bafnjk xkaèkh jk"Vªh; eqDr
fo'ofo|ky; lekos'kh f'k{kk ij lkekU;
fo|ky; f'k{kdksa osQ fy, vkSj fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa
osQ fy, lkekU; f'k{kk osQ vkilh esytksy ls
fd, tkus okys ekWM~;wy cuk ldrs gSaA
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
34
vè;kid&izf'k{kdksa dh cnyrh Hkwfedk
vè;kid&f'k{kdksa esa lekos'kh O;ogkjksa dh le>
vkSj eq[;èkkjk f'k{kk osQ o`gn~ Kku] fo'ks"kdj
lekos'kh d{kk d{k osQ fy, mfpr izdkj osQ
O;ogkjksa osQ fodkl esa ennxkj voljksa dh
;kstuk cukus dh ”k:jr gSA mUgsa lekos'kh d{kk
d{k dh okLrfodrkvksa vkSj O;ogkfjdrkvksa
ij osaQfnzr gksus dh ”k:jr gS] ctk, blosQ fd
f'k{kdksa (nksuksa gh lsokdkyhu vkSj lsok iwoZ)
ls vis{kk dh tk, fd og lS¼kafrd Kku dks
O;ogkfjd cuk;asA
[kkl lewg osQ Nk=kksa dh euksoSKkfud vFkok
fpfdRldh; fo'ks"krkvksa ij ppkZ djus osQ ctk,
Nk=k fofoèkrk ls mBh f'k{k.k'kkL=kh; dfBukb;ksa
ij iqufoZpkj vkSj okn&fookn osQ voljksa dks
[kkstus vkSj ppkZ osQ fy, f'k{kd&izf'k{kdksa esa
oqQ'kyrk fodflr dh tkuh pkfg,A
fo'ks"k f'k{kk f'k{kdksa dh cnyrh Hkwfedk
lekos'kh O;ogkjksa dks izksRlkfgr djus dh vksj
c<+rs orZeku ifjn`'; esa fo'ks"k f'k{kdksa ls
mEehn gS fd og ”;knk le; lkekU; fo|ky;ksa
esa dke djrs gq, fcrk;ssaxs vkSj bu fo|ky;ksa esa
f'k{kdksa dh lgk;rk djsaxsA bldk fufgrkFkZ gS
fd mUgsa lekos'kh d{kkµd{k O;ogkjksa] eq[;èkkjk
ikB~;p;kZ] ijke'kZ bR;kfn esa uohu dkS'kyksa dk
fodkl djuk gksxkA
bUgha eqíksa osQ vkl&ikl izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa
dh lajpuk djuh gksxh rkfd fo'ks"k f'k{kk
fo'ks"kK vkSj lkekU; f'k{kd ,d lkFk viuh
cnyrh Hkwfedk ij fopkj dj losaQA ;fn f'k{kdksa
dks lekos'kh iz.kkfy;ksa esa izf'kf{kr djuk gS rks
Chap-3.indd 34
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
muosQ izf'k{k.k dk;ZozQeksa dks Hkh mlh izdkj ls
vk;ksftr djuk gksxkA fo'ks"k f'k{kk vkSj fo'ks"k
vko';drk f'k{kk dk;ZozQeksa osQ chp dh nqxZe
nwjh dks ,dho`Qr dk;ZozQeksa vFkok dk;ZozQeksa osQ
chp vfèkd yphys ekè;eksa osQ }kjk cnyus dh
”k:jr gSA
?kj esa fo|ky;
ljdkj osQ izeq[k dk;ZozQe ^loZ f'k{kk vfHk;ku*
dh ckydksa dh 'kwU; vLoho`Qfr uhfr osQ
fozQ;kUo;u osQ fy, cgqfodYi iz.kkyh dks
viukrs gq, ?kj esa fo|ky; dh 'kq:vkr dh xbZA
blh ij vkèkkfjr ,d lqèkkj] vHkh f'k{kk dk
vfèkdkj vfèkfu;e 2009 esa fd;k x;k gS]
ftlesa cgq vkSj vfr v{kerk okys ckydksa dks
lkekU; O;oLFkk osQ fy, rS;kj djus osQ fodYi
osQ :i esa ?kj vkèkkfjr f'k{kk ij fopkj fd;k
x;k gSA
bl lqèkkj dh ek¡x gS fd f'k{kd vkSj vU;
lHkh lacafèkr O;fDr;ksa dks lHkh Nk=kksa] ftlesa
?kj esa fo|ky; dk fodYi pquus okys Hkh
'kkfey gaS] dks xq.kkRed f'k{kk iznku djus osQ
fy, izf'k{k.k nsuk pkfg,A blls lacafèkr oqQN
eqís ftu ij izklafxd ppkZ dh vko';drk gS&
• ?kj vkèkkfjr f'k{kk dk;ZozQe nsus osQ fy,
cPpksa dh igpku vkSj mUgsa vfr v{kerk
dk izek.ki=k dkSu nsxk\
• bu cPpksa osQ ?kj dkSu tk,xk vkSj bldh
vko`fÙk D;k gksxh\
• fdl izdkj dh ikB~;p;kZ viukbZ tk,xh
vkSj f'k{k.k&'kkL=kh; fl¼karksa dk ekud
D;k gksxk\
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
35
lekos'kh f'k{kk osQ fy, O;olkf;;ksa dk fodkl
• nks oDr dh ”k:jrksa dks iwjk djus esa tqVs
•
•
•
•
vfHkHkkodksa dks ?kjµvkèkkfjr fo|ky;
osQ Nk=kksa dh vfèkxe lgk;rk osQ fy,
vko';d izf'k{k.k dkSu nsxk\
gekjs ns'k osQ gj dksus esa ,dlkj :i
esa cPps dks futh lgk;rk] ifjokj dks
lkekftd lqj{kk] ?kj esa iquokZl lsok,¡
bR;kfn vko';d lgk;d lsok,¡ nsus dh
f”kEesnkjh fdldh gksxh\
?kj esa fo|ky; esa Nk=kksa osQ laHkkfor
'kkjhfjd naM vFkok nqO;Zogkj dk fujh{k.k
dkSu djsxk\
?kj esa] fo|ky; esa nkf[ky cPPkksa dks
orZeku lqfoèkk,¡ tSls fd nksigj dk [kkuk]
eqÝ+r onhZ] ikB~;iqLrosaQ bR;kfn oSQls izkIr
gksaxh\
?kj esa fo|ky; dk;ZozQe osQ xyr iz;ksx
dh fuxjkuh oSQls gksxh\
• cPpksa dks lkekU; fo|ky; esa okfil ykus
dh f”kEesnkjh fdldh gksxh\
fu"d"kZ
;g loZekU; er gS fd f'k{kd f'k{kk dh laiw.kZ
izfØ;k esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA i;kZIr
la[;k eas Hkyh Hkk¡fr izf'kf{kr f'k{kd lHkh osQ
fy, vPNh xq.koÙkk okyh f'k{kk dh pkch gSaA
f'k{kdksa vkSj f'k{kkfonksa osQ O;olkf;d fodkl
esa n`f"Vdks.k cnyko vkSj vU; vko';d
dkS'kyksa dks lekfgr fd;k tkuk pkfg, rkfd
,d lekos'kh lekt dk usr`Ro gks losQA
f'k{k.k 'kksèk us n'kkZ;k gS fd vPNk f'k{k.k
O;fDrxr fHkUurkvksa dh ijokg fd;s cxSj lHkh
cPpksa osQ fy, izHkkoh gksrk gSA lHkh osQ fy,
f'k{kk dh xq.koÙkk esa lqèkkj ykus dk csgn
egRoiw.kZ rjhdk gS f'k{k.k&izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa
esa cnyko vkSj f'k{kdksa dh lrr~ O;olkf;d
lgk;rkA
lekos'kh f'k{kk gS ^^lalkj osQ lHkh cPpksa vkSj ;qqok yksxksa dk viuh oS;fDrd 'kfDr;ksa vkSj
de”kksfj;ksa osQ lkFk] viuh mEehnksa vkSj vk'kkvksa osQ lkFk] f'k{kk ij vfèkdkjA ;g og f'k{kk
O;oLFkk ugha gS ftl ij oqQN fo'ks"k izdkj osQ cPpksa dk vfèkdkj gksA blhfy,] ;g ns'k
dh ,d ,slh fo|ky;h O;oLFkk gS ftls lHkh cPpksa dh vko';drk osQ vuq:i lek;ksftr
fd;k tk losQA**
µch- yhUMfDoLV] ;w ,u jSijfV;j vkWu ;w ,u LVSUMMZ :Yl
Chap-3.indd 35
10-04-2015 PM 04:42:04
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
lwfI+kQ;k uk”kuhu·
f'k{kk tgk¡ lkekftd iqufuZekZ.k ,oa lkaLo`Qfrd fodkl ij cy nsrh gS] ogha lH;rk osQ
ekid ;a=k osQ :i esa Hkh dk;Z djrh gSA vU; /eks± osQ leku bLyke /eZ esa Hkh f'k{kk dks
egRoiw.kZ LFkku izkIr gSA oqQjku osQ vuqlkj rkyhe (f'k{kk) futkr (eqfDr) dk lk/u gSA
,d cPps dks fn, tkus okys lkjs migkjksa esa lcls mÙke migkj mls vPNh vkSj mnkj
f'k{kk nsuk gSA f'k{kk vkSj ewY; esa ?kfu"B laca/ gksrk gSA ewY; tgk¡ O;fDr dh ilan&ukilan]
vko';drk] bPNk] laLo`Qfr }kjk fu/kZfjr ekudksa ,oa lgh&xyr dh vo/kj.kk dks
n'kkZrs gSa] ogha f'k{kk bu ekudksa dh izkfIr vkSj muosQ Lrj rd igq¡pus esa ;ksxnku nsrh gSA
bLyke esa Hkh /eZ] ,drk] 'kfDr] lR;] U;k;] izse] lqanjrk vkfn ewY;ksa dks egRoiw.kZ LFkku
fn;k x;k gS vkSj bu ewY;ksa dh izkfIr gsrq f'k{kk ,oa f'k{kdksa dh Hkwfedk dks egRoiw.kZ
crk;k x;k gSA bl ys[k osQ ekè;e ls ewY; ,oa ewY; f'k{kk osQ egÙo dk Kku izkIr djus
osQ lkFk&lkFk ewY; fu/kZj.k esa enjlk ,oa muosQ f'k{kdksa dh Hkwfedk dks tkuus dk iz;kl
fd;k x;k gSA eqfLye leqnk; esa enjls vkt Hkh f'k{kk iznku djus okyh izeq[k vkSipkfjd
laLFkk,¡ gSa vkSj enjlk f'k{kd vius fopkjksa vkSj O;ogkjksa dks vkn'kZ :i esa izLrqr djosQ]
iSX+kacjksa ,oa mysekvksa osQ thou ifjp; ls voxr djokdj] fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa varfuZfgr xq.kksa
dks l`tukRed fn'kk iznku dj ,oa lgikB~;pkjh fØ;kvksa osQ ekè;e ls enjlk f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa
esa vko';d uSfrd ,oa jk"Vªh; ewY;ksa dk fodkl dj ldrs gSaA
izLrkouk
f'k{kk lH;rk osQ fodkl dk ,d l'kDr
ekè;e gSA ;g tgk¡ lkekftd iqufuZekZ.k ,oa
lkaLo`Qfrd fodkl ij cy nsrh gS] ogha lH;rk
osQ ekid ;a=k osQ :i esa Hkh dk;Z djrh gSA
;g osQoy lkekftd izxfr ij gh è;ku ugha
nsrh cfYd lektksRFkku gsrq uSfrd] jktuhfrd]
vkfFkZd fodkl vkfn ij Hkh cy nsrh gSA xka/h
th us lR; gh dgk gS] ^^f'k{kk laiw.kZ thou
dh rS;kjh] okrkoj.k osQ lkFk lek;kstu] pfj=k
fuekZ.k ,oa O;fDrRo dk lefUor fodkl gSA**
(HkkokuqoknµI+kSQly 2011] i`- 72) vFkkZr~
f'k{kk u osQoy rhu ^vkj* (jhfMax] jkbfVax]
vFkZeSfVd) dk izf'k{k.k iznku djrh gS] cfYd
· 'kks/ Nk=kk (ts-vkj-,I+kQ-)f'k{kk ladk;] dk'kh fganw fo'ofo|ky;] okjk.klh (m-iz-)&221005
Chap-4.indd 36
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
37
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
;g gLrdyk osQ Kku] pkfjf=kd ,oa uSfrd xq.kksa
osQ l`tu ,oa ekufld 'kfDr;ksa osQ fodkl osQ
ekè;e ls ckyd osQ gkFk] ân; ,oa efLr"d dk
xq.kkRed fodkl Hkh djrh gSA lkekU; 'kCnksa esa
;g ckyd dks vkè;kfRed] ckSf¼d ,oa HkkSfrd
lqfo/k,¡ iznku dj ckyd osQ varfuZfgr xq.kksa dks
mtkxj djrh gSA
f'k{kk ize[q k :i ls ckyd osQ 'kjhj] efLr"d
,oa vkRek osQ pgqe¡ [q kh fodkl dk ekè;e gSA ;g
tgk¡ ckyd osQ O;fDrRo esa fo|eku voxq.kksa dk
ekxk±rjhdj.k ,oa 'kks/u djrh gS] ogha uohu ,oa
mi;ksxh xq.kksa dk l`tu Hkh djrh gSA
f'k{kk dh egÙkk ij lHkh /eks± vkSj muosQ
n'kZuksa esa izdk'k Mkyk x;k gSA vU; /eks± osQ
leku bLyke /eZ esa Hkh f'k{kk dks egRoiw.kZ
LFkku izkIr gSA bLyke /eZ dk fodkl g”kjr
eksgEen (l-v-o-) dh f'k{kkvksa osQ iQyLo:i
NBh 'krkCnh bZloh esa vjc esa gqvkA dkykarj esa
;g /eZ laiw.kZ fo'o esa iSQy x;kA
bLyke esa f'k{kk dks egRoiw.kZ LFkku izkIr gSA
oqQjku 'kjhI+kQ esa rkyhe (f'k{kk) dks futkr
(eqfDr) dk lk/u crk;k x;k gS (jk; 2005]
i`- 214)A Kku ,oa f'k{kk nksuksa dks gh bLyke
/eZ esa egRoiw.kZ LFkku iznku fd;k x;k gSA nksuksa
gh bLyke /eZ osQ vfHkUu vax gSaA bLyke vius
vuq;kf;;ksa dks /kfeZd Kku osQ lkFk&lkFk Kku
dh vU; 'kk[kkvksa dks tkuus ,oa mUgsa lh[kus osQ
fy, izksRlkfgr djrk gSA okLro esa bLyke esa f'k{kk
dks ,d O;kid :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k x;k gSA
;g O;fDr dks ,d fof'k"V izdkj osQ vkpj.k
osQ vuq:i dk;Z djus dks rS;kj djrh gS]
Chap-4.indd 37
rkfd ân; leLr lkalkfjd egRokdka{kkvksa
ls ifj'kq¼ gksdj ckSf¼drk osQ ml Lrj dks
izkIr dj losQ ftlls ekuork dks lR; dh
lk{kkr~ vuqHkwfr gks losQA oqQjku osQ vuqlkj]
fnO; izdVhdj.k ,oa iSX+kacj dks Hkstus dk eq[;
mís'; ekuo ek=k esa Kku dk laizs"k.k djuk Fkk
(Hkkokuqoknµdkleh (laik-)] 2006] i`- 218A
iSX+kacj dks fnO; izdVhdj.k djkus dk eq[;
dkj.k] vius vuq;kf;;ksa esa Kku vkSj cqf¼ dk
lapkj djuk FkkA vYykg pkgrk gS fd mldk
izR;sd vuq;k;h /kfeZd Kku osQ lkFk&lkFk o`gn
ckSf¼d Kku izkIr dj iw.kZ f'kf{kr gks tk,A
bLyke esa Kku dh vo/kj.kk
(Concept of Knowledge in Islam)
bLyke esa Kku dks ^lR; dks tkuus dh voLFkk*
osQ :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA euq"; dks
tks Kku fn;k x;k gS og I+kQfj'rksa (bZ'knwrksa)
dks Hkh ugha izkIr gSA tc I+kQfj'rksa us g”kjr
vkne (vl-) dh mPprk ij iz'u mBk;k rks
muosQ Kku osQ dkj.k gh vYykg osQ vkns'k ij
I+kQfj'rs muosQ vkxs flj >qdkus dks rS;kj gks
x, (Hkkokuqokn] www.edublogspot.in)A
bLyke esa f'k{kk dh egÙkk dk lcls cM+k izek.k
oqQjku gS] ftldh lcls igyh vorfjr vk;r
Kku izkfIr dk lans'k nsrh gS&
^^,s uch] if<+,] vius jc osQ uke osQ lkFk
ftlus iSnk fd;k] balku dh jpuk dh] if<+,
vkidk jc cM+k mnkj gS ftlus dye osQ }kjk
Kku fl[kk;k] balku dks og Kku fn;k] ftls
og u tkurk FkkA** (djtkoh] 2000] i`- 18)
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
38
vYykg us gh balku dks cuk;k gS vkSj Kku
vftZr djus gsrq oqQN ;a=k tSls&lquus ,oa ns[kus
dh 'kfDr ,oa cqf¼ iznku dh gSA oqQjku osQ
vuqlkj& ^^vYykg us gh rqEgsa rqEgkjh ek¡ osQ xHkZ
ls ckgj fudkyk gS] tcfd rqe oqQN ugha tkurs
Fks vkSj mlus gh rqEgsa lquus] ns[kus ,oa ân; ls
eglwl djus dh 'kfDr iznku dh gS] ftlosQ
fy, rqEgsa mldk 'kqØxq”kkj gksuk pkfg,**
(Hkkokuq o knµ www.edu.blogspot.in )A
bLyke Kku dh [kkst gsrq vius vuq;kf;;ksa
dks izsfjr djrk gSA Kku gh gS ftlosQ dkj.k
vYykg vius izfrfuf/;ksa dk lEeku djrk gS]
og mUgsa fl[kkrk gS] rkfd os bls ekuo ek=k dks
fl[kk losaQA bLyke /eZ osQ vuq;kf;;ksa ij igyh
vkSj lcls egRoiw.kZ 'krZ Kku vftZr djuk gS
vkSj nwljh] bl Kku dk vH;kl ,oa izlkj djuk
gSA dksbZ Hkh O;fDr tUe ls ugha cfYd vius
Kku ls eqlyeku curk gSA vKkurk dh fLFkfr
esa jgrs gq, eqlyeku ugha cuk tk ldrkA ;fn
ge Kku osQ izdk'k dks Lo;a esa lekfgr dj ysa
rks ge thou osQ izR;sd in ij bLyke osQ crk,
ekxZ dks Li"V :i ls ns[k ik;saxs vkSj cqjkb;ksa
ls cp ik;saxsA Kku izkfIr }kjk gh vYykg osQ
fudV tk;k tk ldrk gSA
Kku izkfIr gsrq bLyke esa Kkusafnz;ksa] LokuqHko]
izR;{k.k vkfn osQ ekè;e ls lh[kus dh ckr
dh x;h gS u fd jVus vkSj va/kuqdj.k djus
dh izo`fÙk viukus lsA f'k{kk osQ ekè;e ls gh
efLr"d ,oa ekufld 'kfDr;ksa dks izf'kf{kr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA va/dkj ls izdk'k dh
vksj] uqdlku ls I+kQk;ns dh vksj ,oa xyr ls
lgh dh vksj c<+k tk ldrk gSA bLyke us
Chap-4.indd 38
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
Kku dks og izdk'k crk;k gS ftlls O;fDr
nhu (ijyksd) ,oa nqfu;k (yksd) nksuksa txr
esa ekxZn'kZu ikrk gS vkSj thou osQ ije mís';
dks lI+kQyrkiwoZd izkIr djrk gSA bl laca/ esa
vYykek ;qlqI+kQ djtkoh fy[krs gSa fd ^^bYe
(Kku) og tcjnLr oqQor (rkdr) gS] ftldh
cnkSyr balku viuh f”knxh dks iSQykrk gS vkSj
vius otwn dks oqlvr (foLrkj) ls gefdukj
(l¡okjrk) djrk gSA fiQj og fliZQ vius ckjs esa
gh ugha lksprk vkSj u gh fliZQ vius bnZ&fxnZ gh
ns[krk gS cfYd bu nk;jksa ls vkxs&c<+dj ek”kh
(vrhr) esa Hkh >k¡drk gS] gky (orZeku) dh
jkS'kuh esa eqLrd+fcy (Hkfo";) dks Hkh le>us
dh dksf'k'k djrk gS vkSj dk;ukr (lalkj) dh
lkjh oqlvr (foLrkj) osQ ckjs esa Hkh xkSjksfiQØ
(fparu) djrk gSA** (djtkoh 2000] i`- 29)
vr% vYykek ;qlIq +kQ djtkoh }kjk fyf[kr
mDr iafDr;k¡ Li"V djrh gSa fd bLyke esa Kku
izkfIr ij ize[q krk ls cy fn;k x;k gS rkfd balku
bYe (Kku) dh jks'kuh esa viuh dfe;ksa dks nwj
dj losQa ] vius vanj dh cqjkb;ksa dks feVk losQa
vkSj vius vanj mu xq.kksa dk fodkl dj losQa
ftlosQ ekè;e ls u osQoy og vius vrhr dh
dfe;ksa dks feVkrs gq, vius orZeku ,oa Hkfo";
dks l¡okjs cfYd lai.w kZ lekt osQ orZeku ,oa
Hkfo"; dks l¡okjus esa viuk ;ksxnku ns losQa A
ewY;
(Values)
ewY; lekt }kjk Loho`Qr os ekud gksrs gSa
tks lekt dk vax gksus osQ ukrs bdkb;ksa]
O;fDr;ksa ,oa ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk ewY;kadu djrs gSaA
;s ewY; lekt dh jh<+ dh gM~Mh osQ leku
gksrs gSaA ;s] oks fo'okl gSa ftUgsa O;fDr fdlh nh
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
39
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
gqbZ ifjfLFkfr esa fØ;k djus gsrq pqurk gSA dksbZ
vkn'kkZRed] uSfrd vFkok vkè;kfRed fl¼kar]
tks fdlh nh gqbZ ifjfLFkfr esa gekjs thou dks
izHkkfor djrs gSa vkSj ftu ij gekjk O;ogkj
vk/kfjr gksrk gS] ewY; dgykrs gSaA ewY; lekt
nj lekt ,oa le;&nj≤ cnyrs jgrs gSaA
gekjk thou bu ewY;ksa osQ bnZ&fxnZ ?kwerk jgrk gSA
;s ewY; lgh vkSj xyr osQ gekjs fu.kZ; }kjk gh
fu/kZfjr gksrs gSaA ewY; os varghu fo'okl gksrs
gSa] tks O;fDrxr ,oa lkekftd :i ls Loho`Qr
,d fuf'pr O;ogkj dks fu/kZfjr djrs gSaA ewY;
dh rhu izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gksrh gSa&
• ;s thou osQ izkjafHkd o"kks± esa fufeZr gksrs gSa
vkSj 'kh?kzrk ls ifjofrZr ugha gksrAs
• ewY; lgh vkSj xyr dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSAa
• ewY; Lo;a dks lR;] vlR;] oS/&voS/
vFkok lgh&xyr fl¼ ugha djrsA
vkyiksVZ (1950) osQ vuqlkj] ^^dksbZ Hkh ph”k
tks larqf"V mRiau djrh gS] ewY; osQ :i esa
igpkuh tkrh gSA** (HkkokuqoknµHkkLdjkpk;qZyw
,oa jko 2009] i`- 27&28)
bl izdkj ewY; O;fDr dh ilan&ukilan]
vko';drk] bPNk ,oa laLo`Qfr }kjk fu/kZfjr
ekudksa dks n'kkZrs gSaA ekuo osQ fnu&izfrfnu
osQ thou esa muosQ O;ogkj ,oa fØ;kvksa dks
fu;af=kr ,oa ekxZnf'kZr djus dk dk;Z ewY; gh
djrs gSaA izR;sd 'kCn tks ge cksyrs gSa] oL=k
tks ge igurs gSa] ftl izdkj ls ge ,d&nwljs
osQ lkFk var%fØ;k djrs gSa] gekjs izR;{khdj.k
vkfn lHkh esa ewY; iznf'kZr gksrs gSaA ewY; #fp]
fodYi] vko';drk] bPNk ,oa ojh;rk osQ
vk/kj ij fufeZr gksrs gSaA ewY; esa Hkkoukvksa
Chap-4.indd 39
,oa fØ;kvksa osQ fparu] tkuus vFkok le>us
dh izfØ;k fufgr jgrh gSA yksxksa dk O;ogkj
gesa muosQ ewY;ksa dks tkuus esa enn djrk gSA
fdlh O;fDr ij fdlh izdkj dk ncko vFkok
Mj fn[kk;s fcuk fdlh fuf'pr le; esa mlosQ
}kjk fd;s tkus okys O;ogkj vFkok fØ;k osQ
ekè;e ls mlosQ ewY;ksa dk vkdyu fd;k
tk ldrk gSA lkekU;r% ewY; O;fDr osQ Lo;a
osQ p;u }kjk fu/kZfjr gksrs gSaA ewY; eq[;r%
fuEufyf[kr rhu vk;keksa ij fu/kZfjr gksrs gSa&
(HkkokuqoknµlqoqQekj 2009] i`- 10)
(i)O;fDr dk vkReA
(ii) vkRe ,oa vU; O;fDr ftuosQ lkFk os
izfrfnu var%fØ;k djrs gSaA
(iii) lkekftd ekudA
gekjs fnu&izfrfnu osQ thou esa O;fDr dk
O;ogkj mijksDr of.kZr rhuksa vk;keksa ij vk/kfjr
gekjs ewY;ksa }kjk fufeZr gksrk gSA mnkgj.kLo:i]
vkRelEeku ,oa O;fDrxr vkè;kfRed ewY;
O;fDr osQ vkRe (Self) dks fu;af=kr djrs
gSaA gekjs ekrk&firk] ifjokj ,oa vU; yksxksa
osQ lkFk gekjs laca/ varO;SZfDrd vk;ke }kjk
fu;af=kr gksrs gSa vkSj lekt esa gekjk O;ogkj
nwljksa dh Hkkoukvksa dk lEeku djus ij fu/kZfjr
,oa fu;af=kr gksrk gSA
ewY; osQ izdkj
(Types of values)
ewY; eq[;r% nks izdkj osQ gksrs gSa&
• ;kaf=kd ewY; (Instrumental values)
tSl&s #fp] ,s'o;Z] le`f¼ vkfnA
• vkfRed ewY; (Intrinsic values)
tSls&LokLF;] lEeku] ifo=krk vkfnA
(HkkokuqoknµHkkLdjkpk;qZyw ,oa jko 2009
i`- 28)A
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
40
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
;kaf=kd ewY; tgk¡ fojks/kHkkl mRiau djrs gSa
ogha vkfRed ewY; 'kkafr ,oa lg;ksx ykrs gSaA
lu~ 1979 esa ch-vkj- xks;y }kjk 83 ewY;ksa
dh ,d lwph cuk;h x;hA rRi'pkr~ MkW- oh-osQxksdd us 1981 esa bu ewY;ksa dks ik¡p vk/kjHkwr
ekuoh; ewY;ksa osQ :i esa oxhZo`Qr fd;kA bl
izdkj ;s ik¡p ekuoh; ewY; eq[; ewY;ksa dh
Js.kh esa vkSj buosQ varxZr vkus okys vU; ewY;
miewY;ksa dh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA ;s ik¡p ekuoh;
ewY; gSa& lR; (Truth)] vPNk pfj=k (Right
conduct)] 'kkafr (Peace)] izse (Love) ,oa
vfgalk (Non-voilence) (HkkokuqoknµoqQekj]
2009] i`- 17)
;s ik¡p ekuoh; vFkok eq[; ewY;
lkoZHkkSfed :i ls lHkh /eks± }kjk Lohdkj fd;s
tkrs gSa ijarq budh rqyuk esa miewY; vf/d
izs{k.kh; gksrs gSa tcfd eq[; ewY; dh lgh
igpku dj ikuk dHkh&dHkh dfBu gks tkrk gS
D;ksafd dHkh&dHkh oqQN O;fDr budk fn[kkok
Hkh djrs gSa tcfd okLro esa os bls ân; ls
viukrs ugha gSaA
bLyke esa ewY; dh vo/kj.kk
of value in Islam)
(Concept
ewY; os gSa] ftUgsa fdlh O;fDr }kjk egRoiw.kZ
LFkku fn;k tkrk gSa] tks fdlh fuf'pr O;ogkj
vFkok fØ;k djrs le; lgh ,oa xyr osQ
varj dks O;Dr djrs gSa vkSj O;fDr dks lgh
djus osQ fy, izsfjr djrs gSaA ;s pfj=k osQ
uSfrd ,oa uhfr'kkL=kh; xq.k gksrs gSaA bLyke
/eZ esa Hkh oqQN vk/kjHkwr ewY;ksa dk ikyu
djus dk vkns'k fn;k x;k gSaA balku bu ewY;ksa
Chap-4.indd 40
osQ fcuk thfor ugha jg ldrkA O;fDr;ksa dks
bu ewY;ksa dk ikyu ,oa lEeku djus dh
lykg nh x;h gS] ;s ewY; gSa&
1- /eZ (Religion) bLyke esa /eZ dks izR;sd
O;fDr osQ fy, vk/kjHkwr ewY; vFkok vf/dkj
crk;k x;k gSA izR;sd O;fDr viuk /eZ pquus osQ
fy, Lora=k gS] fdlh dks Hkh fdlh /eZ fo'ks"k
dks viukus ,oa mldk ikyu djus gsrq ckè; ugha
fd;k tk ldrkA /eZ O;fDr dks mlosQ thou dk
mís'; crkus] ekxZn'kZu] 'kkafr ,oa lg;ksx osQ fy,
gksrk gSA /eZ O;fDr dks lR;] U;k; ,oa vU; xq.kksa
dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA lkFk gh gj izdkj dh cqjkbZ ls
nwj jgus dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA oqQjku osQ vè;k; 2
dh 256oha vk;r esa vYykg us dgk gS] ^^/eZ
esa dksbZ Hkh vfuok;Zrk ugha gS] lR; =kqfV;ksa dks
Li"V djrk gSA** (Hkkokuqoknµ www.edu.
blogspot.in)
2- vejRo (Eternity) lkekU;r% ;g xq.k
lai.w kZ :i ls vYykg dk gSA ekuo ;|fi u'ojrk
osQ xq.k osQ lkFk fufeZr gqvk gS rFkkfi mlosQ vanj
vejrk osQ xq.k dks izkIr djus dh bPNk fo|eku
jgrh gS tks dHkh lekIr ugh gksrhA bLyke esa
O;fDr osQ fy, u'oj ls vu'oj thou dh izkfIr
dk ekxZ [kqyk j[kk x;k gSA
3- ,drk (Unity) ,drk dk vkn'kZ] ifjokj
osQ lnL;ksa osQ chp 'kkafr ,oa lg;ksx ykrk gSA
;g jk"Vª osQ lnL;ksa vFkok vkn'kZ lewgksa osQ
chp ,d ?kfu"B laca/ dh LFkkiuk djrk gSA
oqQjku osQ vuqlkj] ^^lHkh eqfLye vkil esa HkkbZ
gSa vkSj muosQ chp ?kfu"B izse ,oa yxko gSA**
4- 'kfDr (Power) bLyke }kjk izR;sd O;fDr
dks lgh ,oa xyr esa varj djus dh 'kfDr
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
iznku dh x;h gSA og tks Hkh fØ;k,¡ djrk gS
mlosQ fy, og vosQyk gh mÙkjnk;h gksrk gSA
'kfDr dk vkn'kZ O;fDr ls vk'kk djrk gS fd
og 'kkafr] fopkjksa dh Lora=krk] fo'okl ,oa
vfHkO;fDr djus dh Lora=krk vkfn xq.kksa ij
vk/kfjr jkT; dh LFkkiuk djs] ftldh izkfIr
gsrq uSfrdrk ls ;qDr O;fDr;ksa osQ ifjJe djus
dh vko';drk gSA
5- lR; ;k cqf¼ (Truth or Wisdom)
lR; vFkok Kku dh [kkst gsrq cqf¼ ,d
ekuoh; vkn'kZ osQ :i esa dk;Z djrh gSA ;g
viw.kZ Kku ,oa fo'oklksa osQ chp varj djrh gSA
vr% O;fDr dks lR; dh izkfIr gsrq izo`Qfr osQ
d.k&d.k esa fo|eku Nqih gqbZ vo/kj.kkvksa dk
xgurk ls vè;;u djuk pkfg,A
6- Kku (Knowledge) bZ'oj gh Kku gS] og
gh lR; gSA og gj rÙo dk lk{kh gSA okLro
esa i`Foh vFkok LoxZ dgha ij Hkh ,d v.kq osQ
vkdkj dh oLrq Hkh mlls fNih gqbZ ugha gSA
gj <dh vkSj [kqyh ph”k dk mls Kku gSA gekjs
efLr"d esa D;k fNik gS] ge mls fn[kk;sa ;k
fNik;sa] gj ifjfLFkfr esa mls mudk Kku gS vkSj
blh Kku dks og ekuo ek=k dks Lo;a esa tkx`r
djus dh izsj.kk nsrk gSA
7- U;k; (Justice) vYykg U;k; djus esa
mÙke gS vkSj og vius canksa osQ lkFk dHkh
vU;k; ugha djrkA og lHkh izkf.k;ksa dks Lo;a
osQ lkFk ,oa nwljksa osQ lkFk nksuksa gh ifjfLFkfr;ksa
esa U;k; djus ,oa fu"i{k o U;k;iw.kZ O;ogkj
djus dh izsj.kk nsrk gSA
8- izse (Love) bLyke esa izse ij fo'ks"k cy
fn;k x;k gSA bZ'oj izse djus okyk gS vkSj
vius izkf.k;ksa dks ekxZnf'kZr djus] vkJ; nsus]
Chap-4.indd 41
41
mudh enn djus] fuekZ.k djus] iks"k.k djus esa
vius izse dk izn'kZu djrk gSA vius izkf.k;ksa dh
vko';drkvksa dks iw.kZ djus] n;k] {kek vkfn
}kjk mldk izse iznf'kZr gksrk gSA bl izdkj og
vius izkf.k;ksa dks vius lxs&lacaf/;ksa] fe=kksa
,oa leqnk; o lekt osQ lnL;ksa osQ lkFk oSlk
gh O;ogkj djus dh izsj.kk nsrk gS vkSj vis{kk
djrk gS fd os mlosQ crk, izse ekxZ ij gh
pysaA
9- vPNkbZ (Goodness) oqQjku osQ vuqlkj]
^^vYykg lcls vPNk gS] lHkh izdkj dh cqjkb;ksa
(oqQnnwl) ls eqDr gSA og lHkh vPNkb;ksa dk
lzksr vkSj lHkh izdkj dh iz'kalk dk ik=k gS**
(Hkkokuq o knµ www.edu.blogspot.in )A
vPNkbZ vYykg dk xq.k gS vkSj izR;sd O;fDr
dk drZO; gS fd og bu vPNkb;ksa dks Lo;a
esa viuk;sA tSls vYykg lcosQ fy, vPNk gS
oSls gh O;fDr;ksa dks Hkh vPNk djuk pkfg,A
lcosQ lkFk vPNk djus okyksa osQ lkFk vYykg
Hkh vPNk djrk gSA
10- lqanjrk (Beauty) vYykg us gj oLrq
esa lqanjrk dk xq.k fo|eku fd;k gSA ekuo
vius lqanj :i esa vYykg }kjk cuk;k x;k gSA
vYykg us laiw.kZ czãk.M dks lqanj cuk;k gS
vkSj buosQ ekè;e ls vPNh 'kfDr dk l`tu
fd;k gSA ;fn O;fDr bl lqanjrk dks igpku
tk; rks og vius thou dks lqanj cuk ldrk gSA
vYykg us dksbZ Hkh ph”k cqjh ugha cuk;h gS]
mlus lHkh ph”ksa vPNh vkSj lqanj cuk;h gSaA
mlus izR;sd dks ekuoek=k dh lsok gsrq fufeZr
fd;k gSA ;fn ge bl lR; ,oa okLrfodrk dks
ns[k ysa] mls igpku tk;sa rc ge lqanjrk dks
izkIr dj losaQxsA
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
42
bl izdkj bLyke esa Hkh ewY;ksa dks fo'ks"k
egÙo iznku fd;k x;k gS vkSj blosQ izR;sd
vuq;k;h dks bu ewY;ksa osQ Lo;a esa l`tu ,oa
buosQ ikyu dks vfuok;Z crk;k x;k gSA
ewY; f'k{kk ,oa enjlk
(Value education and Madarsas)
ewY; f'k{kk (Value Education)µlekt
osQ vkn'kks± ,oa ewY;ksa dks vuq:i O;fDr;ksa dks
larq"V djus ,oa ,d mÙke thou dh izkfIr gsrq
f'k{kk vko';d :i ls O;fDr esa ewY; fuekZ.k
dh izfØ;k gSA nk'kZfudksa] f'k{kkfonksa vkfn lHkh
us pfj=k fuekZ.k] varfuZfgr xq.kksa osQ fodkl
vFkok lefUor O;fDrRo osQ fodkl gsrq f'k{kk
dks egRoiw.kZ crk;k gSA gekjs ns'k dh xkSjo'kkyh
fHkUurkvksa ls ;qDr le`¼ lkaLo`Qfrd fojklrsa bu
ewY;ksa osQ fuekZ.k dks vk/kj iznku djrh gaSA bu
ewY;ksa osQ fodkl ,oa fuekZ.k gsrq izkphu le;
ls gekjs xq:oqQyksa] vkJeksa ,oa orZeku fo|ky;ksa
esa i`Fkd :i ls ewY; f'k{kk nsus ij ”kksj fn;k
tkrk jgk gSA
ewY; f'k{kk] f'k{kkFkhZ osQ pfj=k ,oa O;fDrRo
osQ lok±xh.k fodkl esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku nsrh
gSA ;g ;qokvksa esa ,d fuf'pr ,oa mi;qDr
le; ij ewY;ksa dk fodkl djrh gS lkFk
gh muesa fo|eku tUetkr vkRe osaQnzh;rk
dks fu%LokFkZrk] vifjiDork dks ifjiDork]
ckY;koLFkk dks ;qokoLFkk esa ifjofrZr dj mUgsa
,d ewd Jksrk ls ,d 'kfDr'kkyh oDrk esa
ifjofrZr djrh gSA
ewY; f'k{kk O;fDrRo osQ gj i{k dks è;ku
esa j[krs gq, ckSf¼d] lkekftd] HkkokRed]
Chap-4.indd 42
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
uSfrd vkfn lHkh i{kksa osQ fodkl esa ;ksxnku
nsrh gSA blesa D;k lgh gS] D;k vPNk gS] D;k
lqanj gS vkfn pquus dh ;ksX;rk fo|eku jgrh
gSA ewY;ijd f'k{kk dk eq[; mís'; ckSf¼drk
osQ rhu vk;keksa& KkukRed] HkkokRed vkSj
fØ;kRed vk;keksa osQ fodkl ls Hkh tqM+k gqvk
gSA blosQ }kjk vf/xedrkZ u osQoy lgh vkSj
vPNs osQ ckjs esa tkurk gS cfYd lgh fØ;k,¡
djus dh fn'kk esa mi;qDr Hkko ,oa opuc¼rk
dk vuqHko djrk gSA ;g O;fDrxr ,oa ekuork
ls tqM+s Toyar eqíksa ij lekykspukRed fparu
,oa Lora=k fu.kZ; dh ;ksX;rk fodflr djus
okyh izfØ;k gSA
bl izdkj ewY; f'k{kk mÙke ewY; ,oa pfj=k
dk fodkl djus dk mís'; fy, gq, fu;ksftr
'kSf{kd fØ;kvksa ls ;qDr dk;ZØe gSA gekjh
izR;sd fØ;k vkSj fopkj gekjs efLr"d ij ,d
Nki NksM+rs gSa vkSj ;g Nki vFkok Hkko gh
fdlh fn, gq, le; vFkok ifjfLFkfr esa gekjh
izfrfØ;k,¡ ,oa O;ogkj fu/kZfjr djrs gSaA bu
O;ogkjksa ,oa izfrfØ;kvksa dk feyk&tqyk :i
gekjs pfj=k dks fufeZr ,oa fu/kZfjr djrk gSA bu
O;ogkjksa ,oa izfrfØ;kvksa dks ifjekftZr djrs
gq, pfj=k fuekZ.k izfØ;k dks ,d fuf'pr ,oa
lgh fn'kk iznku djuk gh ewY; f'k{kk dk eq[;
mís'; gSA Hkkjrh; lafo/ku }kjk Hkh izLrkouk osQ
varxZr pkj lkoZHkkSfed ewY;ksa dk o.kZu fd;k
x;k gS tks ewY; f'k{kk dks egRRkk iznku djrs
gSaA ;s ewY; fuEufyf[kr gSa&
(i) Lora=krk (Liberty) fopkjksa] fo'oklksa]
vkn'kks±] Hkkoukvksa dks O;Dr djus dh
Lora=krkA
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
(ii)
lekurk (Equality) Lrjksa] voljksa
dh lekurkA
(iii) ca/qRo (Fraternity) O;fDr dk
lEeku cuk;s j[krs gq, laiw.kZ jk"Vª dh
,drk cuk;s j[kukA
(iv) U;k; (Justice) lkekftd] vkfFkZd
jktuhfrd fdlh Hkh Lrj ij fdlh Hkh
oxZ osQ lkFk vU;k; u gksus nsuk ,oa
,d O;fDr dh Lora=krk dks nwljs osQ
ekxZ esa ck/d u cuus nsukA
blosQ vfrfjDr lafo/ku osQ vuqPNsn 36 ls
51 rd iznÙk ewy vf/dkj ,oa vuqPNsn 51(,)
esa iznÙk ewy dÙkZO; Hkh jk"Vªh; ewY;ksa dks iznf'kZr
djrs gSa tks dgha u dgha eq[; vFkok miewY;ksa
osQ gh :i gSAa ,d fuf'pr ,oa lgh fn'kk iznku
djuk gh ewY; f'k{kk dk eq[; mís'; gSA
Hkkjr esa le;≤ ij xfBr fofHkUu
vk;ksxksa ,oa lfefr;ksa dh fjiksVks± esa Hkh ewY; f'k{kk
iznku djus ij fo'ks"k ”kksj fn;k tkrk jgk gS&
Lora=krk osQ i'pkr~ xfBr loZizFke vk;ksx]
jk/ko`Q".ku vk;ksx (1948&49)us ewY; f'k{kk
nsus ij fo'ks"k ”kksj fn;k gSA vk;ksx us fo|ky;ksa
osQ lkFk&lkFk fo'ofo|ky;ksa] dkWystksa ,oa
egkfo|ky;ksa esa izkrdky izkFkZuk lHkk djus ij
”kksj fn;k] lkFk gh Lukrd Lrj ij fofHkUu
egkiq#"kksa dh thofu;ksa ,oa muosQ fopkjksa dks
i<+kus ij ”kksj fn;kA (Hkkokuqoknµ,u-lh-bZ-vkj Vh-]
2012] i`- 2)
ekè;fed f'k{kk vk;ksx vFkok eqnkfy;kj
deh'ku (1952&53) us pfj=k fuekZ.k dks f'k{kk
dk y{; fu/kZfjr djrs gq, Li"V fd;k fd]
'kSf{kd izfØ;k dk vafre y{; fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa pfj=k dk bl izdkj izf'k{k.k
Chap-4.indd 43
43
djuk gks rkfd viuh leLr oqQ'kyrkvksa dks
igpkuus ;ksX; cu losaQ vkSj leqnk; dh vPNkbZ
esa viuh ;ksX;rkvksa osQ ekè;e ls viuk ;ksxnku
ns losaQA
dksBkjh vk;ksx (1964&66) us ^f'k{kk ,oa
jk"Vªh; fodkl* ij izdk'k Mkyrs gq, dgk
fd gekjs ikB~;Øeksa esa lkekftd] uSfrd ,oa
vkè;kfRed ewY; f'k{kk dh deh ifjyf{kr
gksrh gSA vk;ksx us bu ewY;ksa dh f'k{kk gsrq
egku /eks± osQ uSfrd ewY;ksa ,oa f'k{kkvksa dks
tkuus ,oa lh[kus dk ekxZ fn[kk;k] lkFk gh
Jhizdk'k vk;ksx osQ lq>ko ^izR;{k uSfrd
vuqns'ku (Direct moral instruction) ij
lgefr trk;h] ftlosQ vuqlkj fo|ky;h f'k{kk
esa] lIrkg esa ,d ;k nks dky&pØ uSfrd f'k{kk
osQ fy, gksus pkfg,A
jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr (1986) us vko';d
ewY;ksa osQ gzkl vkSj lekt esa c<+rh LokFkZijrk
dh vksj è;ku vkdf"kZr fd;kA blesa lkekftd
vkSj uSfrd ewY;ksa osQ mRiknu gsrq f'k{kk dks
,d 'kfDr'kkyh ;a=k osQ :i esa iz;ksx djus ij
”kksj fn;k x;k lkFk gh Li"V fd;k x;k fd
f'k{kk }kjk vius yksxksa esa ,drk vkSj ca/qRo
dks c<+kus gsrq lkoZHkkSfed ,oa dHkh lekIr
u gksus okys ewY;ksa dk fodkl djuk pkfg,A
f'k{kk uhfr dh dk;Z;kstuk (POA-1992) esa
fo|ky;h f'k{kk osQ izR;sd Lrj ij ewY; f'k{kk
osQ fofHkUUk vo;oksa dks lefUor djus dk iz;kl
fd;k x;kA
Hkkjr ljdkj dh ewY;&vk/kfjr f'k{kk dh
fjiksVZ (Nkou vk;ksx dh fjiksVZ] 1999) esa
f'k{kk esa ewY;ksa dks lekfgr djus ij fo'ks"k
”kksj fn;k x;kA
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
44
fo|ky;h f'k{kk osQ fy, jk"Vªh; IkkB~;p;kZ
dh :ijs[kk (2000) esa fo|ky;h ikB~;Øeksa esa
ewY; f'k{kk dks lefUor djus ij ”kksj fn;k x;kA
,drk ,oa ca/qRo dks c<+kus gsrq fo|ky;ksa }kjk
lkoZHkkSfed ewY;ksa dh f'k{kk nsus ij ”kksj fn;k
x;k] lkFk gh Li"V fd;k x;k fd] laiw.kZ f'k{kk
izfØ;k ,slh gksuh pkfg, rkfd ns'k osQ ckyd
,oa ckfydk,¡ vPNk ns[ksa] vPNk djsa ,oa vPNh
oLrqvksa ls izse djsa vkSj ikjLifjd lg;ksx osQ
lkFk thou fuokZg djus okys ukxfjd cusaA
jk"Vªh; IkkB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk (2005) esa
Hkh Li"V fd;k x;k fd f'k{kk ,slh gksuh pkfg,
fd fo|ky; dh izR;sd fØ;k esa ewY;&fuekZ.k
dh >yd fn[kk;h nsA ikB~;p;kZ esa fHkUurk esa
,drk ,oa ekuoksa osQ chp ikjLifjd Lora=krk
osQ izfr gekjh opuc¼rk dks n`<+ djus ij
”kksj fn;k x;k tks fd ewY;ksa dk fodkl dj
,d cgq&lkaLo`Qfrd lekt esa 'kkafr] ekuork]
lgu'khyrk vkfn xq.kksa dk fodkl dj losaQA
bl izdkj u osQoy nk'kZfudksa ,oa f'k{kkfonksa
}kjk gh cfYd ljdkj }kjk Hkh Hkkjrh; f'k{kk
iz.kkyh esa ewY;ksa osQ fodkl gsrq ewY; f'k{kk
iznku djus ij ”kksj fn;k tkrk jgk gSA
enjlk f'k{kk (Madarsa Education)
Hkkjr esa enjlk f'k{kk dk fodkl eqfLye 'kklu
dky ls ns[kus dks feyrk gSA eè;dkyhu Hkkjr
esa eqfLye 'kkldksa osQ vkxeu osQ lkFk gh
Hkkjr esa eqfLye f'k{kk iz.kkyh dk fodkl gqvk]
ftlesa xq#oqQyksa vFkok vkJeksa dh ctk; enjlksa
vFkok edrcksa esa f'k{kk nh tkrh FkhA ;s edrc
;k enjls fdlh efLtn osQ varxZr gh cus
gksrs FksA ;|fi orZeku le; esa buosQ Lo:iksa esa
Chap-4.indd 44
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ifjorZu vk x;k gS vkSj vkt efLtnksa ls vyx
Hkh fdlh cM+s LFkku ij enjlksa dh LFkkiuk dh
tkrh gSA
enjlk 'kCn dh O;qRifÙk vjch Hkk"kk osQ ^njl*
'kCn ls gqbZ gS] ftldk rkRi;Z gS& O;k[;ku nus kA
(HkkokuqoknµfloaQn 2005] i`- 33)
lkekU;r% enjls oks bLykfed 'kSf{kd
laLFkk,¡ gaS tks eq[; :i ls bLyke esa crk;h
x;h fopkj/kjkvksa] oqQjku ,oa gnhl dh f'k{kk
nsrh gSaA vius izkjafHkd o"kks± esa eè;dkyhu
Hkkjr esa LFkkfir enjlksa esa izk;% oqQjku] gnhl
(iSX+kacj eksgEen (l-) }kjk crk;h x;h ckrsa)]
'kjh;r (vkpkj'kkL=k) ,oa vU; bLykfed
fopkj/kjkvksa dh gh f'k{kk nh tkrh Fkh] ijarq
orZeku le; esa buosQ vykok Kku dh vU;
'kk[kkvksa] tSlsµbfrgkl] Hkwxksy] vFkZ'kkL=k]
xf.kr] rdZ'kkL=k] okf.kT; ,oa lkFk gh lkFk
oaQI;wVj dh Hkh f'k{kk iznku dh tkus yxh gSA
orZeku le; esa Hkkjr esa yxHkx 30]000 ls
40]000 enjls lapkfyr gSa vkSj buesa ijaijkxr
Kku osQ lkFk&lkFk vk/qfud Kku iznku djus
dh iwjh O;oLFkk dh tk jgh gS rkfd bUgsa
ljdkj ,oa futh laLFkkvksa }kjk lapkfyr]fu;fer
,oa vk/qfud fo|ky;ksa osQ lkFk tksM+k tk losQ
vkSj muosQ tSlk gh LFkku iznku fd;k tk losQ
ftlls enjlksa ls mÙkh.kZ gksus okys f'k{kkFkhZ
fu;fer fo|ky;ksa ,oa fo'ofo|ky;ksa ls viuh
f'k{kk iwjh djus esa l{ke cu losaQA
enjlksa esa nh tkus okyh f'k{kk osQ varxZr
Hkh ewY;ksa dh f'k{kk ij fo'ks"k ”kksj fn;k tkrk
gSA pw¡fd bLyke esa ewY;ksa dks fo'ks"k LFkku
izkIr gS rFkk bLyke /eZ dks ekuus okyksa osQ
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
O;ogkj 'kjh;r (vkpkj'kkL=k) }kjk fu/kZfjr
fd;s x;s gSa] blfy, muosQ O;ogkj esa ewY;ksa
dh Li"V >yd ns[kus dks feyrh gSA ijarq vkt
osQ HkkSfrdoknh ;qx esa tgk¡ LokFkZijrk] yksHk]
}s"k vkfn dk cksyckyk gS] ,sls lekt esa dksbZ
Hkh O;fDr pkgs og fganw gks ;k eqfLye bu
cqjkb;ksa ls vNwrk ugha gSA gj dksbZ viuk LokFkZ
lk/us esa yxk gSA gj dksbZ viuk fgr vkSj
nwljksa dk vfgr djuk pkgrk gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa
tgk¡ fu;fer fo|ky;ksa ,oa muosQ f'k{kdksa dk
mÙkjnkf;Ro ewY;ksa osQ fodkl gsrq c<+ tkrk gS]
ogha enjlk f'k{kdksa dk mÙkjnkf;Ro Hkh curk gS
fd os enjlksa esa i<+us okys f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa esa ewY;ksa
dk fodkl izkjfEHkd f'k{kk Lrj ls gh djsa rkfd
bu enjlksa ls fudyus okys f'k{kkFkhZ ,d lH;
,oa f”kEesnkj ukxfjd cudj ns'k dh lsok djsa
u fd enjlksa osQ lanHkZ esa O;kIr feFkdksa dks
lp cuus nsaA
ewY; fu/kZj.k esa enjlk f'k{kd dh
Hkwfedk (Role of Madarsa Teachers
in Value formation)
ewY;ksa ij O;k[;ku nsdj ewY;ksa dk fodkl ugha
fd;k tk ldrkA ftl izdkj rSjuk fl[kkus osQ
fy, izf'k{kd dks Lo;a ikuh esa mrj dj rSjkdh
fl[kkuh iM+rh gS] mlh izdkj ewY; f'k{kk iznku
djus okys f'k{kd esa ;g ;ksX;rk gksuh pkfg,
fd og f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks thouµifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ
ty esa mrjus vkSj vius ewY;ksa }kjk mudk
lkeuk djus gsrq Lo;a dh fØ;kvksa }kjk izsfjr
djsaA muesa iz;ksxkRed ;ksX;rkvksa dk fodkl djsa
,oa ewY;ksa dks vius thou esa fujarj iz;ksx djus
gsrq izf'kf{kr djsaA
Chap-4.indd 45
45
bLyke esa ewY;ksa osQ fodkl ,oa mlosQ
iz;ksx dks fo'ks"k egÙo fn;k tkrk gSA 'kjh;r
(vkpkj'kkL=k) }kjk fu/kZfjr izR;sd O;ogkj ewY;
vk/kfjr gh gksrs gSAa lgh ,oa xyr dh vo/kj.kk
dks è;ku esa j[kdj gh 'kjh;r }kjk izR;sd
eqlyeku osQ O;ogkj dks fu/kZfjr fd;k x;k gSA
iSXk+ ca j g”kjr eksgEen (l-) Lo;a ,d f'k{kd Fks
vkSj mUgksua s viuh f'k{kkvksa osQ ekè;e ls vius
vuq;kf;;ksa esa ewY;ks osQ fodkl ij gh cy fn;kA
bLyke osQ izknqHkkZo ls igys vjc esa pkjksa rjIk+ Q
vKkurk dk gh va/dkj iSQyk gqvk FkkA
vjcoklh osQoy /u ,oa HkkSfrd le`f¼ osQ
ykyp esa gh viuk thou O;rhr dj jgs FksA
bLyke osQ izknqHkkZo vkSj iSX+kacj eksgEen (l-)
dh f'k{kkvksa us mUgsa thou osQ okLrfod n'kZu
vkSj O;ogkj dh fuf'pr iz.kkfy;ksa dk Kku
djk;k] tks uSfrd izfrca/ksa ,oa lgh o xyr
osQ fl¼kar ij vk/kfjr FkhaA bLyke osQ vuqlkj]
,d f'k{kd dks vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa fNih gqbZ
;ksX;rkvksa dk Kku izkIr dj] ;g tkuus dk
iz;Ru djuk pkfg, fd os uSfrd ,oa ckSf¼d
izHkkoksa ls fdruh nwj gSa] vFkkZr~ mldh ;ksX;rk,¡
uSfrdrk osQ vk;keksa osQ fudV gSa ;k muls nwj
vKkurk ,oa HkkSfrdrk osQ fudVA
blh dkj.k bLyke esa /kfeZd f'k{kk ij
fo'ks"k ”kksj fn;k tkrk gS] D;ksafd dksbZ Hkh
O;fDr bZ";kZ] }s"k] ?keaM] vfo'okl] >wB vkfn
voxq.kksa ls vNwrk ugha gS] blfy, iSX+kacj (l-)
osQ vuqlkj] ekuo ân; dks nwf"kr djus okyh
bu cqjkb;ksa ls cpkus osQ fy, uSfrd ewY;ksa
ij vk/kfjr O;ofLFkr Kku }kjk izR;sd O;fDr
dks izf'kf{kr fd;k tkuk pkfg, (Hkkokuqkokn]
dklEkh] (laik-)] 2006] i`- 20)A ;g izf'k{k.k
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
46
oqQjku ,oa vU; /kfeZd iqLrdksa tSls gnhl vkfn
osQ ekè;e ls iw.kZr;k laxfBr :i esa fn;k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd bu xzaFkksa esa O;fDr osQ izR;sd
O;ogkj dks lgh vFkok xyr osQ fl¼kar dh
dlkSVh ij ij[kk tkrk gSA vr% bl feFkd ij
Hkh fo'okl ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg, fd oqQjku
,oa gnhl tSls xzaFk /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj vFkok
/kfeZd Kku ls tqM+h f'k{kk,¡ gh iznku djrs gSaA
ewY; fu/kZj.k esa tgk¡ bu xzaFkksa dk fo'ks"k
;ksxnku gS] ogha f'k{kd dh Hkwwfedk cgqr
egRoiw.kZ gksrh gSA pw¡fd vkt osQ le; esa Hkh
vf/dka'k eqfLye cPps enjlksa esa gh f'k{kk
xzg.k djrs gSa vkSj enjls vkt Hkh eqfLye
leqnk; dh f'k{kk dk izeq[k osaQnz gSa vr% ,slh
ifjfLFkfr esa enjlk f'k{kdksa dk nkf;Ro Hkh c<+
tkrk gS fd os bu enjlksa esa f'k{kk izkIr djus
okys ckyd&ckfydkvksa esa fofHkUu rduhdksa osQ
ekè;e ls ewY;ksa dk fodkl djsAa ewY; fu/kZj.k
esa enjlk f'k{kdksa dh Hkwfedkvksa dks fuEufyf[kr
:iksa esa Li"Vr;k le>k tk ldrk gS&
1- f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks izsfjr djuk (To
motivate the students) f'k{kd
vius f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa osQ fy, vkn'kZ gksrk gS
vr% enjlk f'k{kdksa dks Hkh vius O;ogkj]
fopkj vkfn osQ ekè;e ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
izsj.kk iznku djuh pkfg,A Lo;a uek”k
vkSj jks”ks dk ikcan (iw.kZ lefiZr Hkko
ls ikyu djuk) gksuk pkfg,] D;ksafd
oqQjku esa uek”k i<+us vkSj jks”ks j[krs le;
izR;sd cqjkbZ ls vkSj cqjs fopkjksa ls nwj
jgus dh lh[k nh x;h gSA ftlls f'k{kkFkhZ
Hkh uek”k vkSj jksts+ osQ ekè;e ls izR;sd
Chap-4.indd 46
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
cqjkbZ ls nwj jgus osQ fy, izsfjr gksaxsA è;ku
nsus ;ksX; ckr ;g gS fd uek”k vkSj jks”kk
bLyke esa ewY; fuekZ.k osQ izeq[k lzksr gSaA
2- iSX+kacjksa] mysekvksa dh thofu;ksa
}kjk mnkgj.k izLrqr djuk (Give
examples of the life sketch
of Prophets and Ulamas)enjlk
f'k{kdksa dks vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa lgk;rk]
ijksidkj] fdlh dk vf/dkj u Nhuuk
vkfn xq.kksa dk fodkl djus gsrq iSX+kacjksa
(vYykg osQ izfrfuf/)] lgkfc;ksa (iSX+kacj
eksgEen (l-) osQ crk, ekxks± ij pyus
okys muosQ ledkyhu) ,oa mysekvksa vkfn
dk mnkgj.k ,oa muosQ thou ifjp; ls
voxr djkuk pkfg,A
3- fofHkUu uSfrd xq.kksa dk fodkl djuk (To
develop various moral virtues)
enjlk f'k{kdksa dks vius f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa essa
'kkafr] izse] /eZfujis{krk] ,drk] lg;ksx]
lkaLo`Qfrd lao/Zu] l`tukRedrk] jk"Vªh;
,drk ,oa ca/qRo vkfn xq.kksa osQ fodkl
gsrq fujarj iz;kl djuk pkfg,A bl gsrq
mUgsa vius leqnk; osQ lkFk&lkFk vius
lekt o jk"Vª dks Hkh viuk le>us vkSj
mlosQ fodkl gsrq ;ksxnku nsus dh lh[k
nsuh pkfg,A
4- f'k{kkfFkZ;kssa dks mRiknd ,oa l`tukRed
fØ;kvksa esa layXu djuk (Indulge
the students in productive
and creative activities)
enjlk f'k{kdksa dks lrgh Kku ls gVdj
ewyHkwr vkn'kks±] ewY;ksa osQ fodkl gsrq vius
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
47
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ varfuZfgr xq.kksa&voxq.kksa
dk Kku izkIr dj mUgsa l`tukRed ,oa
mRiknd fØ;kvksa esa layXu djuk pkfg,A
5- lgikB~;pkjh fØ;kvksa ij cy
nsuk (Give emphasis on cocurricular activities)
enjlks esa ikB~;Øe dk iw.kZ Kku nsus
osQ lkFk&lkFk lgikB~;pkjh fØ;kvksa]
tSlsµlewg dk;Z] gLrdkS'ky vkfn dk Hkh
izf'k{k.k iznku djuk pkfg,A
6- vkReµlEeku dk Hkko fodflr djuk
(To develop the feeling of self
respect)
enjlk f'k{kdksa dks vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
O;fDrxr xq.kksa dk lEeku djrs gq, muesa
vkReµlEeku o vkReµizdk'ku osQ Hkko
fodflr djus pkfg,A blosQ fy, mUgsa
vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ghun`f"V ls u n[krs
gq, mUgsa Js"Brk iznku djuh pkfg,A
7- vius fopkj izdV djus osQ volj
nsuk (Give opportunities to
experess their ideas)
enjls esa i<+us okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks Hkh
vius fopkjksa dks izdV djus osQ volj
,oa mudks ewrZ :i nsus gsrq gj laHko
iz;kl fd;k tkuk pkfg,A bl gsrq lIrkg
esa ,d fnu osQ fØ;kdyki ,sls gksa] ftuesa
;s fo|kFkhZ] vius fopkjksa dks izdV djsa
vFkok vius fopkjksa dks ewrZ :i nsus gsrq
oqQN fØ;kRed iz;kl djsaA
Chap-4.indd 47
8- f'k{kdksa }kjk iw.kZ leiZ.k Hkko ls f'k{kk
nsuk (Give education with full
dedication by the teachers)
enjlk f'k{kdksa dks enjlksa dh f'k{kk
O;oLFkk osQ lapkyu esa [kkukiwfrZ u djrs
gq, iw.kZ leiZ.k Hkko ls vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa
dks f'kf{kr djuk pkfg, vkSj muosQ
varfuZfgr xq.kksa dks mtkxj djrs gq, lgh
fn'kk esa fodkl gsrq mudk ekxn'kZu djuk
pkfg,A
9- vuq'kklu cuk;s j[kuk (To maintain
discipline)
enjlksa osQ vuq'kklughu Nk=kksa dks osQoy
naM nsdj gh vuq'kkflr ugha fd;k tk
ldrk cfYd muosQ udkjkRed xq.kksa osQ
var gsrq mUgsa bl ckr dk vglkl djk;k
tk; fd muosQ O;ogkj xyr gSaA muosQ
udkjkRed O;ogkjksa osQ var gsrq mudh
;ksX;rkvksa dk Kku izkIr dj mUgsa vU;
l`tukRed fØ;kvksa esa layXu fd;k tk;s
rkfd muosQ udkjkRed O;ogkjksa dks iuius
dk volj u fey losQA
10- iw.kZ
ekuo
fuekZ.k
dh
f'k{kk (Education for making complete man)
enjlk f'k{kk iw.kZ ekuo
fuekZ.k dh f'k{kk
gksuh pkfg,A bl gsrq enjlk f'k{kdksa dks
iw.kZ leiZ.k Hkko ls iz;kl djuk pkfg,
vkSj vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa uSfrd ewY;ksa osQ
fodkl osQ ekè;e ls mudk pfj=k fuekZ.k
djuk pkfg,A lkFk gh fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
48
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
'kkjhfjd] ekufld] pkfjf=kd] vkè;kfRed]
ckSf¼d fodkl }kjk mudks iw.kZ ekuo
cukus dk iz;kl fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
fu"d"kZ (Conclusion)
ewY;ksa osQ fuekZ.k esa f'k{kk dk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku
gS vkSj bLyke esa f'k{kk dks fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k
x;k gSA f'k{kk osQ ekè;e ls u osQoy /kfeZd
cfYd vk/qfud ,oa oSKkfud Kku dh izkfIr
dks egRoiw.kZ LFkku fn;k x;k gSA vr% fofHkUu
izdkj osQ Kku osQ laizs"k.k ,oa fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa
ewY; fuekZ.k esa enjlkµf'k{kdksa dh Hkwfedk
c<+ tkrh gSA pw¡fd orZeku le; esa Hkh eqfLye
leqnk; esa enjls izeq[k 'kSf{kd laLFkkuksa osQ :i
esa lapkfyr gaS] vr% buosQ f'k{kdksa dk dk;Z u
osQoy f'k{kk iznku djus esa cfYd fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
pfj=k fuekZ.k] fofHkUu uSfrd ewY;ksa osQ fodkl
gsrq dkI+kQh egRoiw.kZ gks tkrk gS rkfd bu
enjlksa ls fudyus okys Nk=k u osQoy fu;fer
fo|ky;ksa] egkfo|ky;ksa esa lekfgr gks losaQ
cfYd jk"Vª osQ oqQ'ky ,oa f”kEesnkj ukxfjd cu
losaQ vkSj enjlksa osQ Nk=kksa ,oa enjlksa ls tqM+s
feFkdksa vFkok orZeku esa izpfyr /kj.kkvksa dks
>wBk lkfcr dj losaQA
lanHkZ
v[+rj] ijos”k- 1998- eqfLye leqnk; esa 'kSf{kd fiNM+kiu (okjk.klh uxj Ikj vk/kfjr ,d lekt oSKkfud
vè;;u)] vizdkf'kr ih,pMh fjlpZ] lksf'k;ksykWth] ch-,p-;w- okjk.klh,ulhbZvkjVh- 2012- ,twosQ'ku I+kQksj osY;w”k bu LowQYl~µ, izsQeooZQ u;h fnYyhdjtkoh] vYykek ;wlqI+kQ- 2000- rkyhe dh vgfe;r- edkZ”kh ed~rCkk bLykeh ifCy'klZ] Uk;h fnYyhdk”keh] ,-,p- (,M-)- 2006- baVjus'kuy ,UlkbDyksihfM;k vkWI+kQ bLyke- bLyke bLyke ,aM ,tqosQ'ku
(okWy&VIII)] bZ'kk cqDl] u;h fnYyh^^dkWUlsIV vkWI+kQ fj;sfyVh] ukWyst ,aM osY;w bu bLyke**] fjVªkbOM tqykbZ 4] 2013] I+kzQkWe http://.www.
edu.blogspot.in/search/label/concept%200F%20 REALITY.
oqQekj] lrh'k- 2009- bUdyosQ'ku vkWi+Q áweu osY;w”k bu ,tqosQ'ku] FkkWeloqQfV~V] ih-th- ,aM tkWtZ] eSjh
(,M)- áweu jkbV~l ,aM osY;w bu ,tqosQ'ku] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkml izk-fy-] Uk;h fnYyhI+kSQ”ky] ih-,u- 2009 osY;w”k budyosQfVax veax gk;j lsosaQMjh LVwMsaV~l (, lsaVjM~ ,ijksp)- FkkWeloqQfV~V]
ih-th- ,aM tkWtZ] eSjh (,M-)- áweu jkbV~l ,aM osY;w bu ,tqosQ'ku] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkml izk-fy-]
u;h fnYyhHkkLdjkpk;qZyq] okbZ ,aM jko] Mh- iqYyk- 2009- n jksy vkWI+kQ VhplZ bu LVªsaFkfuax osY;w ,tqosQ'ku- FkkWeloqQfV~V]
ih-th- ,aM tkWtZ- eSjh (,M-)- áweu jkbV~l ,aM osY;w bu ,tqosQ'ku] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkml izk-fy-]
Uk;h fnYyh-
Chap-4.indd 48
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
Kku vkSj ewY;µenjlk f'k{kk osQ lanHkZ esa
49
jk;] xhrk- 2005- Hkkjrh; fparu ,oa f'k{kk- n vks-,l-Mh- (ifCyosQ'ku lSy)] ch,p;w] okjk.klhfladn] ;ksfxUnj- 2005- csfLVvul~ vkWI+kQ n fcyholZ] enjlk”k ,aM bLykfed baLVhV~;w'ku bu bafM;k- isaxqbUk
cqDl] u;h fnYyhlqoqQekj] lsEkqvy- 2009- osY;w ,tqosQ'ku bu dfjD;wye- FkkWeloqQfV~V] ih-th- ,aM tkWtZ] eSjh (,M-)- áweu
jkbV~l ,aM osY;w bu ,tqosQ'ku] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkml izk-fy-] Uk;h fnYyh-
Chap-4.indd 49
4/13/2015 3:28:54 PM
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk
Hkk"kk&uhfr o cgqHkkf"kd f'k{kk
lat; oqQekj lqeu·
Hkkjr esa y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dk egÙo tx&”kkfgj gSA blesas Hkkjrh;
laLo`Qfr dh vewY; /jksgj fNih gqbZ gSSA buosQ leqfpr laj{k.k vkSj fodkl ls cgqr vf/d
iQk;nk gks ldrk gSA ysfdu nqHkkZX;o'k Hkkjrh; Hkkf"kd ifjos'k esa bu y?kq] vYila[;d
vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkeus vkt dk vfLrRo ladV mifLFkr gks x;k gSA ossaQnz vkSj
jkT; ljdkjksa rFkk xSj&ljdkjh laLFkkvksa }kjk gkyk¡fd Hkk"kk osQ fodkl gsrq fiNys dbZ o"kksZa
ls vufxur dk;ZozQeksa] ;kstukvksa] uhfr;ksa vkSj fu;eksa dks fozQ;kfUor fd, tkus dk Ikz;kl
gqvk gSA exj fiQj Hkh buosQ Åij ßkl vkSj fouk'k dk [krjk de ugha gqvk gSA bl ys[k
esa bl fn'kk esa vc rd osQ fd, x, iz;klksa dks larks"kzin ugha ekurs gq, blosQ fy, Lora=k
Hkk"kkuhfr vkSj vdkneh dh ”k:jr Ikj ”kksj nsus dh dksf'k'k dh x;h gSA blls Hkk"kk;h
ladV osQ lek/ku dh fn'kk esa oqQN Bksl vkSj egRoiw.kZ iz;kl fd, tk ldrs gSa] ftlls
u osQoy y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dks] cfYd lHkh Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dks
Hkh ykHk gksxkA blls cgqHkk"kk&Hkk"kh Hkkjrh; ifjos'k esa cgqHkkf"kd f'k{kk ;kstuk dh fn'kk
dk ekxZ Hkh iz'kLr gksxkA
fofHkUu vk;[email protected];ksa osQ ifjizs{; esa Lohdkjrs gq, Hkk"kkuhfr;ksa osQ fuekZ.k] fØ;kUo;u
vkSj lao/Zu dk Hkh ç;kl fd;k x;k gSA bl
Hkk"kk
Hkkjr esa Lora=krk osQ ckn ftruh Hkh jk"Vªh;
;kstuk,¡ cuh gSa] muesa jk"Vªh; ,drk vkSj jk"Vªh;
psruk dh çkfIr osQ fy, f'k{kk osQ {ks=k dks ,d
vko';d vkSj egRoiw.kZ {ks=k osQ :i esa fpg~fur
fd;k x;k gSA mlesa Hkk"kkvksa osQ egÙo dks
laca/ esa vyx&vyx vk;ksxksa vkSj lfefr;ksa osQ
lq>koksa ij è;ku nsdj ge vius cgqHkk"kh lekt
esa vkt cgqHkk"kh f'k{kk vkSj y?kq] vYila[;d
rFkk vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa osQ lq/kj rFkk fodkl
osQ ckjs esa oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç;kl dj ldrs gSaA
· ,lksfl,V izksI+ksQlj (fganh)] Hkk"kk f'k{kk foHkkx] ,ulhbZvkjVh] Jh vjfoan ekxZ] u;h fnYyh
Chap-5.indd 50
4/13/2015 3:26:25 PM
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk Hkk"kk uhfr---
MkW- jk/k o`Q".ku vk;ksx (1948) us vius
egRoiw.kZ lq>ko esa dgk Fkk fd (1) mPprj
ekè;fed Lrj ij Nk=kksa dks rhu Hkk"kkvksa dk
Kku djk;k tk;sµ
(d) çknsf'kd Hkk"kk
([k) la?kh; Hkk"kk
(x) vfganh Hkk"kk
blosQ vfrfjDr mudk ;g Hkh lq>ko Fkk
fd fo'ofo|ky; Lrj ij lHkh d{kkvksa esa fganh
dh f'k{kk nh tk;sA
eqnkfy;kj vk;ksx (1952&53) us f}Hkk"kk
lw=k çLrqr fd;k vkSj lq>ko fn;k fd ekè;fed
Lrj ij Nk=k de ls de nks Hkk"kkvksa dk
vè;;u djsaA ,d ekr`Hkk"kk vkSj nwljh fganhA
tgk¡ fganh ekr`Hkk"kk gks ogk¡ fdlh vU; Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa dk vè;;u djk;k tk;sA vk;ksx us ;g
Hkh dgk fd vaxzs”kh vkSj laLo`Qr dks oSdfYid
Hkk"kk osQ :i esa i<+k;k tk;sA
ch-th- [kjs dh vè;{krk esa xfBr Hkk"kk
vk;ksx (1955) us leLr fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa f'k{kk
dk ekè;e fganh cukus dk lq>ko fn;k ,oa mPp
Lrjh; çfr;ksfxrkvks]a tSlµ
s vkbZ-,-,l- esa Hkh
oSdfYid ekè;e osQ :i esa fganh vkSj vU;
Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dks LFkku nsus dh lykg nhA
osaQæh; f'k{kk lykgdkj ifj"kn~ (1956)
us f=kHkk"kk lw=k çLrqr fd;kA blosQ vuqlkj
ekè;fed Lrj osQ çR;sd Nk=k dks rhu Hkk"kkvksa
dk Kku djk;k tkuk pkfg,µ
(i) ekr`Hkk"kk ;k {ks=kh; Hkk"kk
(ii) vaxzs”kh ;k vU; vk/qfud fons'kh Hkk"kk
(iii) fganh Hkk"kk vfganh Hkk"kh {ks=kksa osQ fy, vkSj
dksbZ Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk fganh {ks=kksa osQ fy,A
Chap-5.indd 51
51
dksBkjh vk;ksx (1964&66) us Hkh f=kHkk"kk
lw=k dk lq>ko fn;kA mlosQ vuqlkj Nk=k d{kk
1 ls 10 rd rhu Hkk"kkvksa dk vè;;u djsaA
ekr`Hkk"kk fganh vkSj vaxzs”kh (jktHkk"kk osQ :i
esa)A lkFk gh vk;ksx us lq>ko fn;k fd f'k{kk
osQ fofHkUu Lrjksa ij ekr`Hkk"kk dh f'k{kk dks
ekè;e cuk;k tk;s fdarq fo'ofo|ky; Lrj ij
vaxzs”kh dks f'k{kk dk ekè;e cuk;k tk;sA
f'k{kk vk;ksx (1964) us vius çfrosnu esa
f=kHkk"kk lw=k dh flI+kQkfj'k dh tks bl çdkj gSµ
(1) ekr`Hkk"kk ;k {ks=kh; Hkk"kk (2) osaQæ dh
jktHkk"kk ;k lg jktHkk"kk (3) ,d vk/qfud
Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ;k fons'kh Hkk"kk ftls (1) ;k
(2) esa u j[kk x;k gks vkSj tks f'k{kk osQ ekè;e
ls fHkUu gksA
jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk&2005 esa Hkh
dgk x;k gS fd ^^Hkk"kk f'k{k.k cgqHkkf"kd gksuk
pkfg,] osQoy dbZ Hkk"kkvksa osQ vFkZ esa gh ugha]
cfYd j.kuhfr rS;kj djus osQ fygkt ls Hkh
rkfd d{kk dks ,d lalk/u osQ rkSj ij ç;ksx
esa yk;k tk,A f=kHkk"kk iQkewZys dks mlosQ ewyHkko
osQ lkFk ykxw fd, tkus dh ”k:jr gS] rkfd
og cgqHkk"kh ns'k esa cgqHkk"kh laokn osQ ekgkSy
dks c<+kok nsA xSj&fganhHkk"kh jkT;ksa esa cPps fganh
lh[krs gSaA fganh çns'kksa osQ ekeyksa esa cPpss og
Hkk"kk lh[kas tks ml bykosQ esa ugha cksyh tkrh gSA
bu Hkk"kkvksa osQ vykok vk/qfud Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
osQ :i esa laLo`Qr dk vè;;u Hkh 'kq: fd;k
tk ldrk gSA ckn osQ Lrjksa ij 'kkL=kh; vkSj
fons'kh Hkk"kkvksa ls ifjp; djok;k tk ldrk
gSA** (jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk 2005]
,ulhbZvkjVh] u;h fnYyh)
4/13/2015 3:26:25 PM
52
jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk&2005 esa ;g
Hkh dgk x;k gS fd f=kHkk"kk dk ^^çkFkfed
mís'; Hkkjr esa cgqHkkf"kdrk vkSj jk"Vªh; ln~Hkko
dk çlkj gSA fuEufyf[kr fn'kk&funsZ'k bu y{;ksa
dh çkfIr esa lgk;d gks ldrs gSaA cPpksa dh
?kjsyw Hkk"kkvksa dks LowQy esa f'k{kk dk ekè;e
cuk;k tkuk pkfg,A vxj LowQy esa mPprj
Lrj ij cPpksa dh ?kjsyw Hkk"kkvksa esa f'k{k.k dh
O;oLFkk u gks] rks çkFkfed Lrj dh LowQyh
f'k{kk vo'; ?kjsyw Hkk"kkvksa osQ ekè;e ls gh nh
tk,A ;g vko';d gS fd ge cPpksa dh ?kjsyw
Hkk"kkvksa dks lEeku nsaA** gekjs lafo/ku dh
/kjk 350 ^d* osQ eqrkfcd ^^çR;sd jkT; vkSj
jkT; osQ Hkhrj çR;sd LFkkuh; çkf/dkj Hkk"kk;h
vYila[;d ckydksa dks f'k{kk osQ çkFkfed Lrj
ij ekr`Hkk"kk esa f'k{kk dh i;kZIr lqfo/k dh
O;oLFkk djus osQ fy, ç;kl djsxkA cPps çkjaHk
ls gh cgqHkkf"kd f'k{kk çkIr dj losaQxsA**
Hkk"kkµ oSf'od ifjizs{;
;wusLdks osQ fo'oHkk"kkvksa osQ ekufp=k osQ uohure
laLdj.k esa crk;k x;k gS fd ^^fo'o dh
6000 Hkk"kkvksa esa ls yxHkx 2500 Hkk"kk,¡ ;k rks
yqIrçk;% fLFkfr esa gSa ;k [krjs esa gSaA blesa ls
538 rks cgqr vf/d [krjs esa gSa] 502 cqjh rjg
ls [krjs esa gSa] 632 fuf'pr rkSj ij [krjs esa gSa
vkSj 607 vlqjf{kr gSaA mlh esa ;g Hkh crk;k
x;k gS fd Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk;h ifjos'k dh oqQy
196 Hkk"kk,¡ tks ;wusLdks osQ uD'ks esa 'kkfey gSa]
mlesa ls 84 vlqjf{kr gSa] 62 fuf'pr rkSj ij
[krjs esa gaS] 6 cqjh rjg ls [krjs esa gaS] 35 vR;ar
gh [krjs esa gSa vkSj 9 rks foyqIrq gh gaSA (1950
Chap-5.indd 52
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ls gh)A** (,u ,çkbZ”ky vkWI+kQ n fyafXofLVDl
jkbV~l vkWI+kQ ekbukWfjVh”k bu bafM;k&2013]
FkkWel osusfMDVj)A blh rjg ge ns[kas rks Hkkjr
esa ^^vkBoha lwph esa lwphc¼ 22 Hkk"kk,¡ vkSj
100 osQ vklikl vlwphc¼ Hkk"kk,¡ gSaA Hkkjr
dh iwjh vkcknh osQ 96-56% dk dksbZ u dksbZ
lwphc¼ Hkk"kk gh mldh ekr`Hkk"kk gS tcfd
3-44% vkcknh osQ fy, vlwphc¼ Hkk"kk,¡ gh
ekr`Hkk"kk,¡ gSaA blh rjg yxHkx 234 ekr`Hkk"kk,¡
fpfÉr gqbZ gSa ftldks jk"Vªh; Lrj ij cksyusokyksa
dh la[;k yxHkx 10]000 gSA bl rjg 93
ekr`Hkk"kk,¡ lwphc¼ Hkk"kkvksa esa vkSj 41 ekr`Hkk"kk,¡
vlwphc¼ Hkk"kkvksa esa lwphc¼ gaSA oqQN oSlh Hkh
gSa tks ekr`Hkk"kk,¡ gSa] ftudks 10]000 ls Hkh de
cksyus okys gSaA (,- osQ- feJk] VªkbZcy ySaXost
,aM Vªkbcy ySaXost ,tqosQ'ku ,V ,fyesaVªh yscy
bu bafM;k) Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dk f'k{k.k osQ
vk/kj&i=k esa vYIk] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh
Hkk"kkvksa ij fopkj djrs gq, dgk x;k gS fd
^^vYi] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dks
cksyus okys çk:i viuh Hkk"kk ls oafpr dj
fn, tkus osQ f'kdkj gksrs gSaA tcfd gesa ;g
HkyhHkk¡fr tku ysuk pkfg, fd vaxzs”kh lfgr
39 ns'k dh çeq[k Hkk"kk,¡ buosQ lkFk jgdj gh
iQy&iwQy ldrh gSa] u fd budh dher ijA
;g /kj.kk fd ,d Hkk"kk dk fodkl nwljh Hkk"kk
osQ fodkl esa Hkh lgk;d gksrk gS] blls ge
mEehn dj ldrs gSa fd Hkkf"kd fofo/rk okys
vkfnoklh bykdksa osQ ekeys esa oqQN Hkk"kkvksa dk
fodkl 'ks"k Hkk"kkvksa dks cy çnku dj ldrk
gS] lkFk gh budks cksyus okyksa dks lpsru :i
ls bl vksj #[k djus osQ fy, çsfjr HkhA**
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk Hkk"kk uhfr---
Hkk"kk dk laoS/kfud ifjizs{;
Hkkjr dk lafo/ku Hkkjr dh lHkh vYi]
vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dh lqj{kk
dk nkok djrk gS] D;ksafd og cgqHkk"kkvksa osQ
ç;ksx dks c<+kok nsrk gSA Hkkjrh; lafo/ku dh
/kjk 29 esa dgk x;k gS fd ^^dksbZ Hkh Hkkjr dk
ukxfjd tks Hkkjr osQ Hkhrj ;k Hkkjr osQ fdlh
Hkh {ks=k esa jgrk gS vkSj viuh vyx Hkk"kk&fyfi
vkSj laLo`Qfr j[krk gS] mls mldks O;ogkfjr
vkSj lqjf{kr djus dk vf/dkj gksxkA**
/kjk 30 rks vYi la[;dksa dks bu Hkk"kkvksa
dh f'k{kk osQ }kjk blosQ fodkl vkSj ç;kl dk
vf/dkj o lqj{kk nsrh gSA blesa dgk x;k gS
fd ^^lHkh vYila[;dksa dks pkgs og /eZ ij
vk/kfjr gksa ;k Hkk"kk ij] mls viuh ilan dh
'kS{kf.kd laLFkkvksa dh LFkkiuk vkSj lapkyu dk
vf/dkj gksxkA**
/kjk 350 ^d* osQ vuqlkj ^^çR;sd jkT;
vkSj jkT; osQ Hkhrj çR;sd LFkkuh; çkf/dkj
Hkk"kk;h vYila[;d oxksaZ osQ ckydksa dks f'k{kk
osQ çkFkfed Lrj ij ekr`Hkk"kk esa f'k{kk dh
i;kZIr lqfo/kvksa dh O;oLFkk djus dk ç;kl
djsxkA**
/kjk 345 fdlh Hkh jkT; dks Lora=krk nsrh
gS fd og vius dkuwu }kjk vius jkT; osQ Hkhrj
fganh ;k fdlh vU; Hkk"kk dks dk;kZy;h Hkk"kk
dk ntkZ nsA ;gh ugha /kjk 120 rks Hkkjrh;
laln esa lkalnksa dks viuh ekr`Hkk"kk esa O;ogkj
djus dh NwV nsrh gSA
bu Hkkjrh; laoS/kfud çko/kuksa osQ ckotwn
Hkh Hkkjr esa Hkk"kk;h ifjos'k dh fLFkfr vR;ar
gh nq%[knk;h gS] D;ksafd oqQN Hkk"kk,¡ gh f'k{kk]
Chap-5.indd 53
53
O;olk;] dk;kZy; vkSj vU; {ks=kksa esa çpyu
esa gksdj viuk opZLo cuk, gq, gSa vkSj oqQN
rks LFkkuh; çpyu rd gh lhfer gksdj vius
vfLrRo dks [kksus osQ Mj ls chp esa gh ne
rksM+ jgh gSaA Hkkjrh; cgqHkkf"kd ifjos'k esa
cgqHkk"kkvksa dk çpyu mfpr gS exj mlesa oqQN
Hkk"kk,¡ gh cgqr oqQN djsa vkSj oqQN fcYkoqQy
gh de vkSj ux.; Hkwfedk çnku djsa rks ;g
vPNh fLFkfr ugha dgh tk ldrh gSA ge ;g
ugha dgrs fd Hkk"kk;h çpyu esa 'krµçfr'kr
lekurk vkSj U;k; okyh O;oLFkk gh dk;e
gks tk;A exj dgha fdlh Lrj ij Hkk"kk;h
vU;k; u gks bldh rks vo'; dksf'k'k dh tkuh
pkfg,A Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkfon~ Mh-ih- iVuk;d dk
Hkh dguk gS fd ^^cgqHkkf"kd lanHkZ esa Hkk"kkvksa
dk O;ogkj vlekurk Hkjs lektksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ
fy, ,d çeq[k dkjd gks ldrk gSA tc rd
;g vlekurk jgsxhA f'k{kk dHkh Hkh fooknksa ls
eqDr ugha gksxhA** blfy, mUgksaus ;g Hkh dgk
fd ^^cgqHkkf"kdrk ek=k vU; dks lEeku nsus dh
uhao ij gh lI+kQy gks ldrh gSA** (iVuk;d
1990] ySaXost ,aM lks'ky b';w
Hkk"kk ls tqM+s ljksdkj
blesa dksbZ nks er ugha fd vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡]
vYila[;d vkSj y?kq Hkk"kkvksa dh fLFkfr Hkkjr
esa Bhd ugha gS D;ksafd muesa ls vf/dka'k
dks ekr`Hkk"kkvksa osQ :i esa f'k{kk osQ ekè;e
vkSj dk;kZy;h dkedkt osQ fy, jkT; dh
ekU;rkçkIr Hkk"kkvksa esa LFkku ugha fn;k x;k
gSA bldks u rks jkT;ksa osQ }kjk leqfpr ntkZ
feyk gS vkSj uk gh f'k{kk esa gh ekè;e osQ
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
54
:i esa bls ç;ksx fd;k tk jgk gSA vf/drj
fo}ku vkSj Hkk"kkfonksa dh ekU;rk gS fd bl
fLFkfr esa vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡
^Hkk"kk;h fouk'k* dk f'kdkj gks jgh gSa vkSj
muosQ vfLrRo dks gh [krjk gksus ls os vius
vklikl dh ncax Hkk"kkvksa dh vksj #[k djus
dks etcwj gSaA ^^cgqHkkf"kd ns'kksa esa dbZ otgksa ls
Hkk"kk vklkuh ls jktuhfr dk eqík cu tkrh gSA
igyk] Hkk"kk j[k&j[kko ;k Hkkf"kd mUufr osQ
ifj.kke ls Hkk"kk;h [krjk] Hkk"kk dh ;kstuk vkSj
Hkk"kk;h p;u osQ }kjk lkaLo`Qfrd] lkewfgd vkSj
oS;fDrd igpku dk ladV mRiUu gks tkrk gSA
blls Hkk"kk dk jktuhfrdj.k gksrk gSA nwljk]
in&çfr"Bk vkSj iSlksa dh çkfIr osQ n`f"Vdks.k
ls Hkh lekt esa Hkk"kkvksa dk çHkko'kkyh gksus
dh çfØ;k Hkh Hkk"kk dks jktuhfrdj.k dh vksj
dks /osQyrh gSA rhljk] jktuhfrd rkdr osQ
fy, Hkh Hkk"kk dks gfFk;kj osQ :i esa bLrseky
fd;k tkrk gSA lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ }kjk 'kkflrksa
ij tcju Hkk"kkvksa dk Fkksiuk vkSj jk"Vªokfn;ksa
}kjk bldk fojks/ fd;s tkus osQ mnkgj.k dks
ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
pkSFkk] Hkk"kk /kfeZd deZdkaM dk gfFk;kj
osQ :i esa Hkh bLrseky gksus ls jktuhfrd gksrh
gSA bLyke dh Hkk"kk vjch] flD[kksa dh xq#eq[kh
fyfi esa iatkch] czãlekt osQ fy, caxkyh vkSj
vk;Z lekth fganqvksa osQ fy, fganhA ,slh fLFkfr
esa Hkk"kk etcwj gS fd og jktuhfrd gksA** ^^Mhih- iêuk;d] ySaXost ,aM ikWfyfVDl)
Hkkjrh; Hkkf"kd ifjos'k esa Hkh Hkk"kkvksa osQ
jktuhfrd gksus dk mnkgj.k feyrk gSA blfy,
;wusLdks dk Hkh ekuuk gS fd ^^,slh fLFkfr tgk¡
Chap-5.indd 54
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ekrk&firk fuj{kj gksaA ;fn LowQy esa i<+kus dk
ekè;e og Hkk"kk gks tks ?kj esa u cksyh tk; rks
xjhch xzflr f'k{k.k osQ ifjos'k esa leL;k,¡ vkSj
Hkh c<+usokyh gks tkrh gaS vkSj blls yxkrkj
^MªkWi vkmV* c<+us dh fLFkfr cyorh gksrh
gSA** (,tqosQ'ku I+kQkWj vkWy] ikWfylh yksosQ'ku
izQkWe gkbZ vphfoax daVªh”k ;wfulsI+kQ LVkI+kQ ofdaZx
isilZ] U;w;kWdZ] ;wfulsI+kQ)
bl fLFkfr esa ”kkfgj gS fd f'k{kk Hkh larqfyr
vkSj lqO;ofLFkr fLFkfr esa ugha gks ldrhA ;gh
otg gS fd Hkkjr esa lHkh 'kS{kf.kd Lrjksa dk
ifjos'k Hkh lq[kn ugha gSA Hkkjr esa Hkk"kk;h
O;ogkj osQ {ks=k esa opZLooknh okrkoj.k dk
ekgkSy gS] ftlls cgqHkkf"kdrk osQ lgh ekgkSy
dks dk;e djus esa ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+
jgk gSA Hkkjr esa vYi vkSj vYila[;d Hkk"kkvksa
osQ ckjs esa Hkh dbZ vo/kj.kk,¡ gSaA oqQN fo}ku
la[;k osQ vk/kj ij rks oqQN çpkj vkSj çlkj dh
O;kidrk osQ vk/kj ij vYi vkSj vYila[;d
Hkk"kkvksa dk fu/kZj.k djrs gSaA cgqer osQ vk/kj
ij vf/dka'kr% vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ gh vYi vkSj
vYila[;d Hkk"kkvksa dh Js.kh esa lac¼ dh
tk ldrh gSA blesa vf/dka'kr% [krjs esa gSA
;g lPpkbZ gekjs jktuhfrKksa] f'k{kkfonksa vkSj
fo}rtuksa dks irk gSA tc lHkh Hkk"kkvksa esa Kku
osQ dkjd gksus dh ckr lHkh Lohdkjrs gSa rks
bu Hkk"kkvksa osQ [krjs esa gksus ls Kku osQ fdlh
vo;o osQ [krjs esa gksus dh laHkkoukvksa ls Hkh
badkj ugha fd;k tk ldrkA bl rjg Hkk"kk;h
[krjs ls gekjs Kku osQ [krjs osQ f”kEesokj dkjdkas
ij Hkh fpark dh tkrh jgh gS] ftlosQ fy,
Hkk"kk uhfr;ksa] vk/qfudrk] Hkk"kkç;ksDrk oxZ dh
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk Hkk"kk uhfr---
ekufldrk vkSj Hkk"kk vkSj vfLrRo dh igpku
vkfn dh vksj b'kkjk Hkj dj fn;k tkrk gSA blh
Øe esa Åij dh Hkk"kk uhfr;ksa osQ lHkh lw=kksa vkSj
ladYiksa dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
^jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk&2005
osQ vuqlwfpr tkfr vkSj vuqlwfpr
tutkfrµlkekftd lanHkZ vkSj orZeku 'kS{kf.kd
ifjfLFkfr* osQ vk/kji=k esa Hkk"kk osQ lanHkZ esa
dgk x;k gS fdµ
(d) LowQyh f'k{kk osQ vkjafHkd o"kksZ esa
ekr`Hkk"kk gh laçs"k.k dk ekè;e gksuh
pkfg,A ;g cPpksa osQ fy, LowQy esa
mfpr ekgkSy cukus vkSj lh[kus osQ fy,
vR;ar vfuok;Z gSA blosQ ihNs f'k{kk
'kkL=kh; /kj.kk ;g gS fd ftldk Kku
gS] mlls ftldk Kku ugha dh vksj
dh ;k=kk lh[kus dks vklku djrh gSA
Hkk"kk og egRoiw.kZ lalk/u gS tks cPpk
vius lkFk ykrk gS vkSj tks fopkj
laçs"k.k o le>us dks laHko djrk gSA
([k) cPpksa osQ vkRe&fo'okl o vkRe&lEeku
dks c<+kok nsus osQ fy, Hkh ekr`Hkk"kk dk
ç;ksx d{kk esa ”k:jh gSA
(x) {ks=kh; Hkk"kk dh rjI+kQ dh ;k=kk ekr`Hkk"kk
ls gh gks ldrh gSA
(?k) tgk¡ Hkh fdlh xk¡o esa ,d ls ”;knk
vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ cksyh tkrh gksa ogk¡
lykg&e'kojk djosQ xzkeh.kksa ls ;k rks
LFkkuh; laidZ Hkk"kk dks ;k cgqla[;;dksa
dh Hkk"kk dk mi;ksx gksuk pkfg,A
(M+) f'k{kdksa osQ çf'k{k.k osQ nkSjku ml
LFkkuh; cksyh esa ijh{kk ikl djuk
Chap-5.indd 55
55
vfuok;Z dj nsuk pkfg,] tgk¡ mldh
cgkyh gksus okyh gksA igys flfoy
lfoZl ikl djus okyksa dks vkfnoklh
bykosQ esa iksfLVax ls igys de ls de
,d vkfnoklh Hkk"kk esa ijh{kk ikl
djuk vfuok;Z FkkA
blh rjg ^Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dk f'k{k.k*
osQ vk/kji=k esa Hkh vYi] vYila[;d vkSj
vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa osQ rgr oqQN ladYiuk,¡ ns[kh
tk ldrh gSa] tgk¡ dgk x;k gS fd ^^;g çys[k
blfy, mEehn djrk gS fd ,slk le; vk,xk]
tc eg”k cksyh tkus okyh Hkk"kk,¡ (vfyf[kr)
LowQyksa esa txg ik,¡xh vkSj viuk vyx
o.kZ&foU;kl] O;kdj.k vkSj 'kCndks'k fodflr
djsaxhA Hkys gh buosQ ekud :i vuqifLFkr gksa]
os lkfgfR;d m|e osQ fy, miyC/ vkS”kkj cu
losaQxh tks Lora=k vfHkO;fDr dks lHkh vk;keksa
esa fodflr gksus dk volj nsrh gaS vkSj çR;sd
Hkk"kk esa Kku osQ vk/kj dks etcwr djrh gSaA
;g m|e vkxs c<+dj lHkh Lrjksa dh f'k{kk
vkSj tulapkj esa bu Hkk"kkvksa dks u;h rjg
dh laçs"k.kdkjh Hkwfedk,¡ o çdk;Z lkSaidj bu
Hkk"kkvksa dh fLFkfr dks Å¡pk mBkus osQ fy,
mUeq[k gksuk pkfg,A cgqr lkjh Hkk"kk,¡ [krjs esa gSaA
cgqHkkf"kdrkokn dks cuk, j[kus osQ gekjs nkoksa
osQ ckotwn oqQN Hkk"kk,¡ okLro esa Hkkjrh;
Hkkf"kd eap ls xk;c gks xbaZA ,d Hkk"kk dks
[kksus dk vFkZ gS& blosQ lkFk lac¼ iwjh dh iwjh
lkfgfR;d o lkaLo`Qfrd ijaijk dk u"V gksukA**
dgus osQ fy, laoS/kfud vkSj 'kS{kf.kd
nLrkos”kksa vkSj nkoksa dh deh ugha gS vkSj 'kks/
rFkk vuqla/ku osQ ekè;eksa ls ekr`Hkk"kk ç;ksx osQ
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
56
egÙo vkSj vko';drk lesr vYi] vYila[;d
vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dh le`f¼ vkSj fodkl
osQ lzksr o laHkkoukvksa o lhekvks ij Hkh
g”kkj rF;] dF; vkSj laHkkouk,¡ fey tk,¡xhA
Hkkjrh; vkSj nqfu;k osQ Hkk"kkfonksa o f'k{kkfonksa
osQ egRoiw.kZ 'kks/ lR;ksa vkSj LFkkiukvksa ls Hkh
dbZ g”kkj vk¡dM+s çLrqr fd, tk ldrs gSaA
exj mu ladYiksa dks O;ogkj vkSj ewrZ :i esa
fØ;kfUor djus esa fdruh ck/k,¡ gSa] ;s de ls
de çcq¼ f'kf{krtuksa ls oafpr ugha gS D;ksafd
os HkyhHkk¡fr tkurs gSa fd f=kHkk"kk lw=k Hkkjr esa
gwcgw lI+kQy ugha gaSA
,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- osQ Hkk"kk f'k{kk foHkkx }kjk
Hkh bl ij vHkh uohu 'kks/ fd;k x;k gS ftlesa
blosQ lgh fØ;kUo;u ij ç'u fpg~u dh ckr
dks Lohdkjk x;k gSA 2006 osQ nkSjku gh ifj"kn~
}kjk çksI+ksQlj vo/s'k oqQekj feJk }kjk ^VªkbZcy
ySaXos”k ,aM VªkbZcy ySaXost ,tqosQ'ku ,V ,yhesaVªh
yscy bu bafM;k* fo"k; ij vè;;u fd;k x;k
tks vc iqLrd :i esa Hkh miyC/ gSA blesa
Hkh dgk x;k gS fd ^^122 Hkk"kkvksa (Hkkjr dk
tula[;k vk;ksx }kjk 2001 esa mYysf[kr) vkSj
234 ekr`Hkk"kkvksa esa ek=k 40 (vaxzs”kh lesr)
Hkk"kk,¡ gh çkFkfed Lrj ij f'k{kk osQ ekè;e osQ
:i esa O;oâr dh tkrh gSA
fliQZ 23 vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ f'k{kk osQ ekè;e
osQ :i esa bLrseky dh tkrh gSaA vHkh rd
ç;ksx esa vkusokyh vkfnoklh Hkk"kk tks ekr`Hkk"kk
osQ :i esa Hkh ç;ksx esa gS] og gS ^cksMks*A
gkyk¡fd >kj[k.M vkSj if'pe caxky esa jkT;
}kjk laFkkyh dks f'k{kk dk ekè;e osQ :i esa
O;ogkj djus osQ fy, fpg~fur fd;k x;k gSA
Chap-5.indd 56
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ljdkjh fu.kZ; dks vHkh Hkh ykxw fd;k tkuk
ckdh gSA ;gh lPpkbZ pkj vlwphc¼ vkfnoklh
Hkk"kkvksa dh gS ftlesa gks] [kfM+;k] oqQMwd vkSj
eqaMkjh Hkk"kk gS ftldk >kj[k.M jkT; esa vHkh I
ls III oxkasZ osQ chp f'k{kk dk ekè;e osQ :i esa
O;ogkj fd;k tkuk gSA ftldk ifj.kke gS fd
vf/dka'kr% vkfnoklh cPps vifjfpr Hkk"kkvksa
dks ekè;e osQ :i esa i<+us osQ fy, e”kcwj gSaA
cgqr gh vPNk mnkgj.k ;g gS fd lgL=kksa Hkhyh
cPps xqtjkr] egkjk"Vª] jktLFkku vkSj eè; çns'k
esa fganh] xqtjkrh vkSj ejkBh dks ekè;e osQ :i
esa i<+us dks foo'k gSaA
gks] [kfM+;k] oqQMwd] eqaMkjh vkSj laFkkyh
cksyus okys cPps >kj[k.M esa fganh dks ekè;e
osQ :i esa i<+us dks foo'k gSaA vkfn] fuf'ka]
vikrkuh] fe'keh] eksaik] flaiQ] ukWdVs] ok¡pw
vkfn cksyus okys cPps v#.kkpy çns'k esa
vaxzs”kh dks ekè;e osQ :i esa i<+rs gSaA fnok'kk]
dkjch] fef'kax] nsoVh] lknjh vkfn cksyus okys
cPps vle esa vlfe;k dks ekè;e osQ :i esa
i<+rs gSaA if'pe caxky esa laFkkyh cksyus okys
cPps ckaXyk dks ekè;e osQ :i esa i<+rs gSaA**
(VªkbZcy ySaXost ,aM VªkbZcy ySaXosst ,tqosQ'ku
,V ,yhesaVªh ysoy bu bafM;k] MkW- vo/s'k
oqQekj feJk i`- 101)
feJk th osQ vè;;u esa gh ik;k x;k gS
fd vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dks fo'ks"k rkSj ij i<+kus
osQ fy, oqQN jkT;ksa dks NksM+dj vf/dka'k txgksa
esa f'k{kdksa dh fu;qfDr ugha dh xbZA f'k{kdksa
dks vkfnoklh Hkk"kk fo'ks"k dks i<+kus osQ fy,
fo'ks"k çf'k{k.k ugha fn;k x;kA f'k{kdksa dks
fdlh Hkh fo"k; dks i<+kus osQ fy, ch-,M- dh
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
y?kq] vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡ rFkk Hkk"kk uhfr---
fMxzh nh tkrh gS exj mudks fdlh Hkh Lrj
ij vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa dks i<+kus dk fo'ks"k
çf'k{k.k ugha fn;k tkrk gSA muosQ fy, fo'ks"k
Lrj dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dks çnku djus dk Hkh
dksbZ fo'ks"k ç;kl ugha fd;k x;kA oqQN /kfeZd
vkSj lkeqnkf;d laxBuksa }kjk Lora=k :i ls
oqQN çkbej cukus dk Hkh mnkgj.k feyrk gS]
ftlesa ;k rks vaxzs”kh ;k fganh dh fo"k;&oLrqvksa
dh udy gksrh gS vkSj jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ vkSj
ikB~;Øeksa osQ vkSfpR; dk dksbZ loky gh ugha
gksrkA ,[email protected] vkSj MkbZV
tSlh laLFkkvksa dks mudh {ks=kh; fofo/rkvksa
dks ckjhdh ls ns[kdj çf'k{k.k osQ fy, fu.kZ;
ysus dh ”k:jr gSA f'k{kk dk ekè;e osQ fy,
Hkk"kkvksa osQ p;u esa leqnk;ksa osQ fu.kZ;ksa vkSj
lq>koksa dks çkFkfedrk nh tkuh pkfg,A
vifjfpr Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkFk f'k{kk dks
ekè;e osQ :i esa i<+kus dh çfØ;k dks NksM+k
tkuk pkfg,A blh osQ lkFk ml vè;k; esa ;g
Hkh ik;k x;k gS fd f=kHkk"kk lw=k ogk¡ fcyoqQy
gh vlI+kQy gks tkrk gS tgk¡ vkfnoklh Hkk"kk
ekr`Hkk"kk gks vkSj mldh fyfi u gksA blfy,
mUgksaus f'k{kdksa osQ fy, Hkkf"kd fodkl vkSj
ikB~;p;[email protected]çf'k{k.k dh vko';drk ij cy nsus
dh flI+kQkfj'k Hkh dh gSA
bl rjg ge ikrs gaS fd vk”kknh osQ ckn
laoS/kfud lqj{kk vkSj ladYiksa dks çnku djus
osQ ckn fofHkUu ljdkjksa vkSj laLFkkvksa osQ ekè;e
ls ;g dgk tk jgk gS fd Hkkjr ,d cgqHkk"kh
ns'k gSA ekr`Hkk"kk dks f'k{kk dk ekè;e cuk;k
tkuk pkfg,A vYila[;d] y?kq vkSj vkfnoklh
Hkk"kkvksa dh le`f¼ vkSj fodkl dk ç;kl fd;k
Chap-5.indd 57
57
tkuk pkfg,A vkfFkZd lkekftd] lkaLo`Qfrd vkSj
'kS{kf.kd n`f"V;ksa ls bu vYi] vYila[;dksa vkSj
vkfnokfl;ksa dh leL;k,¡ cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gSaA
buls laokn laçs"k.k rFkk oSpkfjd vknku&çnku
osQ fy, budh Hkk"kkvksa dk vè;;u vkSj budh
ekr`cksfy;ksa vkSj ekr`Hkk"kkvksa osQ lanHkZ esa ekè;e
Hkk"kk cukus esa vkus okyh leL;kvksa ij fo'ks"k
dk;Z fd, tkus dh cgqr vko';drk gSA blh
lanHkZ esa bl fn'kk esa vkt ”;knk ls ”;knk dk;Z
fd, tkus dh egRoiw.kZ vko';drk gSA 26
tqykbZ 2013 dks jk¡ph ,Dlçsl esa ,d [kcj
Nih Fkh fd >kj[k.M dh N% vkfnoklh Hkk"kk,¡
foyqfIr osQ dxkj ij gSaA blh ls ekywe gqvk
fd >kj[k.M ljdkj us ukS vkfnoklh ,oa {ks=kh;
Hkk"kkvksa dks f}rh; jktHkk"kk dk ntkZ fn;k gSA
jkT; vkSj osaQæ osQ ,sls Hkk"kkxr fu.kZ;ksa
dk Lokxr gSA exj osaQæ vkSj jkT;kas osQ lkFk
feydj iwjs ns'k dh Hkk"kkvksa dh fLFkfr] xfr
vkSj fu;fr ij Bksl fu.kZ; osQ fy, O;kid vkSj
Bksl Hkk"kkuhfr cukdj ml ij dk;Z fd, tkus
dh vkt vge vko';drk gSA [kkldj y?kq]
vYila[;d vkSj vkfnoklh Hkk"kkvksa osQ fodkl
osQ fy, fo'ks"k uhfr vkSj mlosQ fØ;kUo;u
vkfn osQ fy, vxj dksbZ Lora=k Hkk"kk vdkneh
dh LFkkiuk djosQ lqpk: vkSj O;ofLFkr :i ls
dk;Z fd;k tk; rks blls ”;knk ls ”;knk ykHk
gks ldrk gSA blls gkf'k, ij [kM+h Hkk"kkvksa vkSj
mlosQ ç;ksDrkvksa dks u osQoy lEeku feysxk
cfYd mldh lgh igpku ls Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr
dks iQk;nk Hkh gksxkA ;wusLdks dh egkfuns'kd
bjhuk cksdksck osQ 'kCnksa esa dgsa rks ^^ekr`Hkk"kk,¡
ftuesa dksbZ Hkh viuk igyk 'kCn cksyrk gS]
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
58
ogh muosQ bfrgkl ,oa laLo`Qfr dh ewy cqfu;kn
gksrh gSA ;g Hkh fl¼ gks pqdk gS fd LowQy osQ
'kq:vkrh fnuksa esa ogh cPps csgrj <ax ls lh[k
ikrs gS]a ftUgsa mudh ekr`Hkk"kkvksa esa i<+k;k tkrk
Chap-5.indd 58
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
gSA Hkk"kkvksa dk lEeku djuk gh lekt vkSj
muosQ lnL;ksa osQ lkFk fcuk HksnHkko fd, 'kkafriw.kZ
lgvfLrRo dks lqfuf'pr djus dh çeq[k oqQa th
gSA** (jk¡ph ,Dlçsl] 26 tqykbZ 2013)
4/13/2015 3:26:26 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr `ZRo dh
[kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
nhfIr JhokLro·
'kksHkk··
IkzLrqr izi=k cpiu dh ladYiuk vkSj 'kks/ esa blosQ fufgrkFkks± ij fopkj djrk gSµlS¼kafrd
n`f"V ls cpiu osQ lkekftd lajpukRed mikxe osQ vk/kj ij ,d xSj&ljdkjh gkse esa
vofLFkr cPpksa osQ fo'ks"k lkaLo`Qfrd lewg dks fujhf{kr fd;k x;k gSA vè;;u osQ varxZr
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa dks lanHkZ fcanq osQ :i esa iz;qDr djosQ mudh fLFkfr ,oa Lrj esa lgk;d
j.kuhfr;ksa ij ifjppkZ dh x;h gSA···
^^esjk HkkbZ dgrk gS fd rw vukFk gSA eq>s g¡lh
vkrh gSA** ;g 'kCn X;kjg o"khZ; #[klkj osQ gSaA
#[klkj ^gkse* esa jgus okyh mu 75 yM+fd;ksa
esa ls ,d gS tks ,d xSjljdkjh laLFkku }kjk
fnYyh esa 'kgjh xjhc cPpksa dh lqj{kk vkSj
f'k{kk osQ fy, pyk;k tkrk gSA #[klkj vkSj
mldh lkFkh vU; yM+fd;ksa us vius ekrk&firk
vkSj HkkbZ&cguksa ls vyx gksdj gkse esa jgus dk
fu.kZ; fy;k gSA ;|fi ;g fu.kZ; iw.kZr% mudk
ugha gSA ;g le>uk fnypLi gks ldrk gS fd
bl gkse esa ,d lkFk jgrs gq, og fdl izdkj
Lo;a osQ fy, fu.kZ; ysrh gSa vkSj oSQls vius
lkekftd lalkj dks x<+rh gSaA
bl vè;;u }kjk cPpksa dh vkok”k dks
'kks/ dk 'kq:vkrh fcanq cukdj geus cPpksa
osQ lkekftd lalkj esa varfuZfgr xfr'khyrk
dks le>us dk iz;kl fd;k gSA ge ,d
vuwBh O;oLFkk osQ varxZr rhu cPpksa osQ lkFk
,d eghus dh vof/ osQ nkSjku la”khnxh ls
'kkfey gq,] tgk¡ geus ifjizs{; izn'kZu vuqozQe
(Rapley 2007) osQ vk/kj ij cPpksa ls laokn
LFkkfir djosQ muosQ 'kCn laxzg ,oa izlaxksa dks
·;wfuoflZVh Vhpj vflLVsaV] f'k{kk foHkkx] fnYyh fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyh&110007
··'kks/ Nk=kk (,e-fI+kQy-)] f'k{kk foHkkx] fnYyh fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyh&110007
···;g izi=k ys[kdksa osQ Lo;a osQ vuqHkoksa ij vk/kfjr gS vkSj bu vuqHkoksa osQ izLrqrhdj.k esa Hkk"kk dk izokg eglwl gksrk gS] ;|fi
dgha&dgha vukSipkfjdrk >ydrh gS] ijarq Hkk"kk osQ izokg dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, bl ys[k esa Hkk"kk laiknu dj bl izokg dks
jksdus dk iz;kl ugha fd;k x;k gSA
Chap-6.indd 59
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
60
le>us dh ps"Vk dhA ifjizs{; izn'kZu vuqozQe ls
vfHkizk; ;g gS fd geus cPpksa dks cksyus fn;k
rFkk ;Fkksfpr volj feyus ij muls og iz'u
iwNs tks gekjs ewy eqíksa osQ lanHkZ esa izklafxd
FksA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd oSQls vkSj D;ksa ge
cPpksas osQ lkFk laokn esa 'kkfey gq, rFkk oSQls
;g cPpksa dh vkok”k esa vfHkdr`ZRo ls lacaf/r
gSA ge igys gekjk eq[; fo"k;&cPps rFkk blls
lacaf/r gekjs u”kfj, dks n'kkZ,¡xs] rnksijkar ge
cPpksa dh vkok”k esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh i¼fr ,oa
fo'ys"k.kkRed igyw dks Li"V djsaxsA
cPps
fopkjdksa us Lora=k :i ls cPpksa dh ladYiuk
dks dHkh vlH;] iw.kZ/kj.kk jfgr vkSj ;gk¡
rd fd vcks/ ,oa 'kq¼ euq"; osQ :i esa Hkh
izLrqr fd;k gSA tc cPpksa dh ifjHkk"kk dh
rqyuk] o;Ld dh ifjHkk"kk ls dh tkrh gS
rks og fojks/kHkklh izrhr gksrh gS D;ksafd ,d
rjiQ cPpksa dks fu"diV ,oa vcks/ ekuk tkrk
gS ftUgsa fujarj fujh{k.k dh vko';drk gksrh
gS ogha bUgsa rs”k Hkh ekuk tkrk gS tks fodYiksa
dh ryk'k esa jgrs gSaA bl fojks/kHkkl osQ mRiUu
gksus dk eq[; dkj.k ;g gS fd ge cPPkksa dks
o;Ldksa osQ u”kfj, ls ns[krs gSaA (Alanen
2010; Fine and Sanstrom 1988;
Jenks 2005; Waksler 1985) ge cPpksa
dh bu fojks/kHkklh ifjHkk"kk dks Rousseu’s
Emile osQ bl dFku esa Hkh ns[k ldrs gSa tgk¡
og dgrs gaS] ^^cPpksa dks cPps jgus nsuk pkfg,]
;fn ge bl ozQe dks tkucw>dj nwf"kr djrs gSa]
rc gesa ,slk vifjiDo iQy feysxk tks u gh
Chap-6.indd 60
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
idk gqvk gksxk u vPNs Lokn dk gksxk vkSj og
tYn gh lM+ Hkh tk,xk** (Rousseau cited
in Jenks. 2005, p.3)A
o;Ld gksus ls iwoZ cPpksa dks cPpksa osQ :i
esa ns[kk tkrk gSA bldk ,d dkj.k ;g Hkh fd
fopkjdksa us cPpksa dh ladYiuk dks bl ekud
fpark osQ varxZr izLrqr fd;k gS fd oSQls cPps
o;Ld curs gSaA Chris Jenks o;Ldksa osQ
bl n`f"Vdks.k dks opZLork osQ :i esa ns[krs
gSaA ;g opZLork 'kSf{kd {ks=k esa Hkh n`f"Vxkspj
gksrh gS D;ksafd f'k{kk O;oLFkk Hkh lekthdj.k
,oa fodklkRed eukso`fÙk osQ ,sls fl¼karksa }kjk
lwfpr gksrh gS tks cPpksa dks euksoSKkfud ,oa
lkekftd fodkl dh n`f"V ls vifjiDo ,oa
o;Ldksa ij vkfJr ekurh gSA (Parsons
cited in Jenks 1982 ; Piaget cited
in Waksler 1986)A o;Ldksa dh ;g ekud
fpark,¡ u osQoy cPpksa dh vkok”k dks {kh.k
djrh gSa cfYd cPpksa osQ vfHkdr`ZRo rFkk
lkekftd lalkj esa mudh lgHkkfxrk dks Hkh
udkj nsrh gSaA ,d fpark dk fo"k; ;g Hkh gS
fd cPpksa dks lg”k ,oa lkoZHkkSfed ekuk tkrk
gS] ;|fi og vuwBs O;fDrxr] lkekftd ,oa
lkaLÑfrd lanHkZ esa fodflr gksrs gSaA
izÑfrokfn;ksa osQ lkFk ,d vU; leL;k
;g Hkh gS fd og cPpksa osQ n`f"Vdks.kksa dks
oS/rk iznku djus osQ fy, lanHkZ fcanq osQ :i
esa Lo;a osQ cky vuqHko vk/kfjr n`f"Vdks.kksa
dks izkFkfedrk iznku djrs gSaA cgqr ls fopkjd
;g lykg nsrs gSa fd ^^o;Ld vkSj cPps dh
lkekftd lalkj osQ fo"k; esa le> cukus dh
izfozQ;k,¡ ,d leku gksrh gSaA** os fo'okl
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
djrs gSa fd ^^nksuksa osQ fopkj }a} dks gh
ifjyf{kr ugha djrs gSa cfYd os mu dkS'kyksa]
vfHko`fÙk;ksa] ewY;ksa vkSj fo'oklksa dks x<+us eas
Hkh lgk;d gksrs gSa tksfd mudh orZeku ,oa
Hkfo"; esa thou laca/h vko';drkvksa osQ
fy, mi;qDr gksrs gSaA** (Sluckin cited in
Fine and Sanstrom.1988, p.57) fdarq
blosQ foijhr vU; fopkjdksa dk ekuuk ;g
gS fd cPpksa osQ vFkZ ,oa ewY; fuekZ.k dh
fozQ;k,¡ o;Ldksa ls fHkUu gksrh gSaA ^^og lalkj
esa izfr;ksxh O;k[;kdkj gksrs gSa** og crkrs gSa
fd ^^og viuh laLÑfr;ksa dks dC”kkus esas vkSj
vU; laLÑfr;ksa ij mÙkjkf/dkj LFkkfir djus esa
layXu gksrs gSaA** (Robert Mckay cited in
Fine and Sanstrom 1988, p.57) ;g
nksuksa i{k ^^ekudh; ,oa fo'ys"k.kkRed jftLVj
esa mrkj&p<+ko** dks izLrqr djrs gSaA (Alanen
2010, p.5) ;|fi cPpksa osQ 'kks/ ls laca/h
nksuksa fo'ys"k.kkRed ,oa ekudh; mikxe ijLij
izfr}a}h gksrs gaS fdarq 'kks/drkZ cPpksa dh vkok”kksa
dks lanHkZ fcanq osQ :i esa iz;qDr djosQ mudh
fLFkfr vkSj Lrj esa vfHko`f¼ dj ldrs gSa
ftlls nksuksa mikxeksa osQ eè; larqyu LFkkfir
gksxkA (King. 2007)
'kks/ dh izfozQ;k
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa dks lqurs le; 'kks/drkZvksa
dks ;g è;ku j[kuk vko';d gksrk gS fd cPps
nks vyx izdkj dh laLÑfr;ksa esa viuh igpku
dks x<+rs gSaA ,d og laLÑfr tks muosQ Lo ls
lacaf/r gksrh gS nwljh] tks o;Ldksa }kjk x<+h tkrh
gS gkyk¡fd cPps cgqr tYnh ,d laLÑfr ls
Chap-6.indd 61
61
nwljh laLÑfr esa ijkorZu djrs gSa D;ksafd ^^og
bl izdkj dh ifjorZuh;rk ,oa jpukRedrk esa
vR;f/d l{ke gksrs gSaA** (Davies cited
in Tammivaara and Enright 1986,
p. 234) blfy, 'kks/drkZvksa }kjk cPpksa osQ
lkekftd lalkj esa izos'k djus ls iwoZ viuh
Hkwfedk dks fu/kZfjr djuk vko';d gSA izLrqr
'kks/ esa D;ksafd ge cPpksa dh laLÑfr esa cPpksa
dh vkok”kksa vkSj vfHkdr`ZRo dks le>us dk
iz;kl dj jgs gSa blfy, geus muosQ lkFk nksLr
dh Hkwfedk dk fu/kZj.k fd;k gSA gekjk izeq[k
mís'; ;g le>uk gS fd &
• cPpksa osQ lkFk vukozQe.kdkjh laokn dh
izfozQ;k dks le>ukA
• cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esas vfHkdr`ZRo dks
ryk'kukA
ge cPpksa dks lehi ls fujhf{kr djuk pkgrs Fks
blfy, geus ,d ,slh laLFkk dk p;u fd;k
ftlesa cPps u osQoy vyx lkekftd lewg
osQ :i esa jgrs Fks cfYd ;gk¡ cPpksa osQ lkFk
var%fozQ;k djus osQ i;kZIr volj Hkh FksA ;g
fnYyh esa cPpksa dk ,d gkse FkkA 'kks/ lapkyu
osQ fy, bl O;oLFkk esa igq¡p LFkkfir djuk
vis{kr;k ljy Fkk D;ksafd ge bl xSj&ljdkjh
laxBu ^f”kanxh* osQ la;kstd] tquSn dks igys
ls tkurs FksA mUgksaus gesa mÙkjh fnYyh osQ gkse
dh la;kstd lhek osQ ikl HkstkA lhek osQ I+kQksu
ij ckr djus ij mUgksaus gesa crk;k fd cPpksa
ls feyus ls iwoZ gesa laLFkk osQ fdlh dehZ
ls feydj laLFkku ,oa mldh dk;Z iz.kkyh
dks le>uk pkfg, rkfd ge bl laLFkk dh
laLÑfr ls ifjfpr gks losaQA blls gesa ogk¡
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
62
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
dh xfrfof/;ksa ,oa dk;Z&iz.kkyh dh vk/kjHkwr
rkfoZQdrk dk vkHkkl gksxkA geus muls] cPpksa
ls ckrphr djus dh bPNk trkbZ rks mUgksaus
lgefr trkrs gq, dgk fd vki vo'; gh
muls ckr dj ldrs gSa D;ksafd ;gk¡ og ca/d
ugha vfirq Lora=k gSaA vxys fnu geus esVªks
LVs'ku ij igq¡pdj ogk¡ osQ yksxksa ls gkse dk
irk iwNk] tks fd cgqr vanj ck”kkj osQ eè;
vofLFkr FkkA (Lo;a ys[kdksa }kjk vfHkO;Dr)
?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
vc ge ,d iqjkus caxys osQ lkeus Fks ftlosQ
lkeus cgqr cM+k [kqyk eSnku FkkA izos'k }kj ij
cgqr cM+k yksgs dk xsV Fkk ftl ij pSu c¡/h
gqbZ FkhA pSu [kksyus osQ ckn ge vanj gkse
izca/d ls feyus pys x,A gesa gkse osQ ckjs
esa iwjk fooj.k fn;k x;kA fnYyh esa bl gkse
dh LFkkiuk xSj&ljdkjh laxBu ^f”kanxh* }kjk
2008 esa dh xbZ FkhA lekurk esa vius fo'okl
osQ lkFk ^f”kanxh* 'kgjh fnYyh osQ de”kksj oxZ
osQ cPpksa osQ fy, dk;Z djrk gSA bl dk;ZozQe
osQ fozQ;kUo;u dks nks pj.kksa esa fu;ksftr fd;k
x;k gSµ
Chap-6.indd 62
pj.k&1 cPpksa ls laca/ cukuk] vkSj
pj.k&2 lqj{kk] laj{k.k osQ fy, mUgsa gkse
miyC/ djkuk vkSj f'k{kk }kjk
mudh csgrjh osQ fy, dk;Z djukA
mijksDr dk;ZozQe osQ fozQ;kUo;u osQ fy,
fnYyh ljdkj ls laioZQ djosQ lgk;rk dh
ek¡x dh xbZA blosQ ckn ,d le>kSrk Kkiu ij
gLrk{kj fd, x, ftlesa fuEufyf[kr eqíksa dks
js[kkafdr fd;k x;k &
1- cPpksa dh lsok esa gkse ljdkj }kjk miyC/
djok;k tk,xkA
2- ljdkj izfr o"kZ izfr cPpk [email protected]&
miyC/ djk,xh] ftls c<+kdj ckn esa
10]000 izfro"kZ izfr cPpk dj fn;k x;kA
3- ljdkj cPpksa dh vkSipkfjd ,oa futh
fo|ky;ksa esa izos'k laca/h leL;kvksa dks
lqy>kus esa enn djsxhA
;g gkse ljdkj osQ f'k{kk foHkkx }kjk
miyC/ djkbZ xbZ ,d ,slh gh bekjr gSA bl
?kj esa 75 yM+fd;k¡] 2 leUo;d] 3 gkmlenj]
2 f'k{kd] 1 lqj{kk xkMZ vkSj 1 liQkbZ deZpkjh
gSaA gkse esa jgus okyh yxHkx 95» yM+fd;ksa osQ
vfHkHkkod NqfV~V;ksa vkSj R;ksgkjksa osQ le; mUgsa
1
CWC is the sole authority to deal with matters concerning children in need of care and protection.
A Committee has to be constituted for each district or group of districts, and consists of a
Chairperson and 4 other persons one of whom at least should be a womn.
The Committee has the final authority to dispose of cases for the care, protection, treatment,
development and rehabilitation of the children as well as to provide for their basic needs and
human rights. A child rescued from hazardous occupation, brothel, abusive family or other such
exploitative situation must be produced before the CWC who will conduct an inquiry to ensure
optimum rehabilitation with minimal damage to the child. (Source : http://dpjju.com)
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
vius ?kj ysdj tkrs gSaA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ge
gkse dh bl O;oLFkk dks ^^?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj**
dh laKk ns jgs gaSA
;g cPps Hkh[k ek¡xus vkSj owQM+k chuus
dk dke djrs Fks ftUgsa muosQ vfHkHkkodksa
dh lgefr ls mudh lqj{kk ,oa f'k{kk osQ
mís'; ls gkse esa yk;k x;k gSA buesa ls oqQN
cPpksa dks cky dY;k.k lfefr (CWC)1 }
kjk ?kjsyw dfeZ;ksa osQ :i esa Hkh eqDr djk;k
x;k gSA
gkse osQ yxHkx 35 cPps vkSipkfjd
fo|ky; O;oLFkk esa izos'k dj pqosQ gSaA tks
cPps vkSipkfjd fo|ky; O;oLFkk esa ugha gSa
muosQ fy, ljdkj osQ loZf'k{kk vfHk;ku osQ
varxZr vkoklh; fczt dkslZ dh O;oLFkk dh
xbZ gSA (SSA Policy Document 2004)
cPpksa dh igpku
gkse osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,df=kr djus osQ
i'pkr~ geus gkse osQ cPpksa dks tkuus&igpkuus
dh izfozQ;k izkjaHk dhA cPpksa osQ lanHkZ esa xgu
oSpkfjd ,oa O;ogkjxr le> cukus osQ mís';
ls ek=k rhu cPpksa dks (nks X;kjg vkSj ,d ckjg
lky) gh p;fur fd;k x;kA
;g ,d vo;Ld lewg FkkA geus bl vk;q
oxZ dks blfy, pquk D;ksafd bl vk;q oxZ osQ
cPps lekt esa [kqn dks lek;ksftr djus osQ
fofHkUu rjhdksa dh [kkst esa layXu jgrs gSaA ,d
vksj] tgk¡ og Lo;a osQ fo"k; esa le> fodflr
dj jgs gksrs gaS] ogha nwljh vksj og ;g Hkh
tkuus osQ fy, mRlqd jgrs gSa fd lkekftd
lk¡ps esa vU; yksx muosQ ckjs esa D;k lksprs
Chap-6.indd 63
63
gaSA ;|fi gkse esas bu cPpksa ij vfHkHkkodh;
fujh{k.k rks ugha gksrk fdarq og fujarj gkse osQ
vU; o;Ld lnL;ksa osQ i;Zos{k.k esa jgrs gSaA
(Weigert, Teitge and Teitge 1986)
vè;;u osQ nkSjku geus #[klkj (11
lky)] fjgkuk (11 lky) vkSj iwtk (12 lky)
ls ckrphr dhA bl lanHkZ esa gqbZ ckrphr dks
foojf.kr djus ls iwoZ ge ehuk vkSj izfrHkkfx;ksa
ls gqbZ okrkZ osQ vk/kj ij mudk fp=k.k izLrqr
djuk pkgsaxsA
rhu cPps
#[klkj X;kjg lky dh gSA #[klkj osQ ckjs esa
{ks=kh; dk;ZdrkZvksa dks fjgkuk dh ek¡ osQ }kjk
irk yxk FkkA mldh ik¡p cgusa vkSj pkj HkkbZ
gSaA mldh ek¡ chekj jgrh gS vkSj HkkbZ MªXl
dk vkfn gSA mldk HkkbZ ek¡ osQ lkFk nqO;Zogkj
djrk gSA og owQM+k chuus osQ dk;Z ls viuh ek¡
dh vkfFkZd enn djrh gSA
fjgkuk X;kjg o"kZ dh gSA og Lo;a dks
fjgkuk osQ LFkku ij jhuk osQ uke ls lacksf/r
djokuk vf/d ilan djrh gSA og yxHkx nks
lky ls gkse esa jg jgh gSA gkse esa vkus ls
iwoZ og cokuk esa viuh ek¡ osQ lkFk jgrh Fkh
vkSj owQM+k chuus dk dk;Z djosQ mudh vkfFkZd
enn djrh FkhA ^f”kanxh* osQ {ks=kh; dk;ZdrkZvksa
osQ }kjk mls gkse esa yk;k x;k FkkA mldh ek¡
oqQN le; rd blh gkse esa gkmlenj osQ :i
esa dk;Zjr~ Fkh fdarq fdlh dkj.ko'k mudk
LFkkukarj.k dj fn;k x;kA vc mldh ek¡ okil
cokuk pyh xbZ gSA ;|fi fjgkuk dks oqQN le;
rd vkSipkfjd fo|ky; O;oLFkk esa Hkstk x;k
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
64
Fkk ysfdu lek;kstu ls lacaf/r leL;kvksa dh
otg ls mls LowQy NksM+uk iM+kA fjgkuk osQ
lkSrsys firk mlosQ HkkbZ dh gR;k osQ tqeZ esa tsy
dkV jgs gSaA mldh ek¡ dk i+Qksu can gksus osQ
dkj.k og yxHkx ,d eghus ls vius ifjokj
osQ laioZQ esa ugha gSA
iwtk 'kk;n fcgkj ls gSA mls ,d xSj&ljdkjh
laLFkk us uks,Mk ls ,d ?kjsyw Jfed osQ :i
esa eqDr djok;k FkkA mls gkse esa cky dY;k.k
lfefr osQ }kjk Hkstk x;k gSA cky dY;k.k
lfefr us mlosQ }kjk crk, x, irs osQ vk/kj
ij mldk ?kj <w¡<+us osQ iz;kl fd, gaS foaQrq
vius ?kj osQ irs osQ ckjs esa mls ,d /q¡/yk&lk
vkHkkl gh gSA ftl dkj.k cky dY;k.k lfefr
mldk ?kj ugha <w¡<+ ik jgh gSA
mijksDr rhuksa cPpksa dks lksísf'k;d U;kn'kZ
iz.kkyh osQ vk/kj ij p;fur fd;k x;k gSA
tc ge igys fnu gkse x, rks #[klkj gkml
eSustj lhek osQ vklikl ?kwe jgh FkhA mlh fnu
og MkWDVj osQ :i esa Lo;a dk fp=k cukdj
gekjs ikl ykbZA nwljs fnu] tc ge muls feyus
x, rc Hkh mlus gels dkI+kQh ckrphr dh vkSj
tYn gh og gekjh Key informant cu
xbZA vè;;u dh n`f"V ls Key informant
gksuk vko';d Hkh Fkk rkfd ^^izfrHkkfx;ksa ls
Lohdk;Zrk ,oa muosQ eè; iSB dh izfrLFkkiuk
dh tk losQA** (Fine and Sanstrom
1988, p.50)
mlh osQ dkj.k ge iwtk osQ lEioZQ esa vk,A
fjgkuk ls gekjh eqykdkr ml fnu gqbZ tc ge
ehuk ls ^f”kanxh* osQ ckjs esa tkudkjh ,df=kr
dj jgs FksA mlus gekjs uke iwNs vkSj nwljs fnu
Chap-6.indd 64
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ge eSnku esa cSBs #[klkj ls ckr dj jgs Fks rks
og ogk¡ vkdj cSB xbZA ge iQhYM esa u rks iwoZ
fu;ksftr iz'uksa osQ lkFk tkrs Fks vkSj u gh dksbZ
oSQejk ;k VsifjdkWMZj gh lkFk ys tkrs Fks D;ksafd
ge izfrHkkfx;ksa dh izkÑfrd ckrphr esa fo?u
mRiUu ugha djuk pkgrs FksA gkyk¡fd ge bl
laHkkouk ls badkj ugha djrs fd gekjh mifLFkfr
mUgsa ;g lkspus osQ fy, ckf/r djrh gksxh fd
ge ogk¡ D;ksa vkrs gSa\ ;|fi geus ehuk dks
vè;;u dh izÑfr osQ fo"k; esa iwjh tkudkjh ns
nh Fkh ysfdu cPpksa ls igq¡p LFkkfir djus rd
geus mudks vè;;u dh izÑfr osQ fo"k; esa iw.kZ
:i ls O;k[;kf;r ugha fd;k FkkA
lgefr izkfIr
gkse dh O;oLFkk esa ge iw.kZr% vtuch ugha Fks
D;ksafd gkse dh izÑfr gh ,slh Fkh fd fu;fer
:i ls Lo;alsod cPpksa osQ lkFk ckrphr djus
vkSj le; fcrkus osQ fy, vkrs jgrs FksA geus
gkse osQ cPpksa dks crk;k fd ge f'k{kk ladk;
ls gSaA 'kks/drkZ osQ :i esa viuh j.kuhfr osQ
vuqlkj] geus cPpksa ls izR;{k lgefr izkfIr dk
iz;kl u djosQ cPpksa ls ckrphr osQ }kjk mudh
laLÑfr dks le>us vkSj fo'ysf"kr djus dk
iz;kl fd;kA igys fnu eSnku esa cSBs tc ge
#[klkj ls ckr dj jgs Fks] rks mlus dgk ^^;gk¡
lc yksx dke ls vkrs gSa gels feyus dksbZ
ugha vkrk** mijksDr dFku osQ vk/kj ij geus
lgefr izkfIr ls iwoZ cPpksa dh fo'okl izkfIr
dk fu.kZ; fy;kA mlosQ ckn gh 'kks/ osQ fy,
izk;ksftr vU; xfrfof/;ksa vkSj mudh vkok”k
dks fjdkWMZ djus laca/h dk;Z fd, x,A
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
lgefr izkfIr dk dk;Z ge ik¡poha eqykdkr
esa gh dj ik,A tc geus muls iwNk fd] ^^vki
tkurs gSa fd ge dkSu gSa\ vkSj ;gk¡ D;ksa vk,
gaS\** rks fjgkuk us dgk] ^^gesa ekywe gS gels
feyus vk, gksA** ckrphr osQ nkSjku geus mUgsa
crk;k fd ge ;gk¡ ;g le>us vk, gSa fd
vki lc gkse esa ,d lkFk oSQls jgrs gksA ;|fi
lgefr izkfIr ls iwoZ Hkh ge mudh ckrphr dks
lqudj vkSj vr%fozQ;k osQ nkSjku ;Fkksfpr LFkku
ij iz'u iwNdj cPpksa osQ lkFk laokn esa layXu
FksA tc cPps viuh d{kkvksa ls Ikz+ Qh gksrs Fks rks
ge muosQ lkFk cSBrs Fks] [ksyrs Fks vkSj muls
ckrphr djrs FksA cPpksa ls var%fozQ;k dh ;g
izfozQ;k ml le; Hkh tkjh Fkh tc cPps vius
okf"kZd lekjksg (17 vizSy 2010) esa gksus okys
izn'kZuksa osQ vH;kl dk;Z esa O;Lr FksA
cPpksa osQ lkFk laokn
'kks/drkZvksa osQ :i esa dk;Z {ks=k esa geesa oqQN
fuf'pr ewY;ksa ,oa lkaLÑfrd cks> dk varfuZfgr
gksuk lkekU; rks Fkk fdarq nwljh vksj bl ckr dks
è;ku j[kuk Hkh vfuok;Z Fkk fd 'kks/ osQ nkSjku
ge bu ewY;ksa dks nwljksa ij u Fkksi nsaA rkfd
cPpksa osQ lkFk var%fozQ;k dh izfozQ;k lkaLÑfrd
vkozQe.k u izrhr gks (Freire 1997)A blfy,
geus loZizFke dk;Z {ks=k esa fefJr gksus dh
;kstuk cukbZ vkSj lkFk gh cPpksa dks var%fozQ;k
esa dksbZ Hkh fn'kk ysus osQ fy, Lora=k j[kkA bl
dk;Z osQ fy, vf/d le; dh vko';drk Fkh
rkfd vkadM+ksa dk ladyu izkÑfrd O;oLFkk
esa fd;k tk losQ (Taylor and Bogdan
1984)A gesa bl ckr dk vglkl cPpksa ls
Chap-6.indd 65
65
rhljh eqykdkr osQ ckn gqvk tc geus mUgsa
^;krk;kr osQ lk/uksa* ls lacaf/r ,d fp=k
fn[kkus dk iz;kl fd;k tks og viuh i;kZoj.k
vè;;u dh d{kk esa i<+ pqosQ FksA bl fp=k esa
cSyxkM+h] eksVjlkbfdy] dkj vkSj gokbZ tgk”k
osQ izfr:i cus gq, FksA ;|fi gekjk earO; fp=kksa
osQ izfr izfrHkkfx;ksa dh izfrfozQ;kvksa dks le>uk
FkkA ysfdu fp=k ls laca/h gekjh ekU;rk ;g
Fkh fd cPps fp=k esa lkekftd oxZ fofHkUurkvksa
dks ns[kasxs fdaarq mUgksaus bls ,d ikB ;kstuk dh
rjg le>k vkSj ikB osQ vH;kl dk;Z osQ :i
esa viuh izfrfozQ;k,¡ O;Dr djus yxsA
bl dk;Z esa le; O;FkZ djus osQ LFkku ij
ge fjgkuk vkSj #[klkj osQ ikl cSB x, tks
mQij vU; yM+fd;ksa osQ lewg osQ lkFk u`R; dk
vH;kl dj jgh FkhaA gesa ns[kdj #[klkj 'kekZdj
cSB xbZ tcfd vU; yM+fd;ksa us vH;kl tkjh
j[kkA #[klkj dks izkRs lkfgr djus osQ fy, geesa
ls ,d 'kks/d=khZ mlosQ ikl tkdj mlosQ u`R;
dh iz'kalk djus yxh vkSj lkFk gh fyyh (u`R;
f'kf{kdk) osQ ckjs esa ckrphr djus yxhA blh
nkSjku nwljh 'kks/d=khZ us iwtk dks fxV~Vs [ksyus osQ
fy, vkeaf=kr fd;kA ckn esa #[klkj Hkh gekjs
lkFk ogh [ksy [ksyus yxhA geus nks&nks dh Vhesa
cukb±A [ksy osQ nkSjku gesa irk pyk fd #[klkj
us iwtk ls viuh nksLrh okil ikus osQ fy, mlosQ
lkFk uojk=k osQ ozr j[ks gSAa ,d eqfLye yM+dh
dk ,d fganw yM+dh osQ fy, ozr j[kuk vius
vki esa ,d vuwBh ckr FkhA
'kks/d=khZµ rqe jkr dks ;gk¡ lksrs gks rks nksuksa
nksLr ,d lkFk lksrh gksxhA
4/13/2015 3:25:34 PM
66
#[klkj µ igys iwtk esjs lkFk lksrh FkhA vc
lksuh osQ lkFk lksrh gSA
iwtk µ ugha rksA igys lksrh FkhA vc rks
vosQys lksrh gwA¡
'kks/d=khZµ rqe nksuksa cgusa gks\
iwtk µ tks ;gk¡ vkrk gS oks ;gh dgrk gSA
ckn esa tc ge yap osQ fy, tk jgs Fks rks
#[klkj us ogha #ddj iwtk dk bar”kkj fd;kA
nwljh ?kVuk esa tc ge eSnku esa cSBs ;g
ppkZ dj jgs Fks fd vc gesa dc vkuk pkfg,
rks #[klkj us gesa crk;k fd vkidks lkseokj
vkSj eaxyokj dks vkuk pkfg, D;ksafd ml fnu
P.T.M. gS rks geus mlls iwNk&
'kks/d=khZµ PTM esa D;k gksrk gS\
#[klkj µ eEeh&ikik dks cqykrs gSaA
'kks/d=khZµ D;k ckr djrs gSa\
#[klkj µ ugha ekyweA cPpksa dks vanj vkus
ugha nsrsA NksVs cPps gh vanj
vkrs gSaA
'kks/d=khZµ D;k rqEgkjh eEeh dHkh crkrh gSA
PTM esa D;k gksrk gS\
#[klkj µ (xqLls esa) PTM esa eEeh ugha
vkrhA ,d ckj vkbZ Fkh rks eSaus
efj;e dh f'kdk;r yxkbZ FkhA
eEeh us oqQN ugha fd;kA mlosQ
ckn rks eSaus oqQN Hkh crkuk NksM+
fn;kA
;|fi ge lko/kuhiwoZd ifjizs{; izn'kZu
vuqozQe (Repley 2007) osQ vk/kj ij iz'u
iwN jgs Fks fdarq ckrphr osQ nkSjku gh geus
tkuk fd cPps gels oS/rk izkIr djuk pkgrs
gSa vFkkZr~ mudh 'krks± ij gh ge muls ?kfu"B
Chap-6.indd 66
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
fe=krk LFkkfir dj ldrs FksA lkFk gh gesa bl
ckr dk Hkh vuqeku Fkk fd bl fe=krk esa mUgsa
Lok;Ùkrk feys rkfd og Lo;a bl ckr dk
fu/kZj.k dj losaQ fd ge muosQ fdrus djhc
tk ldrs gSaA blfy, dHkh&dHkh og viuh
futrk osQ laj{k.k osQ fy, dksM Hkk"kk dk
Hkh iz;ksx djrs FksA 'kks/drkZ Goody ekurs
gSa fd cPpksa osQ lkFk laokn LFkkfir djus esa
bl izdkj dh dfBukb;k¡ var%fuZfgr gksrh gaSA
cPpksa osQ lalkj dks cPpksa osQ n`f"Vdks.kksa ls
le>uk ,d dfBu pqukSrh gSA (Goody cited
in Tammivaara and Enright 1986)
yacs le; rd lewg dk fujh{k.k djus osQ
i'pkr~ geus ,d vU; pqukSrh dk lkeuk fd;kA
geus mudh ckrphr osQ iSVuZ dks le>us dh
dksf'k'k dhA geus muosQ }kjk iz;qDr 'kCnkoyh
dks owQVc¼ djus vkSj mudh izfrfozQ;kvksa dks
fjdkWMZ djus dk iz;kl fd;kA geus owQVc¼rk
osQ nkSjku mudh bl Nfo dks è;ku esa j[kk fd &
• ;g ,d ,slh ifjfLFkfr izLrqr djsaxs tks
muls ifjfpr gks] rkfd og ifjfLFkfr dks
igpku losaQA
• ;g ljy (u Li"V vkSj u gh jgL;iw.kZ)
vkSj fofHkUu fMdksfMax laHkkoukvksa dks
ifjyf{kr djsaxh (Freire 2005)
• geus #[klkj] fjgkuk vkSj iwtk dks ,d
fp=k fn[kk;k vkSj ml ij izfrfozQ;k O;Dr
djus dks dgk rkfd ge mudh izfrfozQ;k
fjdkWMZ dj losaQA ;|fi og ml dk;Z osQ
fy, lger gks xb± Fkha vkSj lc oqQN iwoZ
fu;ksftr dk;ZozQe osQ vuqlkj fd;k tk
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
jgk Fkk fd vpkud #[klkj us u osQoy
viuh vkok”k fjdkWMZ djus ls euk dj
fn;k cfYd og fjdkWMZj ysdj fyyh osQ
ikl pyh xbZ rkfd og mlesa fyyh dk
xkuk fjdkWMZ dj losQA 'kk;n Vsi&fjdkWMZj
mUgsa vius futh lalkj esa ,d vkozQe.k
;k gLr{ksi izrhr gqvkA blfy, mUgksaus
fjdkWfM±x dk cfg"dkj dj fn;kA gesa ml
dk;Z dks ogha lekIr djuk iM+k vkSj ge
vxys fnu osQ fy, vU; xfrfof/ dh
;kstuk cukus esa tqV x,A
• 'kks/ esa cPpksa ls ckrphr osQ vk/kj ij
js[kkafdr iQhYM uksV~l vkSj mudh MªkbaXl
osQ vk/kj ij muosQ thou ls lacaf/r
FkhEl dks mHkkjk x;k gS ftldk fo'ys"k.k
vxz Hkkx esa fd;k x;k gSA
• cPpksa dh vkok”k esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kks”k
cPpksa dh vkok”k esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst
dk laca/ mudh lkekftd nqfu;k esa lfozQ;
lajpukdkjksa dh Hkwfedk osQ lanHkZ esa gekjh
fparkvksa ls lacaf/r gSA vfHkÑrZRo ls vfHkizk;
cPpksa dh Lo;a ,oa vius vklikl osQ yksxksa
osQ lanHkZ esa Lora=k le> fodflr djus ls
gSA blfy, vfHkdr`ZRo dk vk'k; lkekftd
lajpukvksa esa iw.kZ Lok;Ùkrk dks fozQ;kfUor djuk
ugha gS cfYd og rks <k¡pkxr O;oLFkk esa Lora=k
bPNk vkSj lÙkk gS (Appiah. 2005)A James,
Jenks and Prout osQ vuqlkj ^^cPpksa vkSj
vfHkÑRo dks nks u”kfj;ksa ls ns[kk tkrk gS ftlesa
igyk n`f"Vdks.k ^vkfnoklh cPps* dk gSA blesa
cPps vius lkekftd lewgksa esa fozQ;k'khy vkSj
jpukRed gksrs gSaA nwljk n`f"Vdks.k ^vYila[;d
Chap-6.indd 67
67
cPpksa dk lewg* ;g ekurk gS fd cPpksa dk
O;ogkj vkSj mudh oSpkfjd fozQ;kvksa dks O;kid
lkekftd lajpukvksa esa ns[kk tkuk pkfg,A blesa
cPpksa osQ dk;Z lkekftd lhekarh lewgksa }kjk
ckf/r gksrs gSaA** (James, Jenks and
Front cited in Wyness. 2000, p. 88)
igyk n`f"Vdks.k lkis{krkoknh gS tks fd
cPpksa dks fuf"ozQ; vkSj lekthdj.k osQ vkfn;ksa
osQ :i esa ugha cfYd lkekftd lajpuk esa
lfozQ; fo"k;ksa osQ :i esa ifjyf{kr djrk gSA
nwljk n`f"Vdks.k lajpukRed gS tks cpiu dks
tsaMj] oa'k] tkfr vkfn dh jktuhfrd j.kuhfr osQ
:i esa n`f"Vxkspj djrk gSA blosQ vuqlkj cPps
dh iw.kZ lkekftd igpku osQ fy, mls laLÑfr]
jktuhfr vkSj laiw.kZ lkekftd lajpukRed <k¡ps
esa vofLFkr djuk vko';d gSA
mijksDr nksuksa n`f"Vdks.kksa esa ls ge igys
n`f"Vdks.k ls cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo
dks le>us dk iz;kl dj jgs gSaA ge cPpksa
osQ O;fDrxr lkekftd <k¡pksa ,oa lewgksa esa
muosQ fuekZ.kkRed vfHkdr`ZRo osQ Lo:i dks
le>us dk iz;kl dj jgs gSaA ;gk¡ vfHkdr`ZRo
ls vfHkizk; ;g gS fd cPps nwljksa osQ dk;ks± osQ
lanHkZ esa vius Lo;a osQ dk;ks± dks oSQls le>rs
gSa] lajfpr djrs gSa ,oa muesa cnyko djrs
gSaA ;gh ,d dkj.k gS fd geus gkse esa jgus
okys cPpksa dks gh 'kks/ osQ fy, p;fur fd;k
D;ksafd ;g u osQoy ,d vyx lkekftd lewg
Fkk cfYd 'kks/ osQ fy, lqyHk Hkh FkkA
lkFk gh bl lewg esa cPpksa dks vius vk;q
oxZ osQ cPpksa osQ lkFk fefJr gksus osQ fy,
xqatkb'k Hkh miyC/ FkhA ;g gesa fujh{k.k osQ
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
68
nkSjku j.kuhfr;ksa dh ml iwjh Ük`a[kyk dks le>us
esa Hkh lgk;d Fkh ftuosQ ekè;e ls og viuh
lkekftd lalkj dks vFkZ nsus esa dk;Zjr~ FkhA
voyksdu osQ nkSjku geus Lo;a osQ fy, fu.kZ;
fuekZ.k esa mudh Hkwfedkvksa ,oa vU;ksa osQ izfr
izfrfozQ;kvksa dks le>us dh dksf'k'k dh D;ksafd
;g fparu'khy izfozQ;k gh muosQ vfHkdr`ZRo dks
lajfpr dj jgh FkhA cPpksa osQ lkFk yxHkx ,d
eghus dh vof/ esa lapkfyr laokn osQ vk/kj
ij geus oqQN FkhEl dks js[kkafdr fd;k gS
ftudk lanHkZ cPpksa osQ }kjk iz;qDr 'kCnkofy;k¡
gSaA bu FkhEl dk fo'ys"k.k uhps fd;k x;k gSA
viuÙo
'kks/d=khZ µ;gk¡ rqEgkjh nksLr dkSu gS\
#[klkj µnksLr FkhA vc esjh nksLr fdlh
vksj dh nksLr cu xbZ gSA
#[klkj iwtk dks ilan djrh gSA iwtk dh
nksLrh okil ikus osQ fy, gh oks mlosQ lkFk
uojk=kksa osQ ozr Hkh j[k jgh gSA
nwljh ?kVuk esa #[klkj iwtk osQ fy, iQy
ykbZ vkSj dgus yxh &
#[klkj µ;s [kk ys lqcg ls rwus oqQN [kk;k
gh ughaA
'kks/d=khZ µrqeus Hkh ozr j[kk gSA
#[klkj µgk¡
'kks/d=khZ µD;ksa\
#[klkj µD;ksafd eq>s vPNk yxrk gSA ge
,d lkFk eafnj tkrs gSaA
,d eqfLye yM+dh dk ,d fganw yM+dh
osQ fy, ozr j[kuk vius vki esa ,d vuwBh
ckr gSA LowQyksa esa Hkh bl izdkj osQ /kfeZd
Chap-6.indd 68
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
lekthdj.k dks LFkku fn;k tkuk pkfg, tcfd
;g n`f"Vxkspj gksrk gS fd vkSipkfjd fo|ky;h
O;oLFkk esa /eZ osQ lanHkZ esa ckr gh ugha dh
tkrhA
oks nksuksa lkFk eafnj tkrh gSa vkSj lksrh Hkh
lkFk gh gSa ysfdu oqQN le; ls iwtk us vyx
lksuk 'kq: dj fn;k gSA
#[klkj iwtk dks vius lewg esa 'kkfey
djuk pkgrh gS blfy, mls tc Hkh ekSdk
feyrk gS rks og mls lewg esa 'kkfey djus
dk iz;kl djrh gSA ,d ckj tc ge yksx
yap osQ fy, uhps tk jgs Fks rks #[klkj us
ogha lhf<+;kssa ij #ddj mldk bar”kkj fd;kA
os nksuksa ,d&nwljs osQ lkFk u osQoy vkReh;
laca/ lk>k djrh gaS cfYd vU; yksxksa ls vius
futRo osQ laj{k.k osQ fy, dksM Hkk"kk dk Hkh
iz;ksx djrh gSaA
viuRo dh ;g Hkkouk,¡ ek=k #[klkj dh
vksj ls gh ugha gSa cfYd iwtk Hkh mlosQ fy,
HkkoukRedrk eglwl djrh gSA ,d ckj nksuksa
osQ >xM+s esa geus le>kus dk iz;kl fd;k rks
#[klkj dks xqLls esa ns[kdj iwtk us gesa n[ky
nsus ls euk dj fn;kA ;|fi og nksuksa ,d&nwljs
dks ilan djrs gSa ysfdu [kqn osQ fy, f”kEesnkjh
ysus dk Hk; iwtk dks nwljksa ls ?kfu"B laca/
cukus ls jksdrk gSA mlosQ bl dFku ^^eq>s vius
vki ls Mj D;ksa yxrk gS** esa Hkh ;gh Hkko
>ydrs gaSA
ckn esa] ,d fnu tc geus mUgsa ^esjh nksLr*
dk fp=k cukus dks dgk rks fjgkuk us gkse esa
jgus okyh viuh ,d lgsyh dh rlohj cukbZA
ysfdu #[klkj us viuh nksLr dk fp=k eukus ls
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
euk dj fn;kA ;|fi geus mlls f”kn ugha dh
ysfdu oqQN le; ckn oks ge nksuksa dh rlohj
cuk dj ykbZA ckn esa tc ge uhps tk jgs Fks
rks mlus gesa crk;k fd og iwtk dks ilan ugha
djrhA geus mls crk;k 'kk;n iwtk rqEgsa ilan
djrh gSA gekjs ;g iwNus ij fd iwtk dks gkse
esa lkeatL; laca/h dksbZ leL;k gS rks mlus iwtk
osQ izfr lgkuqHkwfr O;Dr djrs gq, crk;k fd
'kk;n iwtk vius fdlh iwoZ vuqHko ls Xykfu
eglwl djrh gS vkSj blfy, mlosQ eu esa
,d fof=kr izdkj dk Hk; cl x;k gS ftlosQ
dkj.k oks nksLr Hkh ugha cuk ikrh gSA bruh xgu
laosnu'khyrk cPpksa esa varfuZfgr gksrh gS ftls
vkSipkfjd d{kkvksa osQ nkSjku Hkh VVksyus dh
vko';drk gSA
'kksf"kr gksus dk Hk;
fjgkuk vkSj #[klkj viuh vlgk;rk osQ dkj.k
vius 'kksf"kr gksus osQ Hk; dks iznf'kZr djrh gSaA
tc os dgrh gSa]
fjgkuk µ(lksfudk] LokLF;dehZ ls) rqEgkjk
eksckby rksM+ nsuk pkfg,A tc
ns[kks ckr djrh jgrh gksA gekjs
lkFk ckrsa djus dk Vkbe ugha gSA
#[klkj µ;gk¡ lc yksx dke ls vkrs gSaA
gels feyus dksbZ ugha vkrkA
'kksf"kr gksus osQ Hk; dh ewy tM+ mudh
xjhch ,oa vlgk;rk laca/h vuqHkoksa esa fufgr
gSA fnYyh dh lM+dksa ij vkt Hkh yxHkx
50]000 cPps (Save the Children) vius
vki esas bl vlgk;rk dks eglwl djrs gSaA tgk¡
Chap-6.indd 69
69
os fdlh Hkh izdkj osQ vkRe&laj{k.k osQ lk/uksa
ls jfgr gSaA
bl izdkj osQ vuqHkoksa osQ dkj.k gh gkse
dh O;oLFkk esa vkus ij og cPps vius vki dk
vfr laj{k.k djus dk iz;kl djrs gSaA
vosQysiu dk Mj
os HkhM+ esa Hkh vosQysiu osQ Hk; dks vfHkO;Dr
djrh gSaA
'kks/d=khZµdHkh ?kj tkrh gks\
#[klkj µ'kq:&'kq: esa tc vkbZ Fkh rks
eSaus Hkkxus dh dksf'k'k dh FkhA
fiQj eEeh vkbZ FkhA ehuk nhnh us
cqyk;k FkkA vc rks NqfV~V;ksa esa ?kj
tkrh gw¡A 'kq: esa bruh yM+fd;ksa
dks ns[kdj ?kcjk x;h FkhA
mUgsa ;g Hkh yxrk gS fd dgha brus yksxksa
osQ lkFk jgus ls og viuh lÙkk dks u [kks nasA
#[klkj µ?kj esa esjh cgqr f”kn pyrh gSA
;gk¡ pqi jguk iM+rk gSA tc ?kj
esa Fkh rks esjk gkFk njok”ks esa vk
x;k FkkA xqLls esa eSaus [kkuk ugha
[kk;k FkkA
og u osQoy eq[kj gS cfYd vius leku
osQ laca/ esa Lo;a osQ vf/dkjksa dks Hkh O;Dr
djrh gSA
cPph µrqus tks nqiV~Vk iguk gS oks eEeh
ek¡x jgh gSA
fjgkuk µD;w¡ nw¡\ oks esjk gSA
mUgsa bl ckr dk Hkh Hkh vkHkkl gS fd
gkse esa jgrs gq, mUgsa u osQoy cgqr lkjs cPpksa
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
70
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
osQ lkFk cfYd o;Ldksa osQ lkFk Hkh lkeatL;
LFkkfir djuk iM+sxkA ;|fi brus cM+s lewg esa
vius ?kjksa dh rqyuk esa] mUgsa larqyu LFkkfir
djus esa dfBukb;k¡ vo'; eglwl gksaxhA fdarq
bl izdkj dh dfBukb;ksa osQ }kjk gh og l'kDr
cusaxh vkSj bl dk;Z esa f'k{kk mudh enn
djsxhA ;g vglkl #[klkj dks gksrk gS tc
og dgrh gSµ
#[klkj µesjk HkkbZ dgrk gS fd rw vukFk gSA
eq>s g¡lh vkrh gSA eSa i<wx¡ hA cl
LowQy esa ,d ckj uke fy[kk tk,A
'kks/d=khZµrqe cgqr le>nkj gksA
#[klkj µ(vfHkqif"V esa eqLoqQjkrs gq,) esjk
HkkbZ dgrk gS fd rw bZeku ugha
NksM+rhA ;s eSaus lh[kk gSA
viuh igpku dks bruh l'kDrrk ls
x<+us esa gkse dh lajf{kr O;oLFkk vkSj 'kSf{kd
vfHkeq[khdj.k mudh enn dj jgk gSA
fu"d"kZ
mijksDr FkhEl osQ fo'ys"k.k }kjk ;g ifjyf{kr
gksrk gS fd lkekftd lalkj esa vius izk;ksftr
earO;ksa ,oa dk;ks± osQ }kjk cPps viuh Bksl
mifLFkfr n”kZ djkrs gaSA cPps vfHkdr`ZRo
gksrs gSa D;ksafd og lkekftd lalkj esa viuh
fujarj layXurkvksa] izk;kstuksa vkSj fopkjksa osQ
}kjk Lo;a dks lajf{kr djus dk iz;kl djrs
gSaA og Lo;a osQ dk;ks± osQ }kjk gh vius vkSj
nwljksa osQ ckjs esa ,d fuf'pr le> dk fuekZ.k
djrs gSaA bruk gh ugha og vius iwokZuqHkoksa
,oa orZeku osQ fu.kZ;ksa esa varl±c¼rk dh
le> Hkh j[krs gS foaQrq ;g ns[kuk ”k:jh gS
fd ekudh; vkSipkfjd fo|ky; O;oLFkk
esa cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh ;g
lajpuk dgha {kh.k u gks tk,A
lanHkZ
vfIi;kg] osQ- ,- 2005- n ,fFkDl vkWI+kQ vkbMsafVVh- U;w tlhZ] fizalVu ;wfuoflZVh izSl
vyfuu] ,y- 2010- (,sfMVksfj;y)] ^^Vsfdax fpYMªUl~ jkbV~l~ lhfj;lyh**] pkbYMgqM] 17(5)] 5&8
vkIVsdj] ,y- 1944- ^^LVªhV fpYMªu bu n Msoyfiax oYMZµ, fjO;w vkWI+kQ nsvj daMh'ku**] ozQkWl dYpjy
fjlpZ] 28(3)] 195&224
fdax] ,e- 2007- ^^n lks';ksykWth vkWI+kQ pkbYMgqM ,s”k lkbafVfI+kQd dE;qfuosQ'kuµvkWCtosZ'ku izQkWe , lks'ky
flLVEl ilZisfDVo**] pkbYMgqM] 14(2)] 193&215
xouZesaV vkWI+kQ bafM;k] vizSy 2004- loZ f'k{kk vfHk;kuµ, izksxzke I+kQkWj ;w-bZ-bZ-] eSuqvy I+kQkWj Iykfuax ,aM
vizS”ky] U;w MsYgh µ ,e-,p-vkj-MhtsUDl] lh- 2005- pkbYMgqM (2 ,fM'ku)- vkWDlkWuµ:Vyst Vsyj ,aM izQkafll xzqi
tsUDl] lh- (,fM)- 1982- n lks';ksykWth vkWI+kQ pkbYMgqM- yanuµcSV~l~iQksMZ
tsEl- ,- ,aM izkmV ,- (,fM-)- 1997- dUlVªfDVax ,aM jhdUlVªfDVax pkbYMgqM- yanuµI+kQkYej izSl
Vsyj] ,l- ts- ,aM cksXMu] vkj- 1984- baVªkMD'ku Vw DokfyVsfVo fjlpZ eSFkM~l~µn lpZ I+kQkWj ehfuax
(2 ,fM'ku)- U;w;kWdZ µ tkWu foyh ,aM lal
Chap-6.indd 70
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
cPpksa dh vkok”kksa esa vfHkdr`ZRo dh [kkst µ ?kj ls nwj ,d ?kj esa
71
rEehokjk] ts- ,aM ,UjkbV] Mh- ,l- fnl- 1986- ^^vkWu ,fyflfVax baI+kQkWesZ'kuµMkbykWXl~ fon~ pkbYM baI+kQkWesZaV~l~**]
,UFkzksiksykWth ,aM ,tqosQ'ku DokVZjyh] 17(4)] 218&318
iQkbu] th- ,- ,aM lSaMLVªkWe] osQ- ,y- 1988- yhfoax fpYMªu%ikVhZflisaV vkC”kosZ'ku fon~ ekbulZ- U;w MsYgh] lst
izsQjs ik- 1997- izks< lk{kjrkµeqfDr dh lkaLo`Qfrd dkjZokbZ- fnYyh µ xa/k f'kYih izdk'ku
2005- ,tqosQ'ku I+kQkWj fozQfVdy dkaf'k;lusl- yanu µ cSV~l~iQksMZ
HkkLdju] vkj- ,aM esgrk] ch- 2011-lokZbfoax n LVªhV~l~µ, lsall vkWI+kQ LVªhV fpYMªu bu MsYgh ck; n
baLVhV~;wV I+kQkWj g~;weu MsoyiesaV ,aM lso n fpYMªu- U;w MsYgh] lso n fpYMªu
okWDlyj] ,I+kQ-lh- 1986- LVfMax fpYMªu µ iQhukWfeuksykWftdy bulkbl~] g~;weu LV~Mh”k] 9 (1)] 71&82
ok;usl] ,e-th- 2000 µ dkWUVsfLVax pkbYMgqM- yanuµ I+kQkYej izSl
Chap-6.indd 71
4/13/2015 3:25:35 PM
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
jf'e JhokLro·
orZeku ifjizs{; esa i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k ,d ,slh leL;k gS] ftlls laiw.kZ fo'o xzLr gSA
fLFkfr;k¡ cn~ ls cn~rj gks tk,¡] mlls iwoZ gh bl fn'kk esa vko';d dne mBk, tkus
pkfg,A f'k{kk dks bl fn'kk esa ,d egRoiw.kZ lk/u osQ :i esa iz;qDr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
vkt ;g ”k:jh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS fd vk/qfud thou 'kSyh osQ foLrkj o fodkl dh xfr osQ
lkFk rkyesy fcBkus osQ Øe esa viuh izÑfr osQ lkFk ”;knk NsM+&NkM+ u dh tk,A uohu
oSKkfud [kkstksa osQ lkFk ;g ”k:j ns[kk tk, fd muosQ iz;ksx ls i;kZoj.k dks uqdlku
u gksA muls izkIr ykHk dk otu muls gksus okyh gkfu ls dgha de gksA fodkl o foLrkj
dh xfr osQ lkFk i;kZoj.k osQ lkFk dksbZ le>kSrk u Lohdkj djus dh ekufldrk i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd igq¡pkbZ tk ldrh gSA vr% bl fn'kk esa gj laHko iz;kl
fd, tkus pkfg,A
bZ'oj iznÙk bl /jrh ij tgk¡ geus tUe fy;k
gS] mls izk;% bl dnj viuk le>rs gSa fd
blosQ lkFk dgk¡ ukbalkiQh dj cSBsa le> gh
ugha ikrsA ,d NksVk cPpk jkg pyrs viuh gj
ph”k ek¡ dks Fkek nsrk gSA ek¡ rw bls idM+] bls
Hkh vkSj bls HkhA bl idM+&idM+kbZ esa cPpk
;g ugha ns[krk fd ek¡ rks Fkd jgh gSA ml ij
mlus bruh ph”ksa ykn nh gSa fd mldk pyuk
eqf'dy gks jgk gSA viuh /jrh] viuh izÑfr
osQ lkFk ge euq";ksa us Hkh oqQN ,slk gh fd;k gSA
mlosQ nsus dks c<+s gkFkksa ij geus viuh ”k:jrksa
dh bruh lkjh ek¡xksa dk cks> ykn fn;k gS
fd fLFkfr;k¡ xM+cM+k x;h gSaA bl vlarqyu us
i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k dks tUe fn;k gSA ;gk¡ i;kZoj.k
'kCn ij è;ku nsaA i;kZoj.k 'kCn ^ifj* vkSj
^vkoj.k* nks 'kCnksa ls feydj cuk gSA ifj dk
vFkZ gS pkjksa vksj vkSj vkoj.k dk vFkZ gS <dk
gqvkA vFkkZr~ i;kZoj.k 'kCn dk vk'k; gekjs pkjksa
vksj ik, tkus okys lkekftd] lkaLd`frd ,oa
izkÑfrd okrkoj.k ls gSA gekjh f'k{kk O;oLFkk
lkekftd ,oa lkaLÑfrd i;kZoj.k osQ izfr lnSo
laosnu'khy jgh gS fdarq izkÑfrd i;kZoj.k osQ
izfr f'k{kk O;oLFkk esa mis{kk dh fLFkfr fn[kkbZ
nsrh gS] vkt rs”kh ls gq, vkS|ksfxd fodkl
us izkÑfrd okrkoj.k dks vlarqfyr fd;k gSA
gkyr ;g gS fd vkt ihus osQ ikuh dks 'kq¼
·vflLVsaV izksI+ksQlj (ch-,M-)] efgyk fo|ky; fMxzh dkyst] y[kuÅ (m-iz-)
Chap-7.indd 72
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
73
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
fd, fcuk ikuh ihuk laHko ugha gSA cM+h&cM+h
feyksa vkSj Ik+ QS fDVª;ksa esa vif'k"V ty cxSj lkIk+ Q
fd, unh&ukyksas esa ;w¡ gh cgk fn, tk jgs gaAS ikuh
esa vusd jlk;uksa rFkk vkifÙktud lzkoksa ls og
nwf"kr gks jgk gS tks fd leqnhz thoksa osQ fy, Hkh
gkfudkjd gSA feyksµ
a Ik+ QS fDVª;ksa ls fudyus okys
/q,¡ vkSj xSlksa us ,d vksj tgk¡ ok;q dks nwf"kr
fd;k gS ogha jklk;fud [kkn vkSj dhVuk'kd
nokb;ksa osQ iz;ksx ls feV~Vh dh moZjrk de gks
jgh gSA vFkkZr~ lH;rk osQ fodkl vkSj viuh
thou 'kSyh dks vk/qfud] lqfo/klaiUu cukus
osQ Øe esa geus izkÑfrd lalk/uksa dk nksgu rks
fd;k gh gS] mUgsa nwf"kr Hkh fd;k gSAS ;gh gekjh
f”kEesnkjh vkus okyh ihf<+;ksa osQ fy, c<+ tkrh
gSA ;g ”k:jh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] fd Hkkoh ih<+h dks
foKku o rduhdh dk Kku nsus osQ lkFk&lkFk
muosQ iz;ksx esa vko';d lko/kuh cjrus dh
fn'kk Hkh fn[kkbZ tk,A ;gha gekjh f'k{kk O;oLFkk
ij ,d cM+h f”kEesnkjh ;g Hkh c<+ tkrh gS fd
og cPpksa rFkk cM+kas dks i;kZoj.k laj{kj.k osQ izfr
Hkh ltx cuk;sA
orZeku f'k{kk O;oLFkk esa bls i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk dk uke fn;k x;k gSA okLrfodrk ;g
gS fd bl fn'kk esa fd, x, iz;kl cgqr
izHkkoiw.kZ ugha gks losQ gSa] ftlls i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
vius y{; dks izkIr ugha dj ldh gSA vr%
vko';d izrhr gksrk gS fd i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dks
vkSj vf/d O;ogkfjd o #fpiw.kZ cuk;k tk,]
bldh laf{kIr foospuk fuEuor~ gSA ;gk¡ lcls
igys n`f"V Mkysa fd i;kZoj.k f'k{kk gS D;k\
vkSj blosQ fy, D;k iz;kl fd, tk jgs gaS\
Chap-7.indd 73
osQ lsfeukj esas i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk dks Li"V djrs gq, dgk x;k Fkk]
^^i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ nkf;Roksa dks tkuus rFkk
fopkjksa dks Li"V djus dh og izfØ;k gS ftlls
euq"; viuh laLÑfr vkSj tSo&HkkSfrdh ifjos'k
osQ eè; vius vkidh lac¼rk dks igpkuus
vkSj le>us osQ fy, vko';d dkS'ky vkSj
vfHko`fÙk dk fodkl dj losQA i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
i;kZoj.k dh xq.koÙkk ls lacaf/r izdj.kksa osQ
fy, O;ogkfjd lafgrk fuekZ.k djus rFkk fu.kZ;
ysus dh vknr dks Hkh O;ofLFkr djrh gSA**1
vesfjdk osQ dhys fo'ofo|ky; us
loZizFke i;kZoj.k dks ikB~;Øe osQ vfHkUu vax
osQ :i esa Lohdkj fd;kA 1972 esa la;qDr jk"Vª
la?k osQ }kjk LVkWdgkse (LohMu) esa vk;ksftr
119 ns'kksa osQ lEesyu esa la;qDr jk"Vª i;kZoj.k
dk;ZØe (UNEP) dk tUe gqvkA la;qDr jk"Vª
'kSf{kd i;kZoj.k dk;ZØe (UNEP) us la;qDr
jk"Vª 'kSf{kd foKku vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj"kn~
(UNESCO) osQ lg;ksx ls ,d u;h dk;Z
laLFkk baVjus'kuy ,Ukok;juesaVy ,tqosQ'ku
izksxzke (IEEP) dk xBu fd;k bl laLFkk us
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh oSKkfud :ijs[kk fufeZr
dj dk;Z dks xfr nhA blosQ rgr dk;ZØe dks
fuEukafdr Lo:iksa esa foHkkftr fd;k x;kA
• dk;ZØe osQ fy, fo'o osQ ns'kksa dk
oxhZdj.kA
• varjkZ"Vªh; vkSj {ks=kh; Lrj dh cSBdksa dk
vk;kstuA
• varjkZ"Vªh; vkSj {ks=kh; cSBdksa esa lg;ksx
vè;;u] losZ{k.k o 'kks/ dk;ZA
IUCN (1970)
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
74
• i;kZoj.k laca/h lkfgR; dk izdk'kuA
• f'k{k.k izf'k{k.k gsrq fo'ks"k dk;ZØeA
;gk¡ fo'ks"k ckr ;g gS fd Hkkjr Hkh (IEEP)
osQ dk;Z{ks=k dk fgLlk cuk vkSj ekpZ 1983]
iQjojh 1985] vizSy 1987 ,oa iQjojh 1989 esa
IEEP osQ lg;ksx ls Hkkjr esa fofHkUu dkWUizsaQl
vkSj dk;Zxksf"B;k¡ vk;ksftr dh x;haA vkt Hkkjr
ns'k i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ izfr laosnu'khy gS vkSj
bl fn'kk esa vko';d dne mBkus dks rRij gSA
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk mís';
;w¡ rks Hkkjr esa i;kZoj.k laj{k.k o mlls izse dh
Hkkouk ,d lkaLd`frd fojklr jgh gSA Hkkjr
osQ fofHkUu ozr] R;ksgkjksa esa izÑfr laj{k.k dk
lans'k lekfgr gksrk gS] fdarq rhoz vkS|ksxhdj.k
vkSj vk/qfudhdj.k osQ lkFk cnyrh lkekftd
O;oLFkkvksa us tulkekU; esa i;kZoj.k osQ izfr
mnklhurk dk Hkko fodflr fd;k gS] ;gh dkj.k
gS fd gesa Hkh i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dks c<+kok nsus dk
iz;kl djuk gksxkA
IEEP }kjk vk;ksftr izFke varjkZ"Vªh;
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk;Zxks"Bh] tks fd 1975 esa 13
ls 22 vDrwcj rd eè; csyxzsM (;wxksLykfo;k)
esa laiUu gq;h i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ y{; ,oa
mís'; fu/kZj.k esa lokZf/d lI+kQy jgh FkhA
bl dk;Zxks"Bh esa cus csyxzsM ?kks"k.kk i=k
(Belgrade Charter) us i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ
y{; o mís'; osQ foLr`r {ks=k dh rjI+kQ gekjk
è;ku vkÑ"V fd;kA
csyxzsM dk;Zxks"Bh esa fofHkUu nLrkos”kksa
dks vafre :i fn;k x;k] tks vkxs pydj
frfofylh (14&26 vDrwcj 1977) varjkZT;h;
Chap-7.indd 74
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
dkWUizsaQl dk vk/kj cusA bu <sjksa izfØ;kvksa
osQ ifj.kkeLo:i] {ks=kh; cSBdksa] lEesyuksa dh
vuq'kalk osQ vk/kj ij i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ
fuEukafdr izeq[k mís'; fu/kZfjr gq,A2
1- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk lHkh O;fDr o lekt dks
laiw.kZ i;kZoj.k vkSj mlls lacaf/r leL;kvksa
osQ izfr tkx:drk vkSj laosnu'khyrk nsus
esa lgk;d gksA
2- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk lHkh O;fDr] lekt o
leqnk; dks laiw.kZ i;kZoj.k vkSj mlls
lacaf/r leL;kvksa dh vk/kjHkwr le>
izkIr djus o mlesa euq"; dh f”kEesnkjh
dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus esa lgk;d gksA
3- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk lHkh O;fDr] lekt vkSj
leqnk; dks i;kZoj.k osQ fy, xgjh fpark
djus] lkekftd nkf;Ro fuHkkus vkSj mldh
lqj{kk vkSj lq/kj ykus osQ fy, fd, tk jgs
dk;ksZa esa izsfjr djus esa lgk;d gksA
4- i;kZoj.k leL;kvksa osQ gy [kkstus osQ
dkS'ky izkIr djus esa lgk;d gksA
5- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk lHkh O;fDr] lekt vkSj
leqnk; dks i;kZoj.kh; mik; rFkk 'kSf{kd
dk;ZØeksa dks ifjfLFkfrd] jktuhfrd]
vkfFkZd] lkekftd] lkSan;Zijd vkSj 'kSf{kd
?kVdksa osQ ifjizs{; esa ewY;kadu djus esa
lgk;d gksA
6- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk O;fDr] lekt vkSj leqnk;
dks i;kZoj.kh; leL;kvksa dk mfpr <ax ls
gy fudkyus dh vk'oLrrk osQ izfr egÙkk
vkSj f”kEesnkjh dh Hkkouk fodflr djus esa
lgk;d gksA
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
75
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
Chap-7.indd 75
vFkkZr~ i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk mís'; O;fDr]
lekt o leqnk; esa i;kZoj.k osQ izfr tkx:drk]
Kku] vfHko`fÙk] dkS'ky] ewY;kadu oqQ'kyrk o
laHkkfxrk dks lqfuf'pr djuk gSA tulkekU;
dks ;g fl[kkuk gS fd og izÑfr ls mruk gh
ys ftruh mls ”k:jr gS] mlls bl izdkj ys
fd i;kZoj.k dks uqdlku uk gksA gekjh f'k{kk
O;oLFkk us Hkh i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ bu mís';ksa dks
Lohdkj fd;k gS vkSj buosQ vuq:i dk;Z ;kstuk
dks foLrkj nsus gsrq iz;Ru'khy gSA
cM+s gh ?kkrd gks ldrs gaSA fo'o leqnk; dks
bu izkÑfrd leL;kvksa dh tkudkjh nsuk o
muosQ fujkdj.k osQ mik;ksa ls voxr djkus osQ
fy, i;kZoj.k f'k{kk vfr vko';d gSA foKku
rduhdh fodkl vkSj ifjfLFkfrdh osQ lanHkZ
esa cnyrs lkekftd ewY;ksa dk ewY;kadu djus
gsrq Hkh i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh fo'ks"k mikns;rk gSA
bldh enn ls euq"; dh lksp] mlosQ n`f"Vdks.k
o O;ogkj esa ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl fd;k tk
ldrk gSA
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh vko';drk
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk izk:i
u;h jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr 1986 osQ [kaM 8 esa dgk
x;k gS fd ^okrkoj.k osQ izfr tkx:drk mRiau
djus dh vR;f/d vko';drk gSA ;g ckydksa
ls vkjaHk djosQ lHkh vk;q o lekt osQ lHkh
oxksaZ esa O;kIr gksuh pkfg,A* ge lHkh tkurs
gSa fd vkS|ksfxd Økafr o oSKkfud miyfC/;ksa
osQ iQyLo:i lq[k&lqfo/k osQ lalk/uksa us
pkjksa vksj iznw"k.k iSQyk;k gSA buls cpko gsrq
vko';d tkx:drk dk;ZØe i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
osQ ekè;e ls Hkyh izdkj fn;k tk ldrk
gSA blh rjg fo'kky izkÑfrd lalk/u dh
Hkh dgha u dgha viuh ,d lhek gSA muosQ
mfpr vkSj cqf¼eÙkk iw.kZ mi;ksx dh ”k:jr
tulkekU; esa iSnk djus gsrq i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
vfr vko';d gSA rhoz tula[;k o`f¼ lkekU;
izkd`frd pØ dks vO;ofLFkr dj jgh gSA
vr% rRlaca/h tkx:drk gsrq Hkh i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
vfr vko';d izrhr gksrh gSA vkt i;kZoj.k
iznw"k.k laiw.kZ fo'o dh Toyar leL;k gS] vr%
bl leL;k dh vuns[kh osQ ifj.kke Hkfo"; esa
Hkkjr esa 1988&89 ls i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk;ZØe
pyk, tk jgs gSaA jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj
izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ us izkFkfed o gkbZLowQy osQ
i;kZoj.k laca/h ikB~;Øe dk fu/kZj.k Hkh fd;k gSA
ifj"kn~ us rRlaca/h ikB~;iqLrosaQ] funsZ'ku lkexzh]
lwpukRed iqLrosQa o n`';&JO; lkexzh Hkh fufeZr
dh gSA3
;gk¡ è;ku nsuk gksxk fd i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
fliZQ rF;ksa dh tkudkjh ns fn, tkus rd
lhfer ugha gSA pw¡fd ;gk¡ f'k{kk dk mís';
ckyd&ckfydkvksa esa rRlaca/h tkx:drk dk
lapkj Hkh gSA vr% i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk izk:i
foLr`r gksuk pkfg,A ftlesa fuEufyf[kr i{k
lekfgr fd, tk ldrs gSaµ
(v) fo|ky;h ikB~;Øe
fdlh Hkh fo"k;oLrq dks f'k{kk esa lekfgr
djus dk lcls lgt rFkk izHkko'kkyh ekè;e
fo|ky;h ikB~;Øe gksrk gSA ikB~;Øe esa
lfEefyr fo"k;oLrq d{kk f'k{k.k osQ ekè;e ls
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
76
ckydksa rd Lor% igq¡p tkrh gSA ;gh dkj.k gS
fd jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr 1986 us f'k{kk osQ izR;sd
Lrj (izkFkfed] ekè;fed o mPp f'k{kk)
ij i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dh egÙkk dks Lohdkj
dj rRlaca/h LowQyh ikB~;Øe fuekZ.k dk
mÙkjnkf;Ro ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- rFkk mPp f'k{kk
Lrj osQ ikB~;Øe fuekZ.k dk mÙkjnkf;Ro bPNqd
fo'ofo|ky;ksa dks lkSaikA fo|ky; ikB~;Øe esa
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dks lekfgr djus osQ lkFk&lkFk
gessa bl rF; dh vksj Hkh vo'; è;ku nsuk
gksxk fd ;gk¡ rRlaca/h lwpuk,¡ f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa rd
igq¡pk nsuk gh gekjk mís'; ugha gS] ;gk¡ mís';
rRlaca/h tkx:drk o laosnu'khyrk mRiUu
djuk Hkh gSA vr% izkFkfed Lrj ij viuh
izÑfr] vius vkl&ikl osQ isM+&ikS/kas] if{k;ksa]
ty] Fky vkfn osQ fy, ckydksa esa izse dk Hkko
mRiUu djus okys xhr o dFkk] dgkuh vkfn
cM+s gh ykHkizn gks losQaxsA
blosQ lkFk gh rRlaca/h fØ;kdyki]
tSlsµikS/kas dks ikuh nsus ls ikS/k lw[k tkus ls
cp ldk] iwQyksa dks u rksM+us ls og mlls gksus
okys nnZ ls cp ldk tSlh NksVh&NksVh dgkfu;k¡
mlosQ fnyks&fnekx ij ,slk vlj NksM+ ldus esa
l{ke gSa fd d{kk 1&2 dk Nk=k lqcg&lqcg ?kj
osQ vkl&ikl osQ ikS/ksa dks ikuh nsus dks rRij
fn[kkbZ nsxkA gesa vo'; gh ,sls NksVs&NksVs xhr
o dgkfu;k¡ cPpksa osQ ikB~;Øe esa lfEefyr
djus pkfg,A
ekè;fed Lrj ij bUgsa foLrkj nsdj
lwpukizn cukuk ykHkizn gks losQxkA bl Lrj
ij fo|kFkhZ izÑfr] o izkÑfrd lalk/uksa osQ
fo"k; esa le>us yxrs gSaA og viuh [kqn dh
gkfu&ykHk osQ lkFk&lkFk lkekftd ykHk&gkfu
Chap-7.indd 76
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
osQ laca/ esa Hkh laosnu'khy gks mBrs gSaA ekuo
dY;k.k vkSj ns'k fgr esa mudh #fp fn[kkbZ
nsrh gSA vr% bl Lrj ij i;kZoj.k f'k{kk ikB~;Øe
esa i;kZoj.k dh leL;k vkSj muosQ ?kkrd
ifj.kkeksa ls Nk=k&Nk=kkvksa dks ifjfpr djk;k tk
ldrk gSA
mPp f'k{kk esa i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ ikB~;Øe
esa rF;kRed fo'ys"k.k] okLrfod fLFkfr] leL;k
osQ dkj.k] mlosQ lek/ku osQ mik; vkfn dks
lekfgr fd;k tkuk ykHkizn gSA bl Lrj rd
ikB~;Øe dks bruk izHkkoiw.kZ cukuk gksxk fd
;gk¡ ls fofHkUu O;olk;ksa esa izos'k dj ;qok oxZ
i;kZoj.k laLFkku osQ izfr laosnu'khy jg losQA
,d bathfu;j dks mlosQ }kjk cuk;h x;h e'khu
ls mRiUu iznw"k.k dh tkudkjh vo'; gks vkSj
og blosQ cpko osQ fy, mik;ksa dh [kkst Hkh
dj losQ] ,slh rRijrk mlesa vo'; iSnk dh
tk losQA
blh izdkj ,d MkWDVj] ,d oSKkfud] ,d
f'k{kd] ,d odhy] ,d iz'kklfud vf/dkjh
o ,d m|ksxifr dks ;g vo'; irk gks fd
og dgk¡&dgk¡ i;kZoj.k osQ izfr vlaosnuk'khy
gS vkSj mls dgk¡&dgk¡ lko/kuh cjrus dh
vko';drk gSA csgrj mPp f'k{kk izkIr dj ,d
m|ksxifr ;qok us ;fn ,d dkj[kkuk LFkkfir
dj mPp Lrj dk mRiknu fd;k rks cM+h vPNh
ckr gS] ;gk¡ mldh fMxzh dk csgrj mi;ksx gqvk
ysfdu dkj[kkus ls fudys fo"kSys ikuh us ;fn
unh ukyksa dks fo"kSyk dj fn;k rks ckr Bhd
ugha gSA vr% mPp f'k{kk osQ izR;sd Lrj ij
rRlaca/h O;olk; o izR;sd O;olk; osQ lkFk
i;kZoj.k dks gks jgh gkfu dh tkudkjh vo';
nh tkuh pkfg,A fu%lansg buls cpko dk dk;Z
Hkh ikB~;Øe dk fgLlk gksxkA
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
/soku (2008) us f'k{kd izf'k{kqvksa ij
fd, x, vius ,d vè;;u esa ik;k fd
f'k{kd izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dh Nk=kkè;kidksa
o Nk=kkè;kfidkvksa esa i;kZoj.k tkx:drk
fodflr djus esa dksbZ lkFkZd Hkwfedk ugha gSA4
;g fLFkfr Bhd ugha gSA mPp f'k{kk osQ fofHkUu
ikB~;Øeksa eas i;kZoj.k tkx:drk laca/h
lwpuk,¡ o fØ;kdyki vo'; lekfgr gksus
pkfg,A dbZ O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa esa i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk dks tksM+k x;k gSA bathfu;fjax dkWystksa
o fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa rFkk esfMdy dkWystksa osQ
ikB~;Øe esa ,d vo;o osQ :i esa i<+k;k tk
jgk gSA vFkZ'kkL=k esa u;k iz'ui=k ^vFkZ'kkL=k esa
i;kZoj.kh; vè;;u* osQ uke ls tksM+k x;k gSA
tokgjyky usg: fo'ofo|ky;] u;h fnYyh esa
LowQy vkWI+kQ ,Uok;juesaVy lkbal dh LFkkiuk
dh x;h gSA*5 f'k{kd izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa esa
Hkh i;kZoj.k laj{k.k laca/h dk;Z;kstukvksa dks
lekfgr fd;k tkuk pkfg,A nkl us i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk osQ ikB~;Øe fu/kZj.k esa eq[;r% vuqowQyrk]
vkd"kZd] miyC/rk o loZlqyHkrk ij ”kksj fn,
tkus dh ckr dks egRoiw.kZ ekukA6
(c) ikB~; lgxkeh fØ;k,¡
ikB~;Øe esa lfEefyr fo"k;oLrq Nk=k&Nk=kkvksa
dks izk;% rF;kRed lwpuk iznku djus dk dke
djrh gSA bu rF;kRed lwpukvksa dks ikB~;
lgxkeh fØ;kvksa osQ ekè;e ls fØ;kRed :i
fn;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.kLo#i ekè;fed Lrj
dh d{kk esa i<+k;s x, ikB~;Øe dh mi;ksfxrk o
ns[kHkky ls izkIr rF;kRed lwpuk dks o`{kkjksi.k
dk dk;ZØe ;k i;kZoj.kh; [ksy vkfn osQ }kjk
Chap-7.indd 77
77
fØ;kRed :i fn;k tk ldrk gSA fo|ky;ksa
esa ikB~; lgxkeh fØ;kvksa osQ varxZr i;kZoj.k
laj{k.k dks izksRlkgu nsus osQ fy, i;kZoj.k xhr
izfr;ksfxrk] i;kZoj.k ukV~; izfr;ksfxrk] i;kZoj.k
fp=kdyk izfr;ksfxrk o okn&fookn vkSj fuca/
izfr;ksfxrk vkfn dk vk;kstu Hkh fd;k tk
ldrk gSA bu izfr;ksfxrkvksa osQ ekè;e ls fopkj
fofue; o laizs"k.k rks gks gh losQxkA Nk=k&Nk=kk,¡
[kqydj viuh ckr dg losQaxsA muesa i;kZoj.k
laj{k.k dh #fp fodflr gks losQxhA
mPp f'k{kk laLFkkuksa esa izd`fr laj{k.k dk;Z
o`gn ikS/kjksi.k] tyk'k;ksa dh liQkbZ] izkd`frd
lalk/uksa dk laj{k.k vkfn dks ikB~; lgxkeh
fØ;kvksa esa lfEefyr dj i;kZIr tkx:drk
fodflr dh tk ldrh gSA blh izdkj
i;kZoj.k vè;;u tSls fofHkUu 'kks/ izkstsDV]
fØ;kRed vuqla/ku] i;kZoj.k fLFkfr izfrosnu
rFkk i;kZoj.k fopkj&fofue; dk;ZØeksa] tSls
lsfeukj] dk;Zxks"Bh] fopkjxks"Bh vkfn i;kZoj.k
f'k{kk gsrq ykHkizn gks ldrs gSaA
(l) tkx:drk dk;ZØe rFkk fØ;kdyki
fo|ky;ksa vkSj egkfo|ky;ksa rd i;kZoj.k f'k{kk
dk foLrkj dj lacaf/r leL;k dk lek/ku
iwjh rjg gks lduk laHko ugha gSA izÑfr dh
ns[kHkky dk f”kEek /jrh ij jgus okys IkzR;sd
euq"; dk gS] blfy, mlosQ laj{k.k laca/h
tkx:drk dk foLrkj tu&tu rd igq¡pkuk
gksxkA Hkkjr esa i;kZoj.k osQ {ks=k esa fofHkUu
vk;keksa dh tkudkjh izkIr djus] mu ij fopkj
foe'kZ djus vkSj mls gj Lrj vkSj gj vk;q
oxZ osQ yksxksa rd igq¡pkus osQ fy, vkt vusd
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
78
xfrfof/;k¡ vk;ksftr dh tk jgh gSaA budk
lapkyu Hkkjr ljdkj vkSj jkT; ljdkjksa osQ
i;kZoj.k foHkkx osQ fn'kk funsZ'k ij vk/kfjr
gSA bu ij gksus okyk vkfFkZd O;; Hkh nksuksa
vfHkdj.k feytqy dj dj jgs gaSA fØ;kUo;u
dk dk;Z 'kSf{kd laLFkk,¡] i;kZoj.k osQ {ks=k
esa dk;Zjr~ Lo;alsoh laLFkk,¡] usg: ;qok osaQnz]
fo'ofo|ky;ksa osQ dfri; foHkkx] LdkmV ,oa
xkbM~l dh LFkkuh; 'kk[kk,¡] yk;Ul ,oa jksVjh
Dyc vkfn osQ ekè;e ls fd;k tkrk gSA bu
dk;ZØeksa dk y{; i;kZoj.k osQ ckjs esa lkekU;
tkudkjh dk ,d=khdj.k] u;h tkudkjh rFkk
lwpukvksa dh [kkst] yksxksa rd igq¡pkus osQ fy,
dk;ZØeksa dh rS;kjh o fofHkUu dk;Zdykiksa }kjk
tkudkjh rFkk lwpuk yksxksa rd igq¡pkuk gSA
;gk¡ è;ku nsuk gksxk fd i;kZoj.k laj{k.k
laca/h uhfr fu;e cuk nsus] lEesyuksa rFkk
xksf"B;ksa vkfn ls dksbZ fo'ks"k ykHk rc rd
u gksxk tc rd fd ge viuh izÑfr ls izse
djuk u lh[k losQaxsA pkSgku rFkk dBSr blosQ
fy, Hkkjrh; ikjaifjd vkn'kksZa o uhfr fu;eksa
dh vksj gekjk è;ku vkÑ"V dj izÑfr izse
osQ Hkko dks vaxhÑr djus ij ”kksj nsrs gSaA7
ikjaifjd Hkkjrh; jhfrµfjok”k isM+&ikS/ksa]
i'kq&if{k;ksa dk iwtu buosQ laj{k.k osQ lkFk&lkFk
buosQ izfr izse dk Hkko iSnk djrs gaSA vr%
bu jhfrµfjok”kksa dks iquthZfor djuk Hkh
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk dk ,d vko';d vax gSA 'kgjh
vkSj xzkeh.k {ks=kksa esa jgus okys izkS<+ksa osQ fy,
Chap-7.indd 78
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
vukSipkfjd ekè;e ls i;kZoj.kh; f'k{kk nh
tkuh Hkh bl fn'kk esa ,d egRoiw.kZ dne gks
ldrh gSA bu lewgksa esa /kfeZd vkSj ikSjkf.kd
dFkkvksa }kjk i;kZoj.k laj{k.k laca/h ldkjkRed
lans'k izsf"kr fd, tk ldrs gSaA pyfp=k] jsfM;ks]
nwjn'kZu] izn'kZuh] ukjs] iksLVj vkfn osQ ekè;e
ls Hkh ns'k osQ tu&tu rd vius i;kZoj.k osQ
izfr izse o mldh ns[k&js[k vkSj laj{k.k dh
tkx:drk fodflr dh tk ldrh gSA
Li"V gS fd orZeku ifjizs{; esa i;kZoj.k
iznw"k.k ,d ,slh leL;k gS ftlls laiw.kZ fo'o
xzLr gSA fLFkfr;k¡ cn~ ls cn~rj gks tk,¡ mlls
iwoZ gh bl fn'kk esa vko';d dne mBk, tkus
pkfg,A f'k{kk dks bl fn'kk esa ,d egRoiw.kZ
lk/u osQ :i esa iz;qDr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
vkt ;g ”k:jh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS fd vk/qfud
thou 'kSyh osQ foLrkj] fodkl dh xfr osQ
lkFk rkyesy osQ fcBkus osQ Øe esa viuh
izÑfr osQ lkFk ”;knk NsM+&NkM+ u dh tk,A
uohu oSKkfud [kkstksa osQ lkFk ;g ”k:j ns[kk
tk, fd muosQ iz;ksx ls i;kZoj.k dks uqdlku
u gksA muls izkIr ykHk dk o”ku muls gksus
okyh gkfu ls dgha de u gksA fodkl o
foLrkj dh xfr osQ lkFk i;kZoj.k osQ lkFk
dksbZ le>kSrk u Lohdkj djus dh ekufldrk
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd
igq¡pkbZ tk ldrh gSA vr% bl fn'kk esa gj
laHko iz;kl fd, tkus pkfg,A
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
79
i;kZoj.k f'k{kk µ vko';drk ,oa izk:i
lanHkZ
xks;y] ,e-osQ- 2012- i;kZoj.k f'k{kk- vxzoky ifCyosQ'ku] vkxjk- i`- 374&375
pkSgku] jes'k flag rFkk dBSr] eatw- 2009- ^^i;kZoj.k f'k{kk ,d Toyar leL;k dk var**] f'k{kk fparu] 8]32]
f=kewfrZ laLFkku] dkuiqj] i`- 27
VaMu] mek rFkk xqIrk v#.kk- 2000- mnh;eku Hkkjrh; lekt esa f'k{kd- iwoZ lanfHkZr i`- 596
- 2012- mnh;eku Hkkjrh; lekt esa f'k{kd- vkyksd izdk'ku] vkxjk i`- 595
nkl] ch-Mh- 1987- boSY;q,'ku ,aM ekWfuVfjax vkWI+kQ ,sUok;juesaVy ,tqosQ'ku izksxzke fon fjQzstu Vw ,uthZ b';w
bu Msoyfiax daVªh] nsf[k;s bUok;juesaVy ,tqosQ'ku I+kQkWj oaQ”kosZ'ku ,aM MsoyiesaV] ns'kca/q rFkk th- csjczsV
}kjk laikfnr] bafM;u ,sUok;juesaVy lkslkbVh] banzizLFk LVsV] u;h fnYyh] i`- 527
/soku] lhek- 2008- ,sUok;juesaVy vos;jusl vkWI+kQ ^^I;wfiy Vhpj**] bafM;u tuZy vkI+kQ Vhpj ,tqosQ'ku]
vUosf"kdk] us'kuy dkmafly I+kQkWj Vhpj ,tqosQ'ku] 5] 2] fnlacj] u;h fnYyh] i`+- 46
iQkbuy fjiksVZ baVjus'kuy ofo±Qx ehfVax vkWu ,suok;jesaVy ,tqosQ'ku n LowQy dfjoqQye- 1987- (baVjus'kuy
;wfu;u I+kQkWj oaQ”kosZ'ku osQ;j ,aM uspqjy fjlkslsZ”k 1970) m¼`r vxzoky osQ-lh- ,suok;juesaVy ck;ksykWth
,xzks cksVsfudy ifCy'klZ] chdkusj] i`- 306
Chap-7.indd 79
13-04-2015 PM 12:16:51
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr 9oha
d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd dk
f'k{kdksa dh izfrfØ;kvksa osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu
galjkt iky·
uhye oekZ··
vk'kk iky···
ikB~;p;kZ ,oa IkkB~;Øe osQ vk/kj Ikj IkkB~;iqLrdksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA IkqLrdksa dk fuekZ.k]
mudk ewY;kadu ,oa ifjektZu lrr~ pyus okyh izfØ;k gSA izLrqr 'kks/&Ik=k esa eè;izns'k
jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr uoha d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh IkkB~;IkqLrd dk ewY;kadu
fd;k x;k gSA pw¡fd iqLrd dk mi;ksx iBu&IkkBu esa fo|kFkhZ ,oa f'k{kd nksuksa gh djrs
gSaA vr% IkzLrqr IkqLrd dh xq.koÙkk ,oa vU; igyqvksa ij f'k{kdksa dh izfrfØ;k dk vè;;u
fd;k x;k gSA iqLrd osQ ewY;kadu ls irk pyrk gS fd Ikzdk'kdksa dh lk[k vPNh ,oa
ys[kdx.k ;ksX; Ikk, x,A iqLrd esa jaxhu fp=kksa dk la;kstu ,oa lgk;d IkqLrdksa dh lwph
ugha ikbZ xbZA IkqLrd esa Ikjh{kk ls lacaf/r lq>ko ugha Fks ijarq fo"k;&oLrq esa Ikzekf.kdrk
ikbZ xbZA
izLrkouk
fo|kFkhZ] f'k{kd ,oa ikB~;p;kZ f'k{kk osQ vfHkUu
vax gSaA ikB~;p;kZ fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj f'k{kdksa osQ
chp lh[kus&fl[kkus dh dM+h osQ :Ik esa dke
djrh gSA ikB~;p;kZ osQ varxZr leLr okafNr
xfrfof/;k¡ vkrh gSa] tks fo|ky; osQ rRoko/ku
esa lapkfyr gksrh gSa vkSj tks fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
lok±xh.k fodkl esa lgk;d gksrh gSaA ikB~;fooj.k
dh iwfrZ gsrq vè;;u e.My }kjk ikB~;iqLrosaQ
vuq'kaflr dh tkrh gSaA ikB~;fooj.k os gSa]
·vkpk;ZZ ,oa ladk;kè;{k] f'k{kk vè;;u'kkyk nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj (e-iz-)
··'kks/ Nk=kk f'k{kk vè;;u'kkyk nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj (e-iz-)
···lgk;d izkè;kfidk] 'kkldh; gksydj foKku egkfo|ky;] bankSj (e-iz-)
Chap-8.indd 80
4/13/2015 3:24:00 PM
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;---
81
ikB~;iqLrdksa esa Hkh fujarj ifjorZu gksuk gh
pkfg,A bls v|ru (updated) cuk, j[kus
osQ fy, Hkh ewY;kadu vko';d gSA
ewyr% budk ewY;kadu blosQ miHkksDrkvkssa
rFkk vè;kidksa ,oa fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk fd;k tkuk
pkfg,A ikB~;iqLrd osQ ewY;kadu osQ {ks=k esa
vusd 'kks/ dk;Z gq, gaS] tSls lsfB;k (1970)
us eè; izns'k dh ekè;fed d{kk dh jk"Vªh;d`r
lkekU; foKku dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk vkykspukRed
ewY;kadu fd;kA oky~oydj (1971) us d{kk
izFke] r`rh; rFkk prqFkZ dh xf.kr fo"k;
dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk vkykspukRed ewY;kadu
fd;kA [ksj (1972) us d{kk pkSFkh dh bfrgkl
dh ikB~;iqLrd dk vkykspukRed ewY;kadu
fd;kA ikS{ks (1972) us d{kk pkSFkh dh Hkwxksy
ikB~;iqLrd dk vkykspukRed ewY;kadu fd;kA
osQdjs (1979) us cky lkfgR; o ikB~;iqLrdksa
esa izLrqr fo"k; oLrqvksa dk rqyukRed vè;;u
fd;kA flag (1979) us bankSj fo'ofo|ky;
vkSfpR;
dh jk"Vªh; izkS<+ f'k{kk dk;ZozQe gsrq ikB~;
ikB~;iqLrd xq.koÙkkiw.kZ gS vFkok ugha bldk lkexzh dk ewY;kadu fd;kA 'kekZ (1985) us
Kku] gesa buosQ ewY;kadu }kjk gh izkIr gks izkFkfed Lrj ij foKku] lkekftd foKku ,oa
ldrk gSA ewY;kadu }kjk gesa ;g Kkr gks ldrk Hkk"kk ikB~;iqLrdksa esa mi;ksx dh xbZ Hkk"kk dh
gS fd ikB~;iqLrd fdu&fdu mís';ksa dh iwfrZ O;kidrk dk vè;;u fd;kA fiijb;k (1989)
dj jgh gaS rFkk dkSu&ls mís';ksa dh izkfIr us Hkk"kk o lkekftd vè;;u dh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa
ugha gks jgh gS vFkok vkaf'kd :i ls gks efgykvksa dh fLFkfr dk fo'ys"k.kkRed vè;;u
jgh gSA vPNh ikB~;iqLrd osQ dkSu&ls xq.k fd;kA vackjklq (1992) us ewY;ksUeq[krk dk
ikB~;iqLrd esa gaS rFkk dkSu ls yk, tkus gSaA vè;;u] mPp izkFkfed Lrj dh vaxzs”kh Hkk"kk
ikB~;iqLrd ys[kdksa dks ikB~;iqLrd ij izfriks"k dh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa fd;kA ikVhnkj (1994)
Hkh ewY;kadu ls gh izkIr gksrk gS vkSj fiQj us lkekftd vè;;u d{kk vkBoha dh nks
ls lq/kj osQ rjhosQ Hkh irk pyrs gSaA pw¡fd fofHkUu ikB~;iqLrdksa esa of.kZr lkekftd iwokZxzgksa
ikB~;p;kZ] fujarj ifjofrZr gksrh jgrh gS vr% dk ikB~;ozQe fodkl gsrq fo'ys"k.k fd;kA
ftuesa bfPNr vf/xe dk laxBu ,oa lajpuk
vè;kid ls vè;kid dks ,oa vè;kid ls
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks laifsz "kr dh tkrh gaAS (pkaMyj]
1985)ikB~;iqLrdksa ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd
os laKkukRed] HkkokRed] euksxked vkfn i{kksa
osQ mís';ksa dh iwfrZ djsxa h fdarq okLro esa ikB~;
iqLrosQa bu lHkh mís';ksa dh iwfrZ ugha dj ikrh gaAS
vè;;u&vè;kiu izfozQ;k esa ikB~;iqLrdksa
dk egRoiw.kZ LFkku gksrk gSA cPpksa dh #fp]
mez vkSj vko';drkuqlkj ikB~;iqLrosaQ f'k{k.k
osQ Lrj dks izfrfcafcr rFkk LFkkfir djrh gaSA
ikB~;iqLrdksa ls tgk¡ ,d vksj f'k{kd ykHkkafor
gksrs gSa] ogha nwljh vksj ckydksa osQ fy, Hkh
ikB~;iqLrdksa osQ vusd ykHk gksrs gaSA uohu f'k{kdksa
rFkk Nk=kkè;kidksa osQ fy, rks ikB~;iqLrdksa dk
mi;ksx djuk cgqr gh vko';d gSA fu'p;
gh f'k{k.k dks lI+kQy cukus esa ikB~;iqLrdksa dk
egRowi.kZ LFkku gSA
Chap-8.indd 81
4/13/2015 3:24:00 PM
82
MksosQ (1994) us ,e-,M- Lrj ij 'kSf{kd iz'kklu
osQ ikB~; fooj.kksa dk ewY;kadu ,oa oSdfYid
ikB~; fooj.k izfrekuksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA
eksgUrh (1987) us 10oha d{kk dh bfrgkl dh
ikB~;iqLrdksa dk HkkSfrd o 'kS{kf.kd fo'ks"krkvksa
osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu fd;kA lR;kFkhZ (2003)
us izkFkfed f'k{kd izf'k{k.k osQ f'k{kd dk;ZozQeksa
dk f'k{k.k izf'k{k.kkfFkZ;ksa }kjk ewY;kadu ij 'kksèk
dk;Z fd;kA rkoM+s (2006) us jkT; lalkèku
osaQnz eè; izns'k }kjk izdkf'kr lk{kjrk dh
ikB~;iqLrdksa dk ewY;kadu fd;kA lksuh (2006)
us Ik;kZoj.k f'k{k.k gsrq eè; izns'k ikB~;iqLrd
fuxe }kjk fuèkkZfjr iqLrdksa dk leh{kkRed
vè;;u izkFkfed Lrj osQ lanHkZ esa fd;kA ,LosQ
(2007) us eè; izns'k ikB~;iqLrd fuxe }kjk
fuèkkZfjr fganh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ewY;ksUeq[krk
dk vè;;u d{kk 6 ls 12 rd fd;kA dksjh
(2008) us eè; izns'k ikB~;iqLrd fuxe }kjk
fuèkkZfjr bfrgkl dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk ewY;kadu
(iwoZ ekè;fed Lrj osQ lanHkZ esa) fd;kA iky
,oa oekZ (2013) us eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk
osaQnzz }kjk fufeZr 9oha d{kk dh foKku fo"k;
dh ikB~;-iqLrd dk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh izfrfozQ;kvksa
osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu fd;kA ;gh ugha
,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- osQ ladk; lnL;ksa }kjk Hkh Ikfj"kn~
}kjk cukbZ xbZ jk"Vªh; Lrj dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk
ewY;kadu le;≤ ij fd;k tkrk gSA bl
ewY;kadu ls ikB~;iqLrd lq/kj dh IkzfozQ;k dks
yxkrkj cy feyrk gSA vU; jkT;ksa esa Hkh ;g
izfozQ;k pyrh jgrh gSA
Chap-8.indd 82
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
orZeku esa eè; izns'k esa ikB~;p;kZ lq/kj
dh izfozQ;k osQ varxZr cukbZ xbZ d{kk 9 dh
foKku dh iqLrosaQ fo|ky;ksa esa ykxw gSa] ysfdu
bu ij 'kks/dk;Z ugha gqvk gSA bu IkqLrdksa esa
vkxs lq/kj gsrq budk ewY;kadu fd;k tk ldrk
gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd izLrqr vè;;u ^^eè;
izns'k ikB~;iqLrd fuxe }kjk fufeZr 9oha d{kk
dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd dk f'k{kdksa
dh izfrfozQ;k osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu** dh
vko';drk izfrikfnr gksrh gSA
leL;k dFku
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnzz }kjk fufeZr 9oha d{kk
dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd dk f'k{kdksa
dh izfrfozQ;kvksa osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kaduA
mís';
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnzz }kjk fufeZr 9oha
d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd osQ
fofHkUu i{kksa dk f'k{kdksa dh izfrfozQ;kvksa osQ
vk/kj ij ewY;kadu djukA
'kks/ izfof/
U;kn'kZ
izLrqr 'kks/ bankSj 'kgj esa fLFkr 'kkldh;
fo|ky;ksa ('kkldh; dLrwjck dU;k mPprj
ekè;fed fo|ky;] bankSj] 'kkldh; ckyd
mPprj ekè;fed fo|ky;] chtyiqj) ,oa
v'kkldh; fo|ky;ksa (lu'kkbu ifCyd LowQy]
Hkkjrh; ,sosQMeh] vEekj ckxs ukSfugky mPprj
ekè;fed fo|ky;] iz[kj fo|ky;] ljLorh
f'k'kq eafnj mPprj ekè;fed fo|ky;] vYikbu
4/13/2015 3:24:00 PM
83
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;---
ifCyd fo|ky;] vxzoky ifCyd LowQy] ekyo
f'k'kq fogkj] I+kQknj ,afty LowQy) esa foKku
fo"k; dk vè;kiu dk;Z djus okys 46 f'k{kdksa
osQ lksís'; U;kn'kZ ij fd;k x;kA
midj.k
izLrqr vè;;u esa iznÙk ladyu gsrq 'kks/dksa }kjk
fufeZr ikB~;iqLrd ewY;kadu izfrfozQ;k ekiuh
dk mi;ksx fd;k x;kA
iznÙk ladyu fof/
iznÙkksa osQ ladyu gsrq loZizFke fo|ky; esa
tkdj izkpk;Z ls vuqefr izkIr dh xbZA f'k{kdksa
ls laidZ djus osQ Ik'pkr~ mUgsa ikB~;iqLrd
ewY;kadu o izfrfozQ;k ekiuh osQ ijh{k.k osQ
ckjs esa vko';d tkudkjh iznku dh xbZA lHkh
p;fur U;kn'kZ dks izfrfozQ;k ekiuh dks gy
djus ls lacaf/r vko';d funsZ'k fn, x, FksA
izfrfozQ;k ekiuh iw.kZ gy djus osQ ckn lHkh
f'k{kdksa ls izfrfozQ;k ekiuh okil ys yh xbZA
ifj.kke ,oa foospuk
f'k{kdksa ls izkIr izfrfozQ;kvksa dh vko``fr;ksa osQ
vk/kj ij izR;sd dFku gsrq vkSlr izfrfozQ;k,¡
izkIr dj rkfydk esa izLrqr dj rRi'pkr~ mldh
foospuk dh xbZA
rkfydk 1
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnzz }kjk fufeZr 9oha d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;iqLrd osQ
ewY;kadu gsrq f'k{kdksa dh izfrfozQ;kvksa dks n'kkZrh rkfydk
OkzQekad
dFku
1ikB~;iqLrd dk dkx”k xq.koÙkk okyk
gSA
2ikB~;iqLrd osQ izdk'kdkas dh lk[k
vPNh gSA
3fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fy, fo"k;oLrq #fpdj
gSA
4ikB~;iqLrd ;ksX; ys[kdksa }kjk jfpr
gSA
5ikB~;iqLrd esa foKku laca/h fl¼kar
fn, x, gSaA
6fo"k;oLrq dk laxBu mfpr ozQe esa
ugha fn;k x;k gSA
Chap-8.indd 83
iw-l07
l04
vfu02
vl19
iw-vl14
vkSlr
2-36
10
30
04
01
01
4-02
13
14
16
03
&
3-80
13
16
03
12
02
3-56
17
15
04
02
08
3-67
10
14
05
14
03
2-52
4/13/2015 3:24:00 PM
84
OkzQekad
dFku
7ikB~;iqLrd esa v{kjksa dk vkdkj
mi;qDr gSA
8ikB~;iqLrd esa tks rF; fn, x, gSa os
izkekf.kd ugha gSaA
9ikB~;iqLrd esa mnkgj.kksa dk vf/d
iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
10- ikB~;iqLrd esa y?kq okD;ksa dk mi;ksx
fd;k x;k gSA
11- ikB~;iqLrd esa fp=k Ik;kZIr ek=kk esa gSaA
12- ikB~;iqLrd dk vkSfpR; crk;k x;k
gSA
13- ikB~;iqLrd osQ fy, lqLi"V mís';
ugha crk, x, gSaA
14- IkkB~;iqLrd esa orZuh lacaf/r =kqfV;k¡
ugha gaSA
15- ikBkas dk vkdkj fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fglkc
ls cM+k ugha gSA
16- ikB~;iqLrd dh Hkk"kk fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
fy, ljy gSA
17- ikB~;iqLrd esa jaxhu fp=kksa dk la;kstu
ugha fn;k x;k gSA
18- ikB~;iqLrd esa vè;k; osQ var esa
lkjka'k ugha fn;k x;k gSA
19- ikB~;iqLrd esa izk;ksfxd dk;ksZ dh
lwph nh xbZ gSA
20- ikB~;iqLrd dh fo"k;oLrq fo|kFkhZ
Lo;a i<+dj lh[k ldrs gSaA
21- ikB~;iqLrd ns[kdj i<+us dh #fp
tkx`r ugha gksrh gSA
22- ikB~;iqLrd esa nSfud thou ls
lacaf/r mnkgj.k fn, x, gSaA
Chap-8.indd 84
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
iw-l12
l24
vfu05
vl05
iw-vl&
vkSlr
3-92
07
04
11
18
06
3-26
07
11
02
14
12
2-71
06
21
07
04
08
3-45
13
24
23
16
01
01
06
02
03
03
3-80
4-80
06
15
08
14
03
2-84
08
13
14
05
06
2-95
10
16
03
13
04
1-76
20
17
04
01
04
4-01
15
19
05
03
04
2-17
06
11
08
13
08
2-60
10
16
09
06
05
3-43
08
18
08
09
03
2-58
16
12
12
&
06
2-30
15
20
04
05
02
3-89
4/13/2015 3:24:00 PM
85
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;--OkzQekad
dFku
23- ikB~;iqLrd osQ vè;kiu osQ fy,
fo'ks"k izf'k{k.k dh vko';drk ugha
gSA
24- ikB~;iqLrd esa lgk;d iqLrdksa dh
lwph nh xbZ gSA
25- ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY; mfpr gSA
26- ikB~;iqLrd dk ckg~; Lo:Ik vkd"kZd
ugha gSA
27- ikB~;iqLrd esa rduhdh ,oa dfBu
'kCnksa osQ fy, vaxzs”kh Hkk"kk osQ 'kCnksa
dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
28- ikB~;iqLrd dh lgk;rk ls f'k{kdksa
dks fo"k;oLrq le>kus esa vklkuh gksrh
gSA
2930313233343536-
Chap-8.indd 85
ikB~;iqLrd esa iz;ksxkRed dk;ksaZ ls
lacaf/r vè;k; gaSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa x`gdk;Z ls lacaf/r
lq>ko fn, x, gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd esa ijh{kk osQ fy, lq>ko
fn, x, gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd osQ mi;ksx osQ fy, fo'ks"k
vko';drk,¡ (deZpkjh] midj.k]
lqfo/k,¡) ugha pkfg,A
ikB~;iqLrd esa fo"k; lwph nh xbZ gSA
ikB~;iqLrd dh fo"k;oLrq iwoZ d{kk
ls lacaf/r ugha gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa ifj;kstuk dk;Z fn;k
x;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa izR;sd bdkbZ esa
xfrfof/ iz'u fn, x, gSaA
iw-l09
l08
vfu08
vl17
iw-vl04
vkSlr
2-86
08
10
04
19
14
2-34
13
15
26
11
04
17
03
03
&
&
4-06
2-57
09
19
06
12
&
3-54
13
16
06
04
07
3-52
15
22
02
05
02
3-93
13
17
05
09
02
3-65
04
04
01
15
22
1-97
05
11
09
13
08
3-17
11
08
26
12
05
07
02
14
02
05
3-91
2-91
24
13
03
06
&
4-19
17
23
03
02
&
4-17
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
86
rkfydk 1 osQ voyksdu ls fofnr gksrk
gS fd dkx”k dh xq.koÙkk osQ izfr udkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g
gaS fd iqLrd dks ns[kus ij okLro esa yxrk
gS fd dkx”k dh xq.koÙkk fuEu gSA izdk'kdksa
}kjk iqLrdksa osQ ewY; esa deh djus osQ dkj.k
os dkx”k dh xq.koÙkk ij Ik;kZIr è;ku ugha ns
ikrs gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd osQ izdk'kdksa dh lk[k osQ izfr
ldkjkREkd izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gS fd iqLrd dk izdk'kd ^eè; izn's k
jkT; f'k{kk osQa nz*z gS ftldh lk[k vPNh gSA
fo"k;oLrq osQ #fpdj gksus osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd esa izR;sd fo"k;oLrq
dks laxfBr :Ik ls izLrqr fd;k x;k gS tks fd
fcanqozQe] le;ozQe ,oa rqyuk osQ vk/kj ij gSA
blesa nSfud thou osQ mnkgj.k Hkh lfEefyr gSa]
ftlls fo"k;oLrq #fpdj yxrh gSA mnkgj.k osQ
rkSj ij] vè;k; 11 esa i`"B ozQekad 170&171
ij tarq dksf'kdk ,oa ikni dksf'kdk rFkk
izksosQfj;ksfVd dksf'kdk ,oa ;wosQfj;ksfVd dksf'kdk
esa varj fcanqozQe osQ vk/kj ij fn;k x;k gSA
vè;k; 12 esa i`"B ozQekad 190 ij ikni txr
dk oxhZdj.k izokgfp=k osQ ekè;e ls fn;k x;k
gS] ftlls fo"k;oLrq #fpdj yxrh gSA
ikB~;iqLrd ;ksX; ys[kdksa }kjk jfpr gS]
osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd osQ i`"B
ozQekad (ii) dks ns[kus ij ys[kdksa dh tkudkjh
izkIr gksrh gS tks fd ;ksX; ys[kd gaS rFkk dbZ
o"kks± ls vè;;u dk;Z esa layXu jgs gaSA
Chap-8.indd 86
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
ikB~;iqLrd esa foKku laca/h fu;eksa osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xb±A blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gaS fd mlosQ vuq:Ik fu;e fn,
x, gaSA mnkgj.k osQ rkSj ij] vè;k; 3 ^xfr o
cy* esa U;wVu osQ xfr dk fu;e] vkdZfeMht
dk fl¼kar fn, x, gaSA vè;k; 4 ^dk;Z] ÅtkZ
vkSj 'kfDr* esa Å"ek/kfjrk] fof'k"V Å"ek vkfn
dh x.kuk osQ fu;e fn, x, gSaA vè;k; 13
^Ik;kZoj.k* esa ÅtkZ izokg dk fu;e Hkkstu
Üka`[kyk] dkcZu pozQ] ukbVªkstu pozQ fn, x, gSaA
vè;k; 9 ^tSo txr laxBu* esa ikni o rarqvksa
dh Ård lajpuk ,oa muesa varj crk;k x;k gSA
blh izdkj vU; vè;k;ksa esa Hkh foKku laca/h
fu;e fn, x, gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd esa fo"k;oLrq osQ mfpr ozQe
osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZ gSA
blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd
osQ izR;sd vè;k; esa fo"k;oLrq osQ laxBu
dk mfpr ozQe gSA blosQ varxZr fdlh Hkh
ladYiuk dk loZizFke vFkZ] ifjHkk"kk] izdkj]
dk;Z] mi;ksx ,d laxfBr :Ik esa fn;k x;k
gS] ftlls fo"k;oLrq vklkuh ls le> esa vk
tkrh gSA mnkgj.k Lo:Ik vè;k; 9 ^rÙoksa dh
vkoZr lkj.kh* esa rÙoksa osQ oxhZdj.k dk laf{kIr
bfrgkl i`"B ozQekad 130 ij le; ozQekuqlkj
fn;k x;k gSA vè;k; 17 dk i`"B ozQekad
270 ij vkokl&vFkZ] izdkj] vko';drk vkfn
laxfBr :Ik esa fn;k x;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa v{kjksa dk vkdkj dh
mi;qDrrk osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA
blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;---
dks i<+us ij v{kj vklkuh ls u”kj vk tkrs gSa
rFkk mudk vkdkj mi;qDr gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa tks rF; fn, x, gS]a mudh
izkekf.kdrk osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZ
gSA blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd osQ
vè;;u ls irk pyrk gS fd rF; izkekf.kd gS]a
D;ksfa d mPp Lrjh; d{kkvksa dh Lrjh; iqLrdksa ls
rqyuk djus ij ;g izkekf.kd ik, x,A
ikB~;iqLrd esa mnkgj.kksa osQ mi;ksx osQ izfr
ldkjkREkd izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd esa lHkh vè;k;ksa esa
Ik;kZIr mnkgj.kksa dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k gS tSls
vè;k; 10 esa i`"B ozQekad 144 ij ^foys;rk* esa
;g crk;k x;k gS fd vk;fud ;kSfxd v/zqoh;
foyk;d gSa] tSlsµ,Ydksgy] bZFkj] csathu esa
ugha ?kqyrs] f=kla;kstd ca/ks esa ukbVªkstu v.kq dk
cuuk i`"B 147 ij mnkgj.kLo:Ik le>k;k x;k
gSA blh izdkj ls izR;sd vè;k; esa mnkgj.kksa dk
iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa y?kq okD;ksa dk mi;ksx fd;k
x;k gS] osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k ik;h xbZA
blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd dks
i<+us ij ;g irk pyrk gS fd tgk¡ okD; NksVs
gSa] muls fo"k;oLrq vklkuh ls Li"V gksrh gSA
mnkgj.kLo:Ik] vè;k; 11 i`"B ozQekad 168
ij vo.khZ yod] gfjr yod dh ifjHkk"kk rFkk
muosQ dk;Z;vè;k; 12 esa dkWMsZVk osQ y{k.k Hkh
NksVs&NksVs okD;ksa esa fn, x, gSa ftlls vklkuh
ls le> esa vk tkrk gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa fp=kksa dh Ik;kZIrrk osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh x;hA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd dks ns[kus ij ;g
Chap-8.indd 87
87
irk pyrk gS fd 304 i`"Bksa dh bl iqLrd esa
oqQy 214 fp=k gSa tks fd mi;qDr gSA vr% ;g
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZ gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa vkSfpR; osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g
gSa fd iqLrd dk i`"B ozQekad i<+us ij irk
pyrk gS fd HkkSfrdh] jlk;u] tho foKku osQ
vk/kjHkwr fl¼karksa dk HkyhHkkafr o.kZu fd;k
x;k gS ftlls fo|kFkhZ ljyrk ls le> ldasA
ikB~;iqLrd esa lqLi"V mís'; osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k ik;h xbZA bldk laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gS fd ikB~;iqLrd esa fn;k x;k gS
fd ikB~;iqLrd dk fuekZ.k foKku osQ 'kS{kf.kd
mís';ksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj fd;k x;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa orZuh laca/h =kqfV;ksa osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k izkIr gqbZA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gaS fd ;g ;ksX; f'k{kdksa }kjk jfpr
gS rFkk ;ksX; izkè;kidksa }kjk la'kksf/r gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa ikBksa dk vkdkj fo|kfFkZ;ksa
osQ fglkc ls cM+k ugha gS] osQ izfr udkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS fd
ikB~;iqLrd fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ vuq:Ik ugha gSA oqQN
vè;k; vR;f/d NksVs gaS rFkk oqQN vR;f/d
cM+s gSaA vè;k; 4 ^xq#Rokd"kZ.k* vR;f/d NksVk
gSA vè;k; 17 ^vkokl vuqowQyu ,oa vkS"k/h;
ikS/s* y?kq gS vkfnA
ikB~;iqLrd dh Hkk"kk osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa
fd ikB~;iqLrd esa fo"k;oLrq esa ozQec¼rk gksus
osQ dkj.k fo"k;oLrq vklkuh ls le> esa vk
tkrh gSA fo"k;oLrq dks NksVs&NksVs okD;ksa esa ck¡Vk
x;k ftlls Hkk"kk ljy yxrh gSA
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
88
ikB~;iqLrd esa jaxhu fp=kksa osQ la;kstu osQ
izfr udkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd dks ns[kus ij irk
pyrk gS fd fp=k osQoy ';ke'osr gaSA vr%
;g izfrfozQ;k nh x;hA
ikB~;iqLrd esa lkjka'k osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k izkIr gqbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k
;g gS fd ikB~;iqLrd dk vè;;u djus ij
irk pyrk gS fd izR;sd vè;k; osQ mijkar
lkjka'k fn;k x;k gS tks fd vxzfyf[kr i`"Bksa ij
miyC/ gSA i`"B ozQekad 25] 50] 57] 71] 91]
107 ]127] 139 ]160] 185] 199] 217] 239]
266] 278] 295] 303
ikB~;iqLrd esa izk;ksfxd dk;ks± dh lwph
osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh x;hA bldk
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS fd iqLrd dk vè;;u
djus ij i`"B ozQekad (vii) ij izk;ksfxd dk;ksZ
dh lwph nh xbZ gSA
ikB~;iqLrd dh fo"k;oLrq fo|kFkhZ Lo;a
i<+dj lh[k ldrs gSa] osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g
gS fd iqLrd dh Hkk"kk ljy ,oa Li"V gSA
fo"k;oLrq ozQec¼ :Ik ls laxfBr dh xbZ
gS tks Lo;a i<+dj lh[kus esa enn djrh gSA
mnkgj.k&vè;k; 10 jklk;fud vfHkfozQ;k dh
ladYiukA ljy ;kSfxdksa osQ jklk;fud lw=k ,oa
ukedj.k ;g ozQec¼) rFkk laxfBr :Ik esa gS]
ftlls lh[kus esa vklkuh gksrh gSA blh izdkj
lHkh vè;k;ksa esa fo"k;oLrq ljyrk] Li"Vrk ,oa
ozQec¼rk ls izLrqr dh xbZ gSA
ikB~;iqLrd ns[kdj i<+us osQ izfr #fp
tkx`r gksus osQ izfr udkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA
Chap-8.indd 88
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS fd iqLrd dk
ckg~; Lo:Ik vkd"kZd ugha gSA dkx”k mPp
xq.koÙkk okyk] lisQn rFkk eksVk ugha gSA iqLrd esa
jaxhu fp=kksa dk la;kstu ugha gSA vr% udkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k izkIr gqbZA
ikB~;iqLrd esa nSfud thou ls lacaf/r
mnkgj.kksa osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA
blosQ laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd ikB~;iqLrd
dk vè;;u djus ij ;g irk pyrk gS
fd ikB~;iqLrd osQ yxHkx lHkh vè;k;ksa esa
nSfud thou ls lacaf/r mnkgj.k mifLFkr gaS]
tSlsµvè;k; 2 i`"B ozQekad 15] 22] 23;
vè;k; 5 i`"B ozQekad 43] 47; vè;k; 5 i`"B
ozQekad 63; vè;k; 6 i`"B ozQekad 77 vkfn
lHkh vè;k;ksa esa nSfud thou laca/h mnkgj.k
miyC/ gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd esa vè;;u osQ fy, fo'ks"k
izf'k{k.k dh vko';drk ugha gS] osQ izfr
ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gS fd iqLrd ls vè;;u djkus osQ
fy, fo'ks"k izf'k{k.k blfy, ugha pkfg, D;ksafd
blesa fo"k;oLrq dh Hkk"kk ljy gksus osQ dkj.k
le>kus esa vklkuh jgrh gSA vr% izf'k{k.k dh
vko';drk ugha gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa lgk;d iqLrdksa dh lwph osQ
izfr udkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor
dkj.k ;g gS fd ikB~;iqLrd esa lgk;d lwph
dks 'kkfey ugha fd;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd osQ ewY; osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS
fd iqLrd dks ns[kus ij ;g irk pyrk gS fd
ftl izdkj dh ckbafMax gS rFkk tSlk dkx”k
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;---
iqLrd dk gS mlosQ vuq:Ik iqLrd dk ewY;
mfpr gSA
ikB~;iqLrd osQ ckg~; Lo:Ik osQ vkd"kZ.k
osQ izfr udkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd dks ns[kus ij
irk pyrk gS fd iqLrd osQ ckg~; vkoj.k ij
dksbZ fo'ks"k fp=k ugha fn;k x;k ftlosQ dkj.k
iqLrd dk ckg~; Lo:Ik vkd"kZd cusA vr% ;g
izfrfozQ;k izkIr gqbZA
ikB~;iqLrd esa rduhdh ,oa dfBu 'kCnksa
osQ fy, vaxzs”kh Hkk"kk osQ 'kCnksa dk mi;ksx
osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS fd iqLrd eas izR;sd
'kCn dfBu gks ;k ljy] rduhdh 'kCnksa
osQ fy, vaxzs”kh Hkk"kk dk mi;ksx fd;k gSA
mnkgj.k Lo:Ik] dksf'kdk nzO; (Cytoplasm)
dksf'kdkax (Cell Organells), var%iznO;h
tkfydk (Endo Plasmic Reticulum),
vo.khZ yod (Leucoplast), gfjr yod
(Chloroplast), (vè;k; 11 i`"B 166]168)]
vko`Ùk chth (Angiosperm), vuko`Ùk chth
(Gymnosperm) (avè;k; 12 i`"B 191)A
buosQ vfrfjDr Hkh iqLrd esa dbZ ckj rduhdh
,oa dfBu 'kCnksa osQ fy, vaxzs”kh Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx
fd;k x;k gSA
ikB~;iqLrd dh lgk;rk ls f'k{kdksa dks
fo"k;oLrq le>kus esa vklkuh osQ izfr ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS
fd iqLrd osQ izk;ksfxd dk;ks± dh lwph esa ftrus
Hkh izk;ksfxd dk;Z gSa muls lacaf/r vè;k;
iqLrd esa gSaA mnkgj.k& e`nq vkSj dBksj ty dh
Chap-8.indd 89
89
igpku djuk] vè;k;&^foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh*
esa ekiu] nzO; izÑfr ,oa O;ogkj] LVkpZ] izksVhu]
olk ijh{k.k djuk; vè;k;& iks"k.k ,oa LokLF;
i`"B ozQekad 201A vkoZQfeMht osQ fu;e dk
lR;kiu djukA vè;k; 3 ^xfr ,oa cy* i`"B
ozQekad 27] ofuZ;j dSyhilZ dh lgk;rk ls
nh xbZA oLrq dh oozQrk dh f=kT;k Kkr djukA
vè;k;&^foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh* esa ekiu] nzO;
izÑfr ,oa O;ogkjA fofHkUu pkVZ] ekWMy vkSj
fp=kksa dh lgk;rk ls euq";ksa esa gksus okys vYirk
jksxksa dk vè;;u djukA vè;k; 13 ^iks"k.k
,oa LokLF;* i`"B ozQekad 201 ij fn, x, gaSA
blosQ vfrfjDr vU; vè;k; Hkh miyC/ gSaA
ikB~;iqLrd esa x`gdk;Z ls lacaf/r i{k
osQ izfr ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd iqLrd dks ns[kus
ij irk pyrk gS fd izR;sd vè;k; osQ eè;
esa Nk=kksa dks ^Lo;a mÙkj [kksft,* fn;k x;k gS
tks fd f'k{kd }kjk vè;k; i<+kus osQ mijkar
fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ fy, fn;k tkrk gS tks yxHkx
lHkh vè;k;ksa esa miyC/ gSA
ikB~;iqLrd esa ijh{kk osQ fy, lq>ko
osQ izfr udkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA blosQ
laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gSa fd laiw.kZ iqLrd esa dgha
Hkh ijh{kk ls lacaf/r dksbZ lq>ko ugha fn;k x;k
gSA vr% ;g izfrfozQ;k izkIr gqbZA
ikB~;iqLrd esa fo"k;oLrq iwoZ d{kk ls
lacaf/r gksus ij ldkjkRed izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA
bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gS fd buesa ls oqQN
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
90
vè;k; 8oha d{kk esa Hkh Fks] tSlsµdksf'kdk
dh lajpuk] ÅtkZ] dkcZu] tSo ekWMy vkfnA
vr% ;g iwoZ d{kk ls lacfa /r gksuk ik;h xbZ]
D;ksfa d ^dk;Z* vè;k; 4 ÅtkZ vkSj 'kfDr i`"B
ozQekad 59] vè;k; 10 ^jklk;fud vkca/u
,oa vfHkfozQ;k* i`"B ozQekad 141] vè;k; 18
tSoe.My i`"B ozQekad 280A blh izdkj oqQN
vè;k; mlls iwoZ dh d{kkvksa ls Hkh lacfa /r gSAa
ikB~;iqLrd esa izR;sd bdkbZ esa ^ifj;kstuk
dk;Z* rFkk ^xfrfof/ iz'u* ij ldkjkRed
izfrfozQ;k nh xbZA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g
gS fd iqLrd esa izR;sd vè;k; esa ^xfrfof/
iz'u* rFkk ifj;kstuk dk;Z fn, x, gaSA
mnkgj.kLo:Ik vè;k; 1] i`"B ozQekad 10 ij
vuqla/ku osQ {ks=k esa mYys[kuh; ;ksxnku nsus
okys fdUgha rhu Hkkjrh; oSKkfudksa dk lfp=k
thou ifjp; nhft,A vè;k; 4] varfj{k esa
tkus okys Hkkjrh; oSKkfudksa dks lwphc¼ dfj,
,oa fdlh ,d dk thou ifjp; nhft,A
vè;k; 5] vius vklikl ik;h tkus okyh
oLrqvksa ij cy yxkdj ns[kasA fdl izdkj dk
dk;Z (/ukRed] ½.kkRed o 'kwU;) gqvk gSA
mldh ,d rkfydk rS;kj dhft,A
fo|kfFkZ;ksa rFkk f'k{kdksa }kjk ikB~;iqLrd esa
lq/kj gsrq jaxhu fp=kksa dk la;kstu dkx”k dh
xq.koÙkk esa lq/kj] ckg~; Lo:Ik vkd"kZd cukuk]
orZuh lac/
a h =kqfV;k¡ nwj djuk] 'kCn lwph dks
'kkfey djuk] lgk;d iqLrdksa dh lwph nsuk]
ijh{kk lac/
a h lq>ko nsus osQ lq>ko fn, x,A
Chap-8.indd 90
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
fu"d"kZ
izLrqr vè;;u osQ fuEu eq[; fu"d"kZ gSa]
ikB~;iqLrd
(i) osQ izdk'kdksa dh lk[k ,oa ys[kdx.k ;ksX;
ik, x,] (ii) dh fo"k;oLrq #fpdj ik;h xbZ]
(iii) esa v{kjksa dk vkdkj mi;qDr ik;k x;k]
(iv) esa fp=k Ik;kZIr ek=kk esa ik, x,] (v) esa
jaxhu fp=kksa dk la;kstu ugha ik;k x;k] (vi) esa
dkx”k dh xq.koÙkk fuEu dksfV dh ik;h x;h]
(vii) esa lgk;d iqLrdksa dh lwph ugha ik;h
x;h] (viii) esa ijh{kk ls lacaf/r lq>ko ugha
ik, x,] (ix) dh fo"k;oLrq esa izkekf.kdrk
ik;h x;h] (x) fo"k;oLrq le>us esa vklku
ik;h x;h] (xi) esa okD; NksVs&NksVs rFkk Hkk"kk
ljy o Li"V ik;h x;h] (xii) esa ifj;kstuk
dk;Z rFkk vH;kl dk;Z mfpr ek=kk esa Ikk;k
x;k] (xiii) dk ckg~; Lo:Ik vkd"kZd ugha
ik;k x;k] (xiv) esa orZuh laca/h =kqfV;k¡ ik;h
x;ha] (xv) ls vè;kiu djkus esa f'k{kdksa dks
vklkuh gksrh gS] ;g Ikk;k x;k] (xvi) esa
fo"k;oLrq dk izLrqrhdj.k ozQec¼ :Ik ls
ik;k x;k] (xvii) esa xfrfof/ iz'u ik, x,]
(xviii) esa iz;ksxkRed dk;ksZ ls lacaf/r vè;k;
ik, x,] (xix) esa fo"k;lwph ik;h x;h] (xx)
esa rduhdh ,oa dfBu 'kCnksa osQ fy, vaxzs”kh
Hkk"kk osQ 'kCnksa dk mi;ksx djuk ik;k x;k]
(xxi) dk ewY; mfpr ik;k x;k] (xxii) esa
ikBksa dk vkdkj fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ vuq:Ik ugha
ik;k x;kA
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnz }kjk fufeZr d{kk 9 oha dh foKku fo"k;---
91
lanHkZ
vxzoky] ,l-osQ- 1981- f'k{k.k dyk (f'k{k.k ,oa ijh{k.k dh izfof/;k¡)] jkts'k ifCyf'kax gkml] esjB
dksjh] /esZUnz oqQekj- 2008- ^^eè; izns'k ikB~;iqLrd fuxe }kjk fu/kZfjr bfrgkjl dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk ewY;kadu
(iwoZ ek/;fed Lrj osQ lanHkZ esa)**- vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
fVYyw] ehuk{kh- 1970- ^^eè; izns'k 'kklu }kjk fu/kZfjr ekr`Hkk"kk fganh dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk leh{kkRed vè;;u
d{kk 1 ls 5oha osQ fo'ks"k lanHkZ esa- vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] bankSj fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
rkoMs+] euh"kk- 2006- ^^jkT; lalk/u osaQnzz eè; izns'k }kjk izdkf'kr lk{kjrk dh ikB~;iqLrdksa dk ewY;kadu**]
vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
rksej] vpZuk flag- 1993- ^^eè; izns'k] fcgkj dh jkT; lalk/u osaQnzz }kjk izdkf'kr ikB~;iqLrdksa dk rqyukRed
vè;;u**] vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
ikVhnkj] Hkjryky- 1993- ^^lkekftd vè;;u vkBoha d{kk dh nks fofHkUu ikB~;iqLrdksa esa of.kZr lkekftd
iwokZxzgksa dk ikB~;Øe fodkl gsrq fo'ys"k.k ,oa ewY;kadu**] vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k
fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
iky] ,p- vkj- ,oa iky] vkj- 2006- ikB~;p;kZµdy vkt vkSj dy- f'kizk izdk'ku] u;h fnYyh
iky ,oa oekZ- 2013- ^^eè; izns'k jkT; f'k{kk osaQnzz }kjk fufeZr 9oha d{kk dh foKku fo"k; dh ikB~;-iqLrd dk
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh izfrfØ;kvksa osQ vk/kj ij ewY;kadu**] jpuk] 35&44
iky] galjkt] 'kekZ] eatqyrk- 2009- ekiu] vkdyu ,oa ewY;kadu- f'kizk ifCyosQ'ku] u;h fnYyh
'kekZ] jf'e- 2000- ^^bankSj 'kgj osQ futh mPprj ekè;fed fo|ky;ksa esa ikB~;iqLrdksa dh fu/kZj.k iz.kkyh dk
vè;;u**] vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
flag] mfeZyk- 1983- ^^jk"Vªh; izkS<+ f'k{kk dk;ZØe dh ikB~; lkexzh dk ewY;kadu**] vizdkf'kr ,e-,M- 'kks/
izca/] bankSj fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
gjn;ky] eksgu yky- 1970- ^^ekWfj'kl dh 6Bh d{kk dh fganh dh ikB~;iqLrd dk ewY;kadu**] vizdkf'kr
,e-,M- 'kks/ izca/] nsoh vfgY;k fo'ofo|ky;] bankSj
Buch, M.B. 1974. (Ed.). A Survey of Research in Education. Baroda, Centre of Advanced
Study in Education
.1979. Second Survey of Research in Education (1972-1978). Baroda, Soceity for
Educational Research and Development
. 1986. Third Survey of Research in Education (1978-1983). National Council
Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
. 1991. Fourth Survey of Research in Education (1983-1988). Vol. I and II. National
Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
Gagneja, A.C. 1974. The Treatment of America, England, Russia, Japan, China and
Pakistan in Social Studies, History and Geography Textbook for High/Higher
Secondary School Indore University, Indore
Chap-8.indd 91
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
92
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
NCERT. 2006. Fifth Survey of Educational Research in Education (1993-2000) Vol. I
and II. National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
2006. Sixth Survey of Educational Research (1993-2000). Vol. I, NCERT, New
Delhi
. 2007. Sixth Survey of Educational Research (1993-2000), Vol. II. NCERT, New
Delhi
Pattabhiram, G. 1973. An Evaluation of Nationalized Textbooks for Higher Classes in
Social Studies in Secondary School of Andhra Pradesh. Unpublished Ph.D., M.S.
University, Baroda
Chap-8.indd 92
4/13/2015 3:24:01 PM
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh
}kjk lapkfyr fo|ky;ksa dk leh{kkRed
vè;;uµmÙkj izns'k osQ xk”khiqj
ftys osQ lanHkZ esa
jkts'k oqQekj JhokLro·
gj lky Hkkjr esa f'k{kd fnol euk;k tkrk gSA bl fnu izR;sd LowQy esa usrkvksa }kjk
Hkk"k.k fn;k tkrk gS fd xq# dk LFkku Hkxoku ls Hkh igys vkrk gSA ysfdu ml xq# dh
n'kk ij dksbZ Hkh usrk è;ku ugha nsrk gSA og mudh nhu&n'kk osQ ckjs esa tkurs gq, Hkh
yack&pkSM+k Hkk"k.k nsrk gSA bl fnu vè;kidksa dh fLFkfr esa ifjorZu ykus okyh fdlh uhfr
;k dk;ZØe dh ?kks"k.kk Hkh ugha dh tkrh gSA bl vè;;u esa 'kks/dÙkkZ }kjk mÙkj izns'k osQ
xk”khiqj ftys osQ osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk ekU;rk&izkIr LowQyksa dh
n'kk dk leh{kkRed voyksdu fd;k x;k gSA bu LowQyksa dh vksj ljdkj dk è;ku ugha
tk jgk gS tks f'k{kk osQ vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 dks lgh lanHkZ esa ykxw ugha dj jgs gSaA
izLrkouk
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ dk fodkl dbZ
o"kksZ osQ yacs iz;kl dk izfriQy gSA mÙkj izns'k
cksMZ vkWI+kQ gkbZ LowQy ,aM baVjehfM,V ,tqosQ'ku
dk xBu lu~ 1921 esa gqvk] ftldk vfèkdkj
{ks=k jktiwrkuk] eè; Hkkjr vkSj Xokfy;j FkkA
la;qDr izkarksa dh ljdkjksa osQ izfrfuf/Ro osQ
iQyLo:Ik Hkkjr ljdkj us lu~ 1929 esa lHkh
{ks=kksa osQ fy, la;qDr cksMZ xBu djus dh lykg
nh] ftldk uke cksMZ vkWI+kQ gkbZ LowQy ,aM
baVjehfM,V ,tqosQ'ku] jktiwrkuk j[kk x;kA
bl cksMZ esa vtesj] esjokM+] eè; Hkkjr vkSj
Xokfy;j osQ {ks=k 'kkfey FksA
cksMZ ekè;fed f'k{kk osQ fodkl o foLrkj
dk lk{kh FkkA blosQ lkFk gh cksMZ us ekè;fed
f'k{kk osQ Lrj ,oa xq.koÙkk dk è;ku j[kkA ysfdu
· izoDrk (ch-,M- ladk;)] Jh oa'kh cky xksiky egkfo|ky;] lxjk&jktwiqj] iksLV lEeuiqj] ftyk&xk”khiqj] (m-iz)
Chap-9.indd 93
4/13/2015 3:24:15 PM
94
tSls gh jkT; fo'ofo|ky;ksa vkSj jkT; cksMksZa dk
xBu ns'k osQ lHkh dksus esa gksus yxk] cksMZ vkWI+kQ
gkbZ LowQy ,aM baVjehfM,V cksMZ] vtesj o
Hkksiky rd gh lhfer jgk rFkk ckn esa foaè;
izns'kksa rd iSQy x;kA blh osQ ifj.kkeLo:Ik
lafo/ku us lu~ 1952 bZ- esa cksMZ osQ vf/fu;eksa
esa lq/kj fd;s] ftlesa cksMZ dks {ks=k ikVZ&lh
vkSj ikVZ&Mh rd lhfer j[kk x;k rFkk cksMZ dk
orZeku uke osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ j[kk
x;kA lu~~ 1962 esa cksMZ dk nksckjk xBu fd;k
x;kA blosQ eq[; mís'; Fks µ
• f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa dks izHkko'kkyh <ax ls
lapkfyr djukA
• mu Nk=kksa dh f'k{kk dh f”kEesnkjh ysuk]
ftuosQ vfHkHkkod osaQnz ljdkj dh fofHkUu
lsokvksa esa lsokjr~ gaS vkSj ftudk lsok esa
vf/drj LFkkukarj.k gksrk gSA
cksMZ dk vf/dkj {ks=k
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ dk foLrkj o iSQyko
jk"Vªh; lhekvksa osQ ckgj Hkh gSA lu~ 1962 bZ- esa
cksMZ xBu osQ ifj.kkeLo:Ik] fnYyh ekè;fed
f'k{kk cksMZ dk foy; osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk
cksMZ esa gks x;kA bl izdkj fnYyh cksMZ }kjk
ekU;rkizkIr lHkh f'k{k.k laLFkku osaQnzh; cksMZ osQ
Hkkx gks x;sA blosQ ckn lHkh osaQnz 'kkflr izns'k
tSls paMhx<+] vaMeku o fudksckj }hilewg]
v:.kkpy izns'k o flfDde esa fLFkr fo|ky;
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh osQ
}kjk lapkfyr LowQy gks x;sA orZeku esa >kj[kaM]
mÙkjkapy vkSj NÙkhlx<+ jkT;ksa us Hkh osaQnzh;
ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ ls ekU;rkizkIr dj yhA
Chap-9.indd 94
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
lu~ 1962 esa cksMZ osQ ekU;rkizkIr LowQyksa dh
la[;k 309 Fkh tks ekpZ 2007 rd ;g la[;k
c<+dj 8979 gks xbZA cksMZ osQ 141 LowQy ns'k
osQ ckgj fLFkr gSaA osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ
}kjk ekU;rkizkIr 897 osaQnzh; fo|ky;] 1761
ljdkjh fo|ky;] 5827 Lora=k fo|ky;] 480
tokgj uoksn; fo|ky; rFkk 14 osaQnzh; frCcrh
fo|ky; gSaA
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ }kjk ekU;rkizkIr
lapkfyr LowQyksa osQ izHkko'kkyh fØ;kUo;u o
liQy lapkyu gsrq cksMZ us {ks=kh; dk;kZy;ksa dh
LFkkiuk ns'k osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa dh gSA cksMZ
osQ {ks=kh; dk;kZy; bykgkckn] vtesj] psUu;h]
xqokgkVh] iapoqQyk vkSj fnYyh esa gSaA ns'k osQ
ckgj fLFkr LowQyksa dh ns[k&js[k fnYyh dk;kZy;
djrk gSA {ks=kh; dk;kZy;ksa osQ fØ;kdykiksa o
ns[k&js[k dh f”kEesnkjh eq[;ky; dh gSA ;|fi
{ks=kh; dk;kZy;ksa dks I;kZIr vf/dkj fn;s x;s
gSaA uhfr&fu/kZj.k tSls eqíksa dks eq[;ky; dks
lkSaik tkrk gSA iz'kklu] LowQy var%fØ;k] ijh{kk
laca/h izca/u o jks”kejkZ osQ fØ;kdyki {ks=kh;
dk;kZy;ksa }kjk fuiVk, tkrs gSaA
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] LofoÙkiksf"kr
laLFkk gS] tks osaQnz ljdkj dh lgk;rk osQ fcuk
vius [kpksZa dk Lo;a fuoZgu djrh gSA cksMZ
viuh vkfFkZd ”k:jrksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy,
okf"kZd ijh{kk I+kQhl] ekU;rk I+kQhl] ih-,e-Vhizos'k I+kQhl] bathfu;fjax izos'k ijh{kk I+kQhl rFkk
cksMZ }kjk izdkf'kr iqLrosQa o tuZy vkfn dk
iz;ksx djrk gSA
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ dh LFkkiuk osQ
eq[; mís'; gSa &
4/13/2015 3:24:15 PM
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk lapkfyr---
• ijh{kkvksa dk fu/kZj.k djuk vkSj nloha
rFkk ckjgoha ijh{kkvksa osQ ckn ljdkjh
ijh{kkvksa dk lapkyu djokukA ekU;rkizkIr
lh-ch-,l-bZ- fo|ky;ksa osQ izek.k&i=kksa dk
foLrkj.k djukA
• mu f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dh ”k:jrksa dks iwjk
djokuk ftuosQ vfHkHkkodksa dk ukSdfj;ksa
esa LFkkukarj.k vf/d gksrk gSA
• ijh{kkvksa osQ ikB;Øeksa dk le;≤ ij
uohuhdj.k djukA
• ijh{kk gsrq laLFkkuksa dks ekU;rk nsuk vkSj
ns'k dh f'k{kk osQ Lrj dks Åij mBkukA
cksMZ osQ loksZÙke osaQnz fcanq fuEuor~ gSa&
• f'k{k.kµvf/xe izfof/;ksa esa u;h rduhdksa
dk lek;kstu] Nk=k&fe=k dk;ZØe }kjk
djuk vkSj Nk=k osaQfnzr izfr:Ik osQ }kjk
djukA
• ijh{kkvksa osQ ewY;kadu esa lq/kjA
• ukSdjh osaQfnzr izfrHkkvksa dk fodkl o
O;oLFkkiu djokukA
• vè;kidksa o iz'kkldksa dh f'k{k.k izfrHkkvksa
dks fu;fer rkSj ij ooZQ'kkWi] izf'k{k.k
dk;ZØe vkfn osQ ekè;e ls v|ru djukA
vè;;u dh vko';drk
'kks/drkZ Lo;a lu~ 1996 ls izkbosV lhch,lbZ
fo|ky;ksa esa i<+k jgk FkkA dHkh&dHkh ekSdk feyus
ij orZeku le; esa Hkh budh dk;Z'kSyh dks Lo;a
tkdj vkdyu djus dh dksf'k'k djrk gSA oqQN
dk;Ziz.kkfy;ksa osQ ckjs esa vU; vè;kidksa ls
var%fØ;k osQ }kjk 'kks/drkZ dks irk pyk gS fd
bu LowQyksa }kjk rjg&rjg ls vè;kidksa] Nk=kksa o
Chap-9.indd 95
95
vfHkHkkodksa dk mRihM+u fd;k tkrk gSA blosQ
lkFk gh f'k{kk dk vf/dkj vf/fu;e&2009
ikl fd;k x;k] ftlesa gjsd [email protected]=kk dks
f'k{kk nsus dh ckr dh x;hA ysfdu f'k{kk nsus
osQ uke ij bu ekU;rkizkIr fo|ky;ksa dk [ksy
/umxkgh gsrq fd;k tk jgk gS tks f'k{kk osQ
vf/dkj vf/fu;e&2009 dh iksy [kksy jgk
gSA f'k{kk osQ vf/dkj vf/fu;e esa tkfr osQ
vk/kj ij 25 izfr'kr vkj{k.k nsus dh ckr
dgh x;h gSA ysfdu ;g vkj{k.k brus vkanksyuksa
osQ ckn Hkh fn[kkbZ ugha iM+rk gSA bu lHkh dks
è;ku esa j[krs gq, 'kks/drkZ us bl fo"k; dk
p;u fd;kA
'kks/ 'kh"kZd
^^osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk
lapkfyr fo|ky;ksa dk leh{kkRed vè;;u&mÙkj
izns'k osQ xk”khiqj ftys osQ lanHkZ esaA**
vè;kid f'k{kk dk mís';
orZeku ifjn`'; esa vè;;u osQ mís'; fuEufyf[kr
gSa&
• osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ }kjk lapkfyr
fo|ky;ksa osQ izca/dksa dh f'k{kk osQ laca/
esa vè;;u djukA
• lh-ch-,l-bZ- fo|ky;ksa }kjk lekt osQ
fofHkUu oxZ }kjk fd;s x;s vkfFkZd mRihM+u
dk leh{kkRed vè;;u djukA
• lh-ch-,l-bZ- fo|ky;ksa esa dk;Zjr~ f'k{kdksa
dh izf'k{k.k] dk;Z'kSyh] osru vkfn dk
vkyksPkukRed vè;;u djukA
• lh-ch-,l-bZ- fo|ky;ksa }kjk vè;kidksa dks
4/13/2015 3:24:15 PM
96
nh tk jgh lqfo/kvksa tSlsµbZ-ih-,iQ-] osru]
esfMdy vkfn dk leh{kkRed vè;;u
djukA
• lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk nloha d{kk dks x`g&ijh{kk
fn;s tkus osQ dkj.k gksus okys uqdlku dk
vkykspukRed vè;;u djukA
• lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk ekU;rkizkIr fo|ky;ksa esa
vè;kidksa osQ dk;Z&lq/kj osQ fy, pyk;h
tk jgha odZ'kkWi] vksfj,aVs'ku d{kk,¡ vkfn
dk vè;;u djukA
'kks/ fof/
izLrqr vè;;u voyksdu o lk{kkRdkj osQ vk/kj
ij fd;k x;k gSA vè;;u gsrq mÙkj izns'k osQ
xk”khiqj ftys osQ X;kjg ekU;rkizkIr lh-ch-,lbZ- LowQyksa osQ vè;kidksa rFkk vfHkHkkodksa dks
U;kn'kZ gsrq pquk x;kA osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk
cksMZ }kjk lapkfyr LowQyksa dh dk;Z'kSyh ij
xgu fparu o vkyksPkukRed leh{kk dh x;hA
lh-ch-,l-bZ- fo|ky;ksa }kjk nh tk jgh f'k{kk
osQ laca/ esa laiw.kZ voyksdu o lk{kkRdkj dk
xgu vè;;u dj f'k{kk laca/h fopkjksa ij fparu
vkSj fparu dh vkykspukRed leh{kk izLrqr
dhA lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk ekU;rkizkIr fo|ky;ksa
}kjk fd;s x;s lkekftd 'kks"k.k vkt dh Toyar
leL;kvksa esa ls ,d gS ftldk gy <w¡<k tkuk
vR;ar vko'od gSA
U;kn'kZ osQ fy, p;fur xk”khiqj ftys
osQ LowQyksa dk fooj.k
1- luche LowQy] egkjkTkxat] xk”khiqj
2- 'kkg iSQ”k LowQy] xk”khiqj
Chap-9.indd 96
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
3- Rkwfydk LowQy] xk”khiqj
4- ,e-ts-vkj-ih- LowQy] xk”khiqj
5- ek/ko ljLorh LowQy] xk”khiqj
6- xkSjh f'k{kk fuosQru LowQy] xk”khiqj
7- fØlsUV dkaosaV LowQy] fnynkjuxj] xk”khiqj
8- jkt ifCyd LowQy] xk”khiqj
9- lsaVªy ifCyd LowQy] tekfu;k]
xk”khiqj
10-lu 'kkbu ifCyd LowQy] tekfu;k]
xk”khiqj
11-lu Ýykoj LowQy] uUnxat xk”khiqj
eq[; ifj.kke
1- osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh
}kjk lapkfyr LowQyksa osQ izca/dksa dh
f'k{kk osQ laca/ esa ;g ik;k x;k fd 90
izfr'kr lapkyd f'kf{kr gSa] ysfdu muosQ
vanj 'kSf{kd vkn'kZ dh deh gSA mUgsa
fliZQ bruk irk gS fd os ,d iw¡thifr gSa]
ftlesa mUgsa vf/d ls vf/d /umxkgh
djuh gSA
2- osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh
}kjk lapkfyr fo|ky;ksa osQ izca/dksa }kjk
izR;sd l=k esa I+kQhl c<+kbZ tkrh gSA bUgsa
irk gS fd #Ik;s dk voewY;u gks jgk gS]
ftlosQ dkj.k Nk=kksa dh I+kQhl esa c<+ksÙkjh
djuk vko';d gSA ysfdu vè;kidksa osQ
osru dh c<+ksÙkjh ij budk è;ku ugha
tkrk gSA f'k{kdksa dks osru osQ uke esa
izfr ekg nks g”kkj ls nl g”kkj #i;s rd
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk lapkfyr---
gh fn;s tkrs gSaA izca/dksa }kjk osru dk
Hkqxrku izR;sd eghus 10 ;k 15 rkjh[k
dks gksrk gSA ;g osru Hkqxrku 10 ;k
15 rkjh[k dks blfy, fd;k tkrk gS
fd vxj vè;kid fo|ky; dh ukSdjh
NksM+dj fdlh nwljs fo|ky; esa tkrk gS
rks mldk vk/k eghus dk osru buosQ }kjk
u fn;k tk;sA dgha&dgha rks ,d eghus
dk vfxze osru tek osQ rkSj ij fo|ky;
esa j[kk tkrk gSa rkfd f'k{kd vklkuh ls
dk;ZeqDr gksdj nwljs fo|ky; esa u tk
losQA
f'k{kdksa dks 14 fnu dh vkdfLed NqV~Vh
dk izko/ku gSA ysfdu bl NqV~Vh osQ
fy, f'k{kd dks izkpk;[email protected]/d osQ fo'ks"k
vuqefr dh ”k:jr gksrh gS] tks 'kk;n
gh f'k{kd dks vklkuh ls fey ikrh gSA
f'k{kd ;fn fdlh dkj.ko'k fcuk vuqefr
osQ NqV~Vh ysdj tkrk gS rc mldk ,d
fnu osQ ctk; nks fnu dk osru dkV fy;k
tkrk gSA ;g O;oLFkk izfrf"Br ekU;rkizkIr
LowQyksa tSls& luche xzqi vkWI+kQ baLVhV~;wV~l
esa gS] ftlosQ yxHkx 20 ls vf/d
fo|ky; iwjs mÙkj izns'k esa pyrs gSaA bl
NqV~Vh dk uke ,y&2 laLFkk }kjk fn;k
x;k gSA
;gk¡ rFkk vU; LowQyksa esa Hkh ,d fnu dh
NqV~Vh osQ ctk; pkj fnu dk osru dkVk
tkrk gS] ftls ,y&4 uke fn;k x;k gSA
f'k{kd ls NqV~Vh osQ le; dk iwjk dke
djuk iM+rk gS] og Hkh fcuk osru osQA
vxj vè;kid fcuk vkKk osQ 15 fnu
Chap-9.indd 97
97
dh NqV~Vh ij pyk tkrk gS rks mldk
ml eghus dk osru gh ugha curk gSA
;s fo|ky; 'kks"k.k osQ fo#¼ vf/dkj
dk vFkZ Hkh ugha tkurs vkSj vius&vius
vuks[ks rjhosQ ls 'kks"k.k djrs gSaA bu
laLFkkuksa dks vkfVZdy 23 rFkk 24 esa
'kkfey 'kks"k.k osQ fo#¼ vf/dkj dk Hkh
Kku ugha gSA izR;sd l=k esa I+kQhl c<+ksRrjh
o Mªsl cnyus dk ekeyk] fdrkc cnyus
dk ekeyk vkfn ftykf/dkjh osQ ikl
igq¡prk gS] lkFk&lkFk v[kckjksa }kjk Hkh
izdkf'kr gksrk gSSA vkf[kjdkj fcuk fdlh
dk;Zokgh osQ vf/dkjh foo'k gksdj bl
ekeys dks BaMs cLrs esa Mky nsrs gSaA
3- osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh
}kjk ekU;rkizkIr fo|ky;ksa dk osru Hkqxrku
iaftdk rFkk vè;kid mifLFkfr iaftdk
vyx&vyx gSaA osru Hkqxrku iaftdk
lh-ch-,l-bZ- cksMZ dks fn[kkus osQ fy,
vyx gS] blesa lh-ch-,l-bZ- ekud osQ
fglkc ls osru fn[kk;k tkrk gS] ysfdu
okLrfod rkSj ij buosQ O;fDrxr osru
iaftdk esa nks g”kkj ls pkj g”kkj rd osQ
osru dk Hkqxrku fd;k tkrk gSA vè;kid
mifLFkfr iaftdk ij Hkh oqQN blh rjg
dk [ksy gksrk gSA lh-ch-,l-bZ- cksMZ Hkstus
osQ fy, vyx f'k{kd mifLFkfr iaftdk
rFkk okLro esa 'kks"k.k osQ fy, cuk, x,
vFkkZr~ jkst vè;kid dks cnys x,@fudkys
x,] osQ fy, vyx vè;kid mifLFkfr
iaftdkA vFkkZr~ ^gkFkh osQ nk¡r fn[kkus osQ
oqQN vkSj [kkus osQ oqQN vkSj*A
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
98
4- lh- ch- ,l- bZ- fo|ky;ksa osQ 90 izfr'kr
fo|ky;ksa esa izos'k ys pqosQ Nk=kksa ls izR;sd
l=k esa iqu% izos'k osQ uke ij yk[kksa #i;s
olwys tkrs gSa] vFkkZr~ bu LowQyksa esa izR;sd
o"kZ izos'k 'kqYd olwyk tkrk gSA izca/dksa
dks bruk irk ugha fd fdlh Hkh laLFkk esa
izos'k ,d ckj gksrk gS rFkk izos'k&'kqYd
Hkh fliZQ ,d ckj fy;k tkrk gS] ysfdu
buosQ }kjk gj ,d l=k esa izos'k&'kqYd
fy;k tkuk ljklj euekuh vkSj vkfFkZd
'kks"k.k gSA
5- lh- ch- ,l- bZ- fo|ky;ksa esa fdUMjxkMZu]
ulZjh] ,y-osQ-th-] ;w-osQ-th- d{kkvksa dk
lapkyu gksrk gS] ftldh I+kQhl Hkh izfrekg
pkj lkS ls N% lkS #Ik;s rd yh tkrh gS
vkSj nloha&ckjgoha ikl f'kf{kdkvksa dks
ianzg lkS ls nks g”kkj #Ik;k izfr ekg osru
nsdj i<+ok;k tkrk gSA bu d{kkvksa }kjk
lekt dk vkfFkZd 'kks"k.k bu fo|ky;ksa
}kjk [kwc gksrk gSA
6- lh-ch-,l-bZ- osQ 90 izfr'kr fo|ky;ksa esa
vfHkHkkodksa }kjk fdlh dkj.ko'k I+kQhl
foyac ls tek djus ij ,sls Nk=kksa dks
d{kk ls ckgj fdlh [kkyh d{k esa fcuk
vè;kid osQ cSBk fn;k tkrk gS] tks f'k{kk
osQ vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 dh iksy
mtkxj djrk gSA vfHkHkkodksa dks ;g irk
gksrk gS fd Nk=k LowQy x;k gS] d{kk esa i<+
jgk gksxk ysfdu vfHkHkkod dks D;k irk
fd ,d&nks fnu foyac ls Ik+ Qhl tek gksus
osQ dkj.k mudk [email protected]=kk d{kk ls ckgj
dgha vosQys esa LowQy dh ifjf/ esa cSBk gSA
Chap-9.indd 98
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
Ik+ Qhl foyac ls tek djokus ij foyac
'kqYd Hkh vfHkHkkodksa ls 50 ls 100 #Ik;s
rd fy;s tkrs gSAa oqQN fo|ky;ksa }kjk Nk=kksa
dks LowQy esa foyac ls igqp
¡ us osQ dkj.k
foyac&'kqYd fy;k tkrk gSA
7- deZpkjh Hkfo"; fuf/ vf/fu;e 1952
osQ izko/ku osQ vuqlkj fdlh laLFkk esa
20 ;k 20 ls vf/d deZpkjh gksus ij
deZpkjh Hkfo"; fuf/ ml laLFkk ij ykxw
gksxh ftlesa deZpkjh dh ldy vk;
dk 12 izfr'kr fgLlk deZpkjh dks vius
bZ-ih-,iQ- [kkrs esa rFkk 'ks"k 12 izfr'kr
fgLlk laLFkk }kjk deZpkjh osQ bZ-ih-,iQ[kkrs esa Hkqxrku djuk gksrk gSA bl izdkj
futh laLFkk osQ deZpkjh dks 12 izfr'kr
lgk;rk laLFkk ls rFkk ljdkj }kjk tek
jkf'k ij C;kt nj deZpkjh dks ukSdjh
NksM+us ij izkIr gksrh gSA blesa isa'ku Ldhe
Hkh deZpkjh osQ Hkfo"; osQ iQk;ns gsrq gksrh
gSA ysfdu lh- ch- ,l- bZ- fo|ky;ksa }kjk
f'k{kdksa o deZpkfj;ksa dh Hkfo"; fuf/
ij Hkh cM+k [ksy gksrk gSA deZpkjh Hkfo";
fuf/ vf/fu;e osQ rgr osru dk 12
izfr'kr Hkqxrku laLFkk dk deZpkjh djsxk
rFkk 12 izfr'kr Hkqxrku laLFkk djsxh
ysfdu bu izca/dksa }kjk lHkh deZpkfj;ksa
ij ;g O;oLFkk ykxw ugha dh gS vkSj
ftu ij ykxw Hkh dh gS rks os deZpkjh
osQ osru ls 24 izfr'kr dVokdj ;g
O;oLFkk ykxw j[kh gSA vFkkZr~ LowQy dh
lgHkkfxrk Hkh vè;kid osQ osru ls dkVk
tkrk gSA
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk lapkfyr---
8- lh-ch-,l-bZ- osQ 99 izfr'kr fo|ky;ksa esa
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k
ifj"kn~ (,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-) dh fdrkcksa
dks IkkB~;ozQe osQ :i esa ugha yxk;k tkrk
gSA bu fdrkcksa ij fo|ky;ksa dks deh'ku
izkIr ugha gksrk gSA blhfy, ;s fo|ky;
xSjµljdkjh izdk'kdksa }kjk eqfnzr fdrkcksa
dks fo|ky;ksa esa IkkB~;ozQe osQ :i esa
yxokrs gSa] rkfd budks eksVk deh'ku
fey tk;sA
9- lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk ekU;rkizkIr 70 izfr'kr
LowQyksa esa [ksy o iqLrdky; [email protected]/
dk iz;ksx gksrk gS ysfdu ikB~;Øe
viw.kZ gksus dh n'kk esa bl [email protected]/ dks
ikB~;Øe iwjk gksus esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
10- bu LowQyksa dh iQhl gj ,d l=k esa c<+kbZ
tkrh gS] ftlosQ dkj.k vfHkHkkodksa dks
ekufld ncko ls xq”kjuk iM+rk gSA bu
LowQyksa }kjk izfr ekg 1200 ls 2000 #Ik;s
rd dh Ik+ Qhl olwyh tkrh gS tks f'k{kk osQ
vf/dkj vf/fu;eµ2009 dk mYya?ku gSA
11- lh-ch-,l-bZ- LowQyksa esa 50 izfr'kr vè;kid
vizf'kf{kr vkSj 50 izfr'kr vè;kid
izf'kf{kr ik;s x,A vizf'kf{kr vè;kid
bu LowQyksa dks lLrs osru esa miyC/ gks
tkrs gSaA
12- lh-ch-,l-bZ- LowQyksa osQ izca/[email protected];ksZ
}kjk izpkj&izlkj osQ uke ij vkdf"kZr
foKkiu tSls izf'kf{kr vè;kid]
d{kk&d{k esa ,-lh- dh O;oLFkk] [ksy dk
eSnku] d{kk&d{k esa daI;wVj] Lohfeax iwy
vkfn vfHkHkkodksa dks xqejkg djus dh
Chap-9.indd 99
99
uh;r ls fn[kk;s tkrs gSa] ysfdu ”kehuh
Lrj ij buosQ foKkiu dh 50 izfr'kr ckras
>wBh ik;h tkrh gSaA
13- lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk gkbZ LowQy dks x`g ijh{kk
fd;s tkus osQ dkj.k f'k{kk ekfI+kQ;kvksa dh
o`f¼ gqbZ gSA nloha d{kk esa ijh{kkvksa osQ
uke ij ,I+kQ&,- 1] ,I+kQ-,-&2] ,l-,&1] ,l-,-&2 vkfn dks LowQy iaftdk o
daI;wVj esa Pk<+kdj lHkh LowQyksa dh ijh{kk
esa 100 izfr'kr ijh{kkiQy ?kksf"kr dj fn;k
tkrk gSA nloha d{kk dks x`g&ijh{kk fd;s
tkus dk izHkko ”k:j dgha u dgha vo';
iM+k gSA bUgha LowQyksa osQ nloha d{kk osQ
Nk=kksa dk ckjgoha d{kk esa tkus ij] budk
ijh{kk ifj.kke 3 izfr'kr ls 15 izfr'kr
rd gksrk gSA blls ;g Li"V gksrk gS
fd x`g&ijh{kk o lh-ch-,l-bZ- cksMZ }kjk
djk;h xbZ ijh{kk esa fdruk varj gS] tks
dgha u dgha f'k{kk ekfiQ;kvksa dks nloha
dh lh-ch-,l-bZ- dk izek.ki=k vklkuh
ls miyC/ djkus esa x`g&ijh{kk ennxkj
lkfcr gqbZ gSA
14- lh-ch-,l-bZ- osQ 99 izfr'kr LowQyksa }kjk
vè;kidksa osQ d{kk d{k esa csgrj izn'kZu
djus gsrq vkWfj,aVs'ku d{kk,¡] odZ'kkWi
vkfn ugha djok;s tkrs gSa] ftlls f'k{kd
vius f'k{k.k {ks=k esa vPNk dj losaQA
15- ekU;rk gS fd dksbZ Hkh uohu dk;Z izkjaHk
djus ls igys bZ'oj dh oanuk vo';
dh tkrh gS] ysfdu bu lh-ch-,l-bZLowQyksa }kjk ijh{[email protected] osQ le; izkFkZuk
gh ugha djok;h tkrh gSA izkFkZuk ls Nk=kksa
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
100
esa fofHkUu ewY;ksa dk fodkl gksrk gSA
;s LowQy Hkkjrh; laLÑfr ls gekjs Nk=kksa
dks foeq[k djosQ dgha u dgha ik'pkR;
laLd`fr dk cht cksus dk dke vo'; dj
jgs gSaA
16- lh-ch-,l-bZ- Nk=kksa dk cSx&Hkkj c<+ jgk
gSA f'k{kk osQ izpkj&izlkj ij cgqr ”kksj
fn;k tk jgk gS ysfdu Nk=kksa osQ cSx osQ
Hkkj dks de djus dh fn'kk esa fcyoqQy
gh è;ku ugha fn;k tkrkA
17- lh-ch-,l-bZ- LowQyksa }kjk ,d f'k{kd dks
7 ihfj;M fn;s tkrs gSa] ftlesa mls d{kk
esa [kM+k gksdj i<+kuk iM+rk gS] ;g vPNk
Hkh gS] blls vè;kidksa dh Nk=kksa ij fuxkg
jgrh gSA dgha&dgha rks d{kk esa Vscy j[kk
tkrk gS] rkfd vè;kid pkWd] MLVj o
vU; f'k{k.k midj.k ml ij j[k losQ]
ysfdu 50 izfr'kr LowQyksa dh d{kkvksa esa
Vscy o oqQlhZ oqQN Hkh ugha gksrhaA ;g
blfy, fd;k tkrk gS rkfd f'k{kd d{kk
esa cSB u tk;sA ;g lc ns[kdj Nk=k Hkh
LowQy osQ O;ogkj ls LrC/ jg tkrs gSa
vkSj os vè;kid dks lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ rjhosQ
ls ns[krs gSaA
18- ,d&nks ekU;rkizkIr LowQyksa esa ;g ik;k
x;k fd f'k{kdksa o Nk=kksa dks viuh ckbd
o lkbfdy vkfn j[kus gsrq 500 #Ik;s
izfr ekg pqdkus iM+rs gSaA bl izdkj Nk=kksa
osQ lkFk&LkkFk vè;kidksa dk Hkh 'kks"k.k
gksrk gSA
19- 80 izfr'kr Lkh-ch-,l-bZ- ekU;rkizkIr
LowQyksa }kjk vekU;rkizkIr LowQyksa osQ Nk=kksa
Chap-9.indd 100
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
dks nloha rFkk ckjgoha d{kk dk iQkWeZ
Hkjokdj ijh{kk,¡ djokbZ tkrh gSaA blls
LowQyksa dks eksVh jde izkIr gksrh gSA
20- 99 izfr'kr LowQyksa esa dk;Z osQ izfr
mi;qDr okrkoj.k] ukSdjh osQ izfr vlqj{kk
dk Hkko] vkfFkZd vlqj{kk] esfMdy dh
lqfo/kvksa dk vHkko] esfMdy NqV~Vh dk
u gksuk vkfn vlqj{kk dk ekgkSy mUgsa vk,
fnu fry&fry dj ekj jgk gSA
21- LowQy ,d xSj&ykHkdkjh laLFkk gSA ysfdu
;gh laLFkk,¡ iw¡thifr;ksa dks iSnk dj jgh
gaSA bu laLFkkvksa osQ Åij vk;dj Hkh
ugha yxk;k tkrk gS pw¡fd ;ss lekt dks
Åij mBkus esa viuk lfØ; ;ksxnku nsrh
gSaA vxj bu laLFkkuksa dk vkykspukRed
ewY;kadu fd;k tk;s rks ;g ik;k tk;sxk
fd ,d vk;dj tek djus okyk O;fDRk
og lHkh lq[k&lqfo/kvksa dh oLrq]
tSlsµokgu] eg¡xs bySDVªkWfud midj.k
vkfn viuh iwjh ukSdjh esa ugha ik ldrk
ftruk fd bu laLFkkuksa osQ ekfyd fli+ZQ
,d ;k nks o"kks± esa izkIr dj ysrs gSaA
fu"d"kZ
ys[kd us yksxksa ls okrkZ osQ nkSjku lquk fd
ifCyd LowQyksa esa [email protected] vPNh gS
D;ksa u ifCyd LowQy [kksy fn;k tk;s] ftlesa
1000 ls 2000 #i;s izfrekg rd rUk[okg
ysus okys vè;[email protected]è;kfidk,¡ fey tk,¡xhA
pw¡fd gekjs ns'k esa bruh csjks”kxkjh gS fd blls
”;knk ugha nsuk iMs+xkA bl rjg osQ fopkj
bu lapkydksa osQ eu esa u mitsa] blosQ fy,
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
osaQnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] u;h fnYyh }kjk lapkfyr---
lh-ch-,l-bZ- dks bu LowQyksa ij yxke yxkuh
pkfg,A lh-ch-,l-bZ- LowQyksa esa blh izdkj
f'k{kdksa dk 'kks"k.k gqvk rks vkus okys le; esa
;s LowQy Hkh viuh lk[k [kks nasxsA lh-ch-,lbZ- cksMZ dk dk;Z flI+kZQ fo|ky;ksa dks ekU;rk
iznku djuk ek=k gh u gksdj] le;≤
ij vkdfLed fujh{k.k dj budh dk;Z iz.kkyh
esa lq/kj djokuk Hkh gksuk pkfg,A ftlls
lekt osQ lHkh oxksZ dk 'kks"k.k can gks losQA
101
bu LowQyksa ij lh-ch-,l-bZ- cksMZ }kjk I+kQhl
c<+ksrjh] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk lapkfyr fdrkcksa
dk iz;ksx] vè;kidksa osQ fgrksa dh tk¡p] uSd
xzsfMax Hkh dh tkuh pkfg, rFkk bZ-ih-,iQdk l[rh ls vuqikyu djkus osQ fy, mfpr
funsZ'k fn;s tkus pkfg,A ftlls fd lekt
osQ lHkh oxks± dk mRihM+u can gks losQ rFkk
vkfVZdy 21,] vkfVZdYl 23 rFkk 24 dk
mYya?ku can gksA
lanHkZ
dfiy] ,p- osQ- 2001- vuqla/ku fof/;k¡] ,dkn'k laLdj.k- ,p-ih- HkkxZo cqd gkml] vkxjk&282 004
iwoZ funs'kd (5 flracj 2013) ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-] ^^f'k{kd fnol dh lkFkZdrk**] nSfud tkxj.k] i`-10
f=kikBh] Vh-Ikh- o f=kikBh] ,u-,e- 2008- ,u baVªksMD'ku vkWI+kQ n LVMh vkWI+kQ g~;weu jkbV~l (izFke laLdj.k)]
bykgkckn ykW ,tsalh ifCyosQ'kal] ykW ifCy'klZ] bykgkckn
www.CBSE.nic.in
www.epf india.gov.in/epf act 1952.pdf
www.mhrd.gov.in/rte
Chap-9.indd 101
4/13/2015 3:24:16 PM
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed] xq.kkRed
fodkl ,oa futhdj.k
jkts'k oqQekj tloky·
vkt iwjs fo'o esa] vkfFkZd fodkl esa Kku osQ lalk/uksa dh izHkqlÙkk HkkSfrd lalk/uksa dh
rqyuk esa c<+rh tk jgh gSA ,sls esa mPp f'k{kk vkSj mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa dk egÙo vkSj
Hkh c<+ tkrk gSA ck”kkj vkSj lekt] ifjorZu dh vfHkO;fDr osQ vPNs lwpd gSaA buls
laosQrksa dks xzg.k dj fo'ofo|ky;ksa vkSj egkfo|ky;ksa dks vius ikB~;ozQeksa] vè;kidksa
osQ i<+us&i<+kus osQ rkSj&rjhdksa] mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa esa ?kVrs 'kS{kf.kd fnolksa dks c<+kus]
'kks/dk;ksZa dks c<+kok nsus osQ lkFk&lkFk orZeku ijh{kk i¼fr esa ,slk cnyko ykuk gksxk]
tks orZeku ”k:jrksa osQ vuqlkj lekt dh vko';drkvksa dks vkRelkr~ djus dh {kerk
j[krk gksA ;fn geus ,slk ugha fd;k rks Hkkjrh; lekt o vkS|ksfxd rFkk cgqjk"Vªh;
daifu;ksa dh orZeku ”k:jrksa osQ vuqlkj u rks ge f'k{kk dk <k¡pk [kM+k dj ik,¡xs] u gh
gekjh mPp f'k{kk ns'k o nqfu;k dh cnyrh ”k:jrksa osQ lkFk&lkFk Hkkjrh; ifjos'k rFkk
;gk¡ dh ijaijk o laLÑfr osQ vuqowQy gh jg ik,xhA ,sls esa nqfu;k dh bu cnyrh ”k:jrksa
dks] gekjh mPp f'k{kk dks le>uk gksxk] vU;Fkk gekjk lekt Kku dh bl lnh esa fiNM+
tk,xkA Hkys gh vkt gekjs ns'k dk mPp f'k{kk dk <k¡pk nqfu;k esa lcls cM+k gks] ysfdu
vkt Hkh cgqr cM+h vkcknh tgk¡ mPp f'k{kk ls oafpr gS rks ogha xq.koÙkk dh dlkSVh ij
vHkh cgqr oqQN fd;k tkuk ckdh gSA ns'k esa 2020 rd mPp f'k{kk dh ukekadj nj dks
30 iQhlnh rd igq¡pkus osQ fy, tgk¡ gesa ”;knk mPp f'k{k.k laLFkku [kksyus gksaxs] ogha
budh igqaqp lekt osQ fiNMs+] vknoklh o xjhc rcosQ rd igq¡pkus dh Hkh pqukSrh gSA
ijarq ;g lc mPp f'k{kk esa xq.koÙkk ls le>kSrk fd;s cxSj ugha gks ldrkA ,sls esa tgk¡
gesa mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa futh Hkkxhnkjh dks Lohdkj djuk gksxk rks ogha futh f'k{k.k
laLFkkuksa dks Hkh viuh lkekftd Hkwfedk dk fuoZgu bZekunkjh ls djuk gksxkA vU;Fkk
gekjh mPp f'k{kk dk <k¡pk tgk¡ nqfu;k osQ maur ns'kksa osQ eqdkcys fiNM+ tk,xk rks ogha
ns'k dk lkekftd&vkfFkZd mRFkku Hkh laHko ugha gks ik,xkA
· lgk;d yksd laioZQ vf/dkjh] ikaoVk lkfgc] fljekSj (fg-iz-)
Chap-10.indd 102
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:52
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed] xq.kkRed fodkl ,oa futhdj.k
mPp f'k{kk fdlh Hkh ns'k osQ vkfFkZd fodkl
rFkk lqlaLÑr lekt dh LFkkiuk dk vk/kjHkwr
fcanq gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh jk"Vª tks fo'o esa viuh
vyx igpku cukuk pkgrs gSa o vU; ns'kksa
osQ fodkl osQ lkFk dne ls dne feykdj
pyuk pkgrs gSa] muosQ ikl f'k{kk ij fuos'k
djus osQ vfrfjDr nwljk dksbZ fodYi ugha
gSA Hkkjr o"kZ esa Hkh yacs le; ls f'k{kk ,d
lkekftd rFkk yksdfgrdkjh lsok osQ :i esa
tkuh tkrh jgh gSA ;gk¡ mPp f'k{kk osQ tks
izkjafHkd iz;kl gq,] muesa /uh o laiUu yksxksa
us Hkwfe] Hkou rFkk /u osQ }kjk viuk Hkjiwj
lg;ksx fn;kA cukjl fganw fo'ofo|ky; bldk
Toyar mnkgj.k gSA Hkkjr ns'k dh mPp f'k{kk
dh xkSjo'kkyh ijaijk esa r{kf'kyk] ukyank rFkk
foozQef'kyk tSls fo'ofo|ky;ksa dk uke tqM+k
gqvk gS] tgk¡ iwjs fo'o osQ fo|kFkhZ f'k{kk xzg.k
djus vk;k djrs FksA1
fiNyh lnh esa tgk¡ mPp f'k{kk dk osaQnz
fcanq lekt osQ HkkSfrd lalk/uksa dh o`f¼ jgk
rks ogha bl lnh esa cnyrs ifjos'k esa mPp
f'k{kk dk osaQnz fcanq Kku vkSj lwpuk ij vk/kfjr
lekt gks x;k gSA2 iwjs fo'o esa vkfFkZd fodkl
esa Kku osQ lalk/uksa dh izHkqlÙkk HkkSfrd lalk/uksa
dh rqyuk esa c<+rh tk jgh gSA ,sls esa mPp
f'k{kk vkSj mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa dk egÙo vkSj
Hkh c<+ tkrk gSA vkt gesa rs”kh ls cnyrh
nqfu;k osQ lkFk pyus esa ,d fuf'pr Lrj dh
{kerk pkfg,A ck”kkj vkSj lekt] ifjorZu dh
vfHkO;fDr osQ vPNs lwpd gSaA buls laosQrksa dks
xzg.k dj fo'ofo|ky; vkSj egkfo|ky;ksa dks
vius ikB~;ozQeksa O;k[;krkvksa dks i<+us&i<+kus osQ
Chap-10.indd 103
103
rjhdksa vkSj ijh{kk i¼fr;ksa esa ,slk cnyko ykuk
gksxk] tks ifjorZu dks gekjh vko';drkuqlkj
vkRelkr~ djus dh {kerk j[krk gksA ;fn ,slk
ugha gqvk rks fons'kh fo'ofo|ky;ksa] vkS|ksfxd
?kjkuksa o cgqjk"Vªh; daifu;ksa dh orZeku ”k:jrksa
osQ vuqlkj u rks ge f'k{kk dk <kapk [kM+k dj
ik,¡xsa u gh gekjh mPp f'k{kk Hkkjrh; ifjos'k
rFkk ;gk¡ dh ijaijk o laLd`fr osQ vuqowQy gh
jg ik,xhA nqfu;k dh bu cnyrh ”k:jrksa dks
gekjh mPp f'k{kk dks le>uk gksxk vU;Fkk
gekjk lekt fiNMdj jg tk,xkA3
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed vk;ke
fdruk gS] ;g tkuus osQ fy, fo'ofo|ky;
vuqnku vk;ksx }kjk tkjh oqQNsd vk¡dM+ksa dk
mYys[k lkef;d gSA 1947 esa Hkkjr esa yxHkx
20 fo'ofo|ky; vkSj 500 egkfo|ky; dk;Zjr~
FksA 50 o"kZ ckn 1996&97 esa fo'ofo|ky;ksa dh
;g la[;k c<+dj 232 vkSj egkfo|ky;ksa dh
la[;k 9703 gks xbZA tcfd orZeku 4 esa mPp
f'k{kk dk ;g vk¡dM+k yxHkx 620 fo'ofo|ky;
(ftlesa 298 jkT; fo'ofo|ky;] 130 MhEM
fo'ofo|ky;] 44 osaQnzh; fo'ofo|ky; o
148 futh fo'ofo|ky; 'kkfey gSa) o 33000
egkfo|ky; rd igq¡p x;k gSA blh rjg
1972&73 esa mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa esa 21-60
yk[k fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk ukekadu Fkk] tks 1996&97
esa c<+dj 67-50 yk[k rFkk orZeku esa yxHkx
250 yk[k ls Hkh vf/d gks x;k gSA tcfd
1996&97 esa mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa esa yxHkx 3
yk[k f'k{kd rFkk orZeku esa ;g vk¡dM+k yxHkx
10 yk[k f'k{kd gks x;k gSA
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:52
104
mPp f'k{kk esa layXu ;qok 'kfDr osQ
vkdyu osQ fy, 18&24 o"kZ dk vk;qoxZ fy;k
tkrk gSA5 bl vk;q oxZ okys ;qokvksa dk ek=k
10&12 iQhlnh gh mPp f'k{kk dk ykHk izkIr
dj ik jgs gSaA tcfd ;gh mPp f'k{kk teZuh
esa 25 iQhlnh] izQkal esa yxHkx 50 izfr'kr]
vesfjdk esa 80 izfr'kr rFkk dukMk esa yxHkx
90 iQhlnh fo|kfFZk;ksa dh igq¡p esa gSA Hkkjr
tSls fo'kky o fo'o dh nwljh 'kSf{kd O;OkLFkk
gksus osQ okctwn egt 12 I+kQhlnh dk vk¡dM+k
mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa 'kS{kf.kd xjhch dh
rjiQ gekjk è;ku vkdf"kZr djrk gSA ,d rjI+kQ
tgk¡ ns'k esa 18&24 vk;qoxZ osQ oqQy 10&12
iQhlnh Nk=k gh mPp f'k{kk esa vk ik jgs gSaA
rks nwljh rjI+kQ ns'k esa yxHkx 25&30 iQhlnh
vkCkknh xjhCkh dh js[kk osQ uhps thou;kiu dj
jgh gSA ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa O;kIr
bl leL;k dks ysdj nks izeq[k dkj.k crk,
tk jgs gSa ftlesa igyk dkj.k] mPp f'k{kk
osQ {ks=k esa ?kVrk ljdkjh O;; rFkk nwljk]
ns'k esa ewyHkwr lqfo/kvksa elyu jksth&jksVh dh
rYkk'k esa HkVdrh gekjh vk/h vcknh gSA bu
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ns'k osQ vanj mPp f'k{kk dks ,d
,slh fn'kk fn, tkus dh vko';drk gS fd ,d
rjI+kQ tgk¡ ns'k dh yxHkx ,d frgkbZ vkcknh
dks lEekutud vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd fLFkfr
ij [kM+k fd;k tk losQ rks nwljh rjI+kQ Hkkjr dks
oSf'od izfrLi/kZ osQ ;ksX; cukdj mPp f'k{kk
esa fo|kfFZk;ksa dk ukekadu vU; ns'kksa osQ leku
Lrj ij ykuk gksxk vkSj og Hkh xq.koÙkk rFkk
Lrj esa le>kSrk fd, cxSjA6
Chap-10.indd 104
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
blh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+rs gq, ns'k esa mPp
f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa o"kZ 2020 rd Nk=kksa osQ
ukekadu nj dks 30 iQhlnh rd gkfly djus
osQ fy, jk"Vªh; Kku vk;ksx osQ lq>ko ij
vey djus osQ fy, tgk¡ ns'k esa yxHkx 1500
fo'ofo|ky; o 45000 egkfo|ky; LFkkfir
djusa gksxs rks ogha fo'oLrjh; f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa
esa viuh igpku cukus dk Hkh tcjnLr ncko
gksxkA7 blh fn'kk esa iz;kl djrs gq, Hkkjr
ljdkj us tgk¡ fons'kh fo-fo- dks ns'k esa ykus
dk fopkj dj jgh gS rks ogha ifCyd izkbosV
ikVZujf'ki osQ vk/kj ij ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dks
c<+kok nsus ij cy fn;k tk jgk gS rkfd ns'k
esa mPp f'k{kk dh igq¡p tgk¡ lekt osQ gjsd
rcosQ osQ vf/dkj esa gks losQ rks ogha mPp
f'k{kk dk Lrj Hkh varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj dk gksA ysfdu
blh y{; dh iwfrZ osQ fy, Hkkjr ljdkj mPp
f'k{kk osQ xq.kkRed i{k dks de”kksj fd;s cxSj
;g lc djuk ugha pkgrh gSA
gekjs ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa ?kVrs
'kS{kf.kd fnol rFkk ”k:jrksa osQ fglkc ls 'kks/
u gksus dh ckrsa ges'kk mBrh jgh gSaA ysfdu ,slk
Hkh ugha gS fd bl fn'kk esa geus dksbZ iz;kl Hkh
ugha fd;s gSaA mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa xq.kkRed
lq/kj ykus gsrq le;≤ ij vusd lfefr;k¡
o vk;ksx xfBr gksrs jgs gSaA blh fn'kk esa vkxs
c<+rs gq, ;wthlh }kjk xfBr izks- ts- osQ- ,- rjhu
dh vxqokbZ okyh lfefr us viuh flI+kQkfj'kksa
esa dgk fd LFkk;h izkè;kidksa dks fo-fo- esa
gÝ+rs esa de ls de 40 ?kaVs vkSj iwjs lky
esa 180 'kSf{kd fnu miyC/ jguk pkfg,A
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:53
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed] xq.kkRed fodkl ,oa futhdj.k
lfefr us viuh flI+kQkfj'kksa esa ;g Hkh dgk fd
fo-fo- o dkWystksa esa ,dleku f'k{kd Nk=k
vuqikr r; djuk dfBu gS D;ksafd f'k{k.k osQ
fofHkUu Lrjksa ij vyx&2 rjg osQ ikB~;ozQe
gksrs gSaA blfy, rjhu desVh us viuh flI+kQkfj'kksa
esa osaQnzh; fo-fo- vkSj MhEM fo-fo- esa ihth
Lrj ij foKku ladk; esa ;g vuqikr 1%10]
ekufodh o lkekftd ladk; esa 1%15] okf.
kT; o izca/u ladk; esa 1%15 vkSj ehfM;k
,oa i=kdkfjrk esa 1%10 gksuk pkfg,A tcfd
Lukrd Lrj ij lkekftd foKku ladk; esa
1%30] foKku esa 1%25] ehfM;k ,oa i=kdkfjrk
esa 1%15 rFkk ch-,M+- esa bls ,u-lh-Vh-bZ- osQ
ekinaMksa osQ vuqlkj cukus dh flI+kQkfj'k dh gSA 8
,sls esa xq.koÙkk ykus gsrq izks- rjhu desVh dh ;g
flI+kQkfj'ksa dkI+kQh vge lkfcr gks ldrh gSaA ijarq
nwljh rjI+kQ ;fn fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa vè;kidksa
dh miyC/rk ij ut+j nkSM+kbZ tk, rks fLFkfr
,dne foijhr ut+j vk jgh gSA bl fn'kk esa
izkIr vk¡dM+ksa dh ckr djsa rks ns'k osQ vf/dka'k
osaQnzh; fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa yxHkx 30&40 iQhlnh
in fjDr py jgs gSaA9
tcfd jkT; ljdkjksa }kjk lapkfyr
fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa Hkh yxHkx 40&45 iQhlnh
in fjDr py jgs gSaA blosQ vykok fiNys
oqQN o"kksZa esa ns'k osQ vanj [kqys futh o MhEM
fo'ofo|ky;ksa dh gkyr blls Hkh dgha cnrj
dgh tk ldrh gSA ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa izks- rjhu
desVh dh flI+kQkfj'ksa oSQls ykxw gksaxh] bl ij
ns'k esa lekt osQ fofHkUu {ks=kksa esa fojks/kHkklh
Loj mBrs jgs gSaA
Chap-10.indd 105
105
jk"Vªh; Kku vk;ksx osQ losZ{k.k osQ vk/kj
ij ns'k dh 60 izfr'kr vkcknh 25 o"kZ ls
de mez dh gS] ftlesa ls egt 12 iQhlnh
gh mPp f'k{kk esa vk ikrs gSaA lkFk gh gekjs
ns'k esa izfro"kZ yxHkx 2-64 yk[k Nk=k mPp
f'k{kk gsrq fons'kksa dh vksj #[k djrs gSa rFkk
izfro"kZ yxHkx 27]000 djksM+ #i;k [kpZ djrs
gSaA10 ,sls esa ns'k osQ vanj gh mPp f'k{kk
esa xq.koÙkk ykus] Nk=kksa osQ ukekadu nj dks
c<+kus rFkk Nk=kksa osQ fons'kksa esa gks jgs iyk;u
dks jksdus osQ fy, Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk fons'kh
fo'ofo|ky; fcy&2010 dks bl vk'k; osQ
lkFk laln esa yk;k x;k Fkk fd tgk¡ ns'k esa
ukeh fons'kh fo'ofo|ky;ksa osQ ;gk¡ vkus ls
mPp f'k{kk dk xq.kkRed Lrj c<+sxk rks ogha
ns'kh o fons'kh fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa izfrLi/kZ dh
Hkkouk Hkh c<+sxhA lkFk gh gekjs ;qokvksa dks
fons'kh Lrj dh mPp f'k{kk ;gha ij miyC/ gks
tk,xhA ysfdu ns'k osQ vanj bl dne dks ysdj
f'k{kkfonksa] jktuhfrd nyksa o Nk=k laxBuksa esa
ijLij fojks/kHkklh Loj ns[kus dks fey jgs gSaA
tgk¡ f'k{kkfonksa o Nk=kksa dk dguk gS fd ns'k
osQ mPp f'k{k.k LkaLFkku tgk¡ f'k{kdksa] ewyHkwr
<k¡ps] fo'o Lrjh; lqfo/kvksa rFkk vk/qfud
rduhdksa osQ vHkko esa fons'kh fo-fo- ls fiNM+
tk,¡xsa ftlosQ dkj.k csgrj lqfo/k,¡ tqVkus dh
vkM+ esa u osQoy LofoÙkiksf"kr ikB~;ozQeksa dks
c<+kok feysxk cfYd mPp f'k{kk dk futhdj.k
o O;kikjhdj.k Hkh c<+sxkA tcfd fofHkUu
jktuhfrd nyksa o lkekftd laxBuksa dk ekuuk
gS fd ns'k osQ djksM+ksa xjhc] vkfnoklh o fiNMs+
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:53
106
{ks=kksa ls laca/ j[kus okys Nk=k mPp f'k{kk ls
oafpr gks tk,¡xsaA bl lanHkZ esa] budk ;gh dguk
gS fd ,d rjI+kQ tgk¡ gekjh ljdkj mPp f'k{kk
esa ?kVrs fuos'k dks c<+k,] ogha mPp f'k{kk]
lekt osQ gjsd rcosQ dh igq¡p esa gks losQA bl
lanHkZ esa fofHkUu jktuhfrd nyksa] Nk=k laxBuksa
o vU; lektlsoh laLFkkvksa dk dguk gS fd
tgk¡ gekjs ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk ij izfr Nk=k [kpkZ
400 MkWyj gS] ogha ;gh [kpkZ phu esa 2]728]
:l esa 1]024 rFkk czkt+hy esa 3]986 ;w,l
MkWyj gSA11 ,sls esa vc ;gh iz'u [kM+k gks jgk
gS fd mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa 2020 rd 30
iQhlnh Nk=kksa osQ ukekadu osQ y{; dks xq.koÙkk
o futhdj.k ls le>kSrk fd;s cxSj D;k ge
gk¡fly dj ik,¡xsa\
,sls esa ns'k dh ljdkj us mPp f'k{kk esa
futh {ks=k dh Hkkxhnkjh ij bl rF; osQ lkFk
fopkj fd;k gS fd gekjh mPp f'k{kk eSdkys
dh i¼fr osQ dkj.k tgk¡ xq.koÙkk;qDr f'k{kk ns
ikus esa foI+kQy lkfcr gks jgh gS] ogha vkt osQ
cnyrs nkSj dks ns[krs gq, mPp f'k{k.k laLFkku
vius y{; dks gk¡fly ugha dj ik jgs gSaA
urhtk tgk¡ ns'k esa mPp f'kf{kr csjks”kxkjksa dh
iQkS”k yxkrkj c<+ jgh gS] ogha m|ksxksa dks fo'o
Lrjh; ekudksa osQ vuqlkj n{k yksxksa dh lIykbZ
djus esa gekjs mPp f'k{k.k laLFkku yxkrkj u
osQoy foI+kQy gksrs tk jgs gSa cfYd m|ksxksa dh
orZeku ”k:jrksa osQ vk/kj ij 'kks/ Hkh ugha
djok ik jgs gSaA blh leL;k dks è;ku esa j[krs
gq, ljdkj us bl mís'; osQ lkFk futh f'k{k.k
laLFkkuksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dks c<+kok nsus ij cy
fn;k gS fd ,d rjI+kQ tgk¡ ns'k dks ,sls LowQy]
Chap-10.indd 106
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
dkWYkst] fo'ofo|ky;] O;kolkf;d o rduhdh
izf'k{k.k laLFkku miyC/ gks losaQxs ftudh vkt
ns'k dks furkar vko';drk gS lkFk gh f'k{kk dh
ykxr dks de dj ljdkj osQ cks> dks Hkh de
fd;k tk losQxkA
ysfdu bl lanHkZ esa Hkh ns'k osQ f'k{kkfonksa]
fofHkUu jktuhfrd nyksa o vke Nk=kksa dk dguk
gS fd ljdkj }kjk f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa dkWjiksjsV
txr ls tks lg;ksx dh vis{kk dh xbZ Fkh]
mlesa lektfgr de rFkk O;kikfjd fgr gh
loksZifj jgk gSA bl lanHkZ esa ns'k osQ vke yksxksa
dk ;g Hkh dguk gS fd ljdkj ls gj rjg dh
lgwfy;r elyu fctyh] ikuh] ”kehu bR;kfn
ysus okys futh f'k{k.k laLFkku lekt osQ izfr
visf{kr f”kEesnkjh dk bZekunkjh ls fuoZgu ugha
djrs gSaA urhtk vkt ns'k dk xjhc] fiNM+k
o vkfnoklh {ks=kksa ls rkYyqd j[kus okyk vke
Nk=k csgrj f'k{kk ls oafpr gks jgk gS rks ogha
orZeku vkS|ksfxd ”k:jrksa osQ fglkc ls u rks
'kks/ dk;Z gks ik jgs gSa vkSj u gh n{k yksxksa
dh vkiwfrZ gks ik jgh gSA blosQ foijhr ns'k
esa fofHkUu rduhdh o O;kolkf;d fu;ked
laLFkkvksa }kjk mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa ij fu;eksa
dh vuns[kh dj f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa dks pykus dh
vuqefr iznku djus osQ vkjksi Hkh yxrs jgs gSaA
ftlesa pkgs MhEM fo-fo- dks pykus dh vuqefr
jgh gks ;k fiQj ,vkbZlhVhbZ o ,elhvkbZ ij
yxs Hkz"Vkpkj osQ vkjksi gksaA12
,slh ifjfLFkfr esa gekjs mPp f'k{k.k laLFkku
fo'o Lrjh; ekudksa ij oSQls [kjk mrj losQaxs
rFkk ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa xq.kkRed
o ek=kkRed lq/kj oSQls gks losQxk] blosQ fy,
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:53
ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dk ek=kkRed] xq.kkRed fodkl ,oa futhdj.k
fuEufyf[kr lq>ko vge gks ldrs gSa&
1- izks- ;'kiky lfefr (Renovation
and Rejuvenation of Higher
Education) dh flI+kQkfj'kksa osQ vk/kj
ij fofHkUu fu;ked laLFkkvksa dks lekIr
dj ,d jk"Vªh; vk;ksx dh LFkkiuk dh
tkuh pkfg, rkfd mPp f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa
Hkz"Vkpkj dh xqatkb'k de gks losQA
2- ns'k esa fo'o Lrjh; xq.koÙkk dh
dlkSVh ij vf/d ls vf/d rduhdh
laLFkku tSlsµvkbZ-Vh-vkbZ-] ikWyhVSDuhd
o bathfu;fjax dkWyst [kksys tk,¡ rkfd
;qokvksa dks vkt osQ lanHkZ esa fo'o Lrjh;
jks”kxkjksaeq[kh f'k{kk fey losQA
3- ns'k esa py jgs lHkh osaQnzh; o jkT;h;
fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa jk"Vªh; o varZjk"Vªh;
ekudksa osQ rgr f'k{kdksa osQ fjDr inksa dks
izkFkfedrk osQ vk/kj ij Hkjk tkuk pkfg,
rkfd fdrkch Kku osQ lkFk&lkFk 'kks/ esa
Hkh ge vkxs c<+ losQaA
4- futh mPp f'k{k.k laLFkkuksa (futh o MhEM
fo'ofo|ky;ksa) esa Hkh ;w-th-lh- }kjk r;
fd;s x, ekinaMksa osQ rgr gh iz'kklfud
vf/dkfj;ksa (oqQyifr] jftLVªkj bR;kfn)
o f'k{kdksa dh fu;qfDr;k¡ gksuh pkfg,]
rkfd mPp f'k{kk dk Lrj leku cuk jgsA
5- fo'ofo|ky;ksa esa 'kS{kf.kd o 'kks/
xfrfof/;ksa dks c<+kok nsus gsrq izks- rjhu
desVh dh flI+kQkfj'kksa dks ;Fkkor~ ykxw
djus ij xaHkhjrkiwoZd fopkj gksuk pkfg,A
6- futh fo'ofo|ky;[email protected]|ky;ksa o vU;
rduhdh rFkk O;kolkf;d laLFkkuksa esa
Chap-10.indd 107
107
de ls de 25 iQhlnh lhVsa vkfFkZd o
lkekftd rkSj ij de”kksj fo|kfFkZ;ksa osQ
fy, ljdkjh laLFkkuksa osQ cjkcj vkjf{kr
djus dk izko/ku gksuk pkfg, rkfd mPp
f'k{kk osQ leku volj ns'k osQ lHkh oxksaZ
dks fey losQAa
7- ns'k osQ csgrjhu fo'ofo|ky;ksa o rduhdh
laLFkkuksa esa fo'o Lrjh; vk/kjHkwr <k¡pk
fodflr dj fons'kh Nk=kksa dks vkd`"V dj
laLFkkuksa dh vk; esa o`f¼ dh tkuh pkfg,A
8- izR;sd fo'ofo|ky; o vU; mPp f'k{k.k
laLFkkuksa esa ^laLFkku fodkl dks"k* xfBr
fd, tkus pkfg, rkfd tgk¡ leFkZ o
bPNqd O;fDr LosPNk ls /u ns losQa vkSj
ogha xjhc es/koh Nk=kksa dk [kpkZ mBk;k tk
losQA
9- ns'k esa mPp f'k{kk dh c<+rh ek¡x dks ns[krs
gq, fo'ofo|ky; nwjorhZ f'k{kk osQ ekè;e
ls rduhdh o vU; O;kolkf;d ikB~;ozQeksa
dk lapkyu xq.koÙkk ls le>kSrk fd,
cxSj djsa rkfd bPNqd O;fDr O;olk; osQ
lkFk&lkFk mPp f'k{kk gk¡fly dj vius
Kku o dkS'ky esa fodkl dj ldaAs
10- osQoy mUgha fons'kh fo'ofo|ky;ksa dks ns'k
esa vkus dh bTkkt+r feyuh pkfg, tks vius
ns'k esa xq.koÙkkiw.kZ mPPk f'k{kk osQ fy,
fo[;kr gksAa lkFk gh ,sls ikB~;ozQe pykus
dh vuqefr nh tkuh pkfg, tks orZeku
lekftd o oSf'od ”k:jrksa dks iwjk
djrs gkaAs
11- vkt lekt osQ izR;sd {ks=k esa Hkz"Vkpkj
ns[kus dks fey jgk gS] ftlesa mPp f'kf{kr
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:53
108
Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk µ viSzy 2014
yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh fparuh; gSA ,sls esa
Hkkjrh; lekt o ;gk¡ dh laLÑfr rFkk
ijaijkvksa dk fofHkUu O;kolkf;d o
rduhdh ikB~;ozQeksa osQ lkFk vko';d
rkSj ij lekos'ku djuk gksxk rkfd gekjh
ukStoku ih<+h oSf'od Kku osQ lkFk&lkFk
vius lekt] laLd`fr] bfrgkl] uSfrdrk]
ewY;ksa rFkk ;gk¡ dh yksd ijaijkvksa dks Hkh
tkus o mudks] vius lkoZtfud o futh
thou esa mi;ksx esa yk,¡A
lanHkZ
fganh
1- ?kweu] ch-,l- 2010- ^^djI'ku bu ,tqosQ'ku**] n fVªC;wu] paMhx<] ekpZ 07] 2010 2- ik.Ms;] dYiyrk- 2002- ^^Hkkjr esa mPp f'k{kkµfuth {ks=k dh Hkwfedk**] Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk]
tqykbZ] i`- 41&47 3- ikukxfj;k] vjfoan- 2010- ^^iL;wZbax ,Dlhysal ,aM bfDoVh**] n VkbEl vkWI+kQ bafM;k] u;h [email protected]<+]
vizSy 10] 2010 4- ;kno] v'kksd oqQekj- 2010- ^^iQkWjsu ;wuhoflZVh foy csuhfi+QV bafM;k**] n fVªC;wu] paMhx<+] I+kQjojh 07]
2010 5- jk"Vªh; laxzgky;- 2001- 'kS{kf.kd lq/kj- jk"Vªh; laxks"Bh dh fjiksVZ] u;h fnYyh] 14&15 ekpZ 6- flag] ts- ih- 2003- ^^bDdhloha lnh dk Hkkjr vkSj f'k{kk ladVµ,d voyksdu**] oqQ#{ks=k] flracj]
i`- 7&10 7- flag] 'kSytk- 2001- ^^mPp f'k{kk dk okf.kT;hdj.k**] Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk] vDrwcj] i`- 31&34 8- flag] lquhy oqQekj- 2001- ^^Hkkjrh; mPp f'k{kkµlalk/uksa dh deh vkSj okf.kT;hdj.k**] Hkkjrh;
vk/qfud f'k{kk] vizSy] i`- 42&45
vaxzs”kh
9- Govt.
of India. 2008. Towars a Knowledge Society. National Knowledge
Commission Report, 2008, New Delhi.
10- Grewal, R.S. “Making Higher Education Industry Relevant”. The Tribune,
Chandigarh, June 18, 2013.
11- Recommendations of Prof. J.K.A.Taren; UGC constituted committee on Higher
Education.
12. Recommendations of Prof. Yashpal Committee report (Renovation and
Rejuvenation of Higher Education; first intrim report published on 1st march,
2009 and final report published on 25th June, 2009).
Chap-10.indd 108
10-04-2015 PM 04:46:53
ifj"kn~ dh ^Hkkjrh; vk/qfud f'k{kk* ,oa ^izkFkfed f'k{kd*
=kSekfld if=kdkvksa osQ xzkgdksa] ikBdksa rFkk ys[kdksa ls fuossnu
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuql/
a ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ dh mijksDr nks =kSekfld if=kdk,¡
f'k{kk txr esa jk"Vªh; Lrj rFkk jkT; Lrj ij gks jgs vusd iz;ksxks]a vuql/
a kuks]a
dk;ZØeksa o xfrfof/;ksa dks ikBdksa rd igqp
¡ kus osQ lqxe ekè;e gSAa bu if=kdkvksa
dk izdk'ku fo'ks"k :i ls fo|ky;h f'k{kk osQ {ks=k esa dk;Zjr f'k{kkfonks]a f'k{kdks]a
f'k{kd&izf'k{kdksa rFkk ikB~;Øe fuekZrkvksa dks lefiZr gSA buosQ izR;sd laLdj.k esa
,sls uohure ys[kksa osQ izdk'ku dks izkFkfedrk nh tkrh gS tks 'kSf{kd uhfr;ksa ls
lacfa èkr gks]a xq.kkRed lqèkkj dh fn'kk esa mYys[kuh; iz;ksx gka]s vf/xe dks lq#fpiw.kZ
rFkk xzkg~; cukus dh fn'kk esa futh vuqHko vFkok 'kks/ dk;Z gks]a fofHkUu 'kSf{kd
dk;ZØeksa osQ fooj.k gks]a f'k{k.k&izf'k{k.k lac/
a h izHkkoh lkexzh gksA 'kSf{kd mi;ksfxrk
ls ;s if=kdk,¡ vR;ar egRoiw.kZ gSa rFkk ifj"kn~ bUgsa ewy ykxr ls Hkh cgqr de
dher ij ikBdksa dks miyC/ djkrh gSA
bu if=kdkvksa osQ fy, mRÑ"V Lrj osQ f'k{kkizn izHkkoh ys[k lg"kZ Lohdkj fd,
tkrs gSa rFkk muosQ izdk'ku osQ mijkar leqfpr ekuns; nsus dh Hkh O;oLFkk gSA ys[k
dh fo"k;oLrq 2500 ls 3000 'kCnksa esa ;k vf/d Vafdr :i esa gksuk okaNuh; gSA
;fn ys[kd vius ys[kksa osQ lkFk lhMh vkSj Lo;a dk bZ- esy dk irk Hkst losQa rks
lqfoèkk gksxhA Ñi;k vius ys[k fuEu irs ij Hkstas µ
foHkkxkè;{k (if=kdk izdks"B)] izdk'ku izHkkx
jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~
Jh vjfoUn ekxZ] u;h fnYyh 110 016
vè;{k] izdk'ku izHkkx }kjk jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~] Jh vjfoUn ekxZ] u;h fnYyh
110 016 osQ fy, izdkf'kr rFkk Jh o`ankou xzkfI+kQDl izk- fy-] bZ&34] lSDVj&7] uks,Mk 201301 (m- iz-)
}kjk eqfnzrA
Cover 2nd & 3rd.indd 3
10-04-2015 PM 04:48:16
ISSN 0972-5636
jft- ua- [email protected]
Hkkjrh; vk/kqfud f'k{kk
o"kZ 34
vad 4
viSzy 2014
Download