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LANDSLIDE INITIATION, RUNOUT, AND DEPOSITION WITHIN
CLEARCUTS AND OLD-GROWTH FORESTS OF ALASKA
A. C. JOHNSON,D. N. SWANSTON,ANDK. E. MCGEE
Made m United States of America
Reprinted from JOURNALOF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCESASSOOATION
VOI. 36, No. 1, February 2000
Copyright © 2000 by the American Water Resources Association
VOL. 36, NO. 1
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
AMERICANWATERRESOURCES ASSOCIATION
LANDSLIDE
INITIATION, RUNOUT,
CLEARCUTS
AND OLD-GROWTH
FEBRUARY2000
AND DEPOSITION
WITHIN
FORESTS
OF ALASKA1
A. C. Johnson, D. N. S w a n s t o n , a n d K. E. McGee 2
ABSTRACT: More than 300 landslides and debris flows were triggered by an October 1993 storm on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. Initiation, runout, and deposition patterns of
landslides that occurred within clearcuts, second-growth, and oldgrowth forests were examined. Blowdown and snags, associated
with cedar decline and "normal" rates of mortality, were found adjacent to at least 75 percent of all failures regardless of land use.
Nearly 50 percent of the landslides within clearcuts occurred within one year following timber harvest; more than 70 percent of these
sites had hydrophytic vegetation directly above failures. In following the runout paths of failures, significantly more erosion per unit
area occurred within clearcuts than in old-growth forests on slopes
with gradients from 9 to 28" (16 to 54 percent). Runout length, controlled by hillslope position within deglaciated valleys, was typically longer in old-growth forests than in second growth and clearcuts
(median values were 334, 201, and 153 m, respectively). Most landslides and debris flows deposited in first- and second-order channels before reaching the main stem channels used by anadromous
fish. Slide deposits in old-growth forests were composed of a higher
proportion of woody debris than deposits derived from slides in second growth or clearcuts.
(KEY TERMS: landslides; debris flows; land use planning; erosion
and deposition; woody debris; deglaciated valleys; Alaska; anadromous fish.)
B e n d a et al., 1998), w i n d ( S w a n s t o n , 1979; H a r r i s ,
1989; K r a m e r , 1997; N o w a c k i a n d Kramer, 1997), natural declines in forest species ( J o h n s o n a n d Wilcock,
1997), or by h u m a n factors such as c l e a r c u t t i n g a n d
road building (Bishop a n d Stevens, 1964; Wu et al.,
1979; Sidle, 1985; S w a n s t o n , 1991). Previous studies
conducted in t h e glaciated t e r r a i n of s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a
h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e is a t w o - to f o u r - f o l d
i n c r e a s e in l a n d s l i d e f r e q u e n c y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h timb e r h a r v e s t ( B i s h o p a n d S t e v e n s , 1964; S w a n s t o n ,
1974, 1979; Sidle 1985; S w a n s t o n , 1991; S w a n s t o n
and Marion, 1991) and decline of yellow-cedar
(Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) (Johnson, 1993, 1997).
In this study, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of landslide initiation
are p r e s e n t e d , i n c l u d i n g an a s s e s s m e n t of forest
h e a l t h a n d h y d r o l o g y as i n d i c a t e d by v e g e t a t i o n . I n
addition, t h e v o l u m e of m a t e r i a l eroded or deposited
along landslide flow p a t h s is examined. T h e s e factors
are a s s e s s e d for l a n d s l i d e s i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g a single
s t o r m e v e n t w i t h i n v a r i o u s l a n d use t y p e s i n c l u d i n g
old-growth, second-growth, and clearcut forests.
F r o m t h e s e a n a l y s e s , t h e u n d e r l y i n g factors t h a t m a y
e x a c e r b a t e t h e effects of l a n d use on landslide occurrence a n d r u n o u t are e v a l u a t e d .
INTRODUCTION
The link between mass-wasting and valuable
downstream resources, including salmonid habitats,
s u g g e s t s a need to assess both t h e t r i g g e r i n g m e c h a n i s m s a n d r u n o u t p a t h s of t h e s e l a n d s l i d e e v e n t s .
L a n d s l i d e s typically occur in conjunction with m a j o r
s t o r m s in m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n of t h e Pacific N o r t h w e s t of t h e U n i t e d States. T h e s e e v e n t s are exacerb a t e d by n a t u r a l factors such as fire ( K r a m m e r , 1965;
Rice, 1973; S w a n s o n , 1981; B e n d a a n d D u n n e , 1997;
STUDY AREA
Prince of Wales I s l a n d is a b o u t 40 k i l o m e t e r s w e s t
of K e t c h i k a n , A l a s k a a n d a t 5 7 8 , 0 0 0 h e c t a r e s is
the l a r g e s t island of the A l e x a n d e r Archipelago. T h e
landslides sampled occurred during a single storm
on O c t o b e r 26-27, 1993. M o r e t h a n 300 i n d i v i d u a l
1Paper No. 98140 of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Discussions are open until October 1, 2000.
2Respectively, Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2770 Sherwood Lane, Suite 2a, Juneau, Alaska
99801; Consulting Engineering Geologist, P.O. Box 34255, Juneau, Alaska 99803; and Student/Hydrologist, Oregon State University, School of
Forestry, College of Forest Engineering, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (E-Mail/Johnson: ajohnson/[email protected]).
JOURNALOF THE AMERICANWATER RESOURCESASSOCIATION
17
JAWRA
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
granodiorites, greywackes, conglomerates, limestones,
and s a n d s t o n e s • M e t a s e d i m e n t a r y m u d s t o n e s ,
greywackes, shales, slates, metavolcanic diorites and
granodiorite dominate the study area. Most of the
bedrock below 1000 m elevation is covered by till
landslides occurred primarily in the central and eastern central portions of the island at approximately
55°30"N,133°E (Figure 1).
The island is dominated by rocks of the Alexander
Terrain, a large accretionary fragment, consisting of
-- : J i . i
.,"
•£
7
/,
•"
;! eJ
,,,l.;ral
-.&
"
/
• .., ~t~
~jV
10
20
30
40
I
+
Kilometers
Figure 1. The Two Regions of High Landslide FrequencyAssociated
with the October 1993 Storm on Prince of Wales Island.
JAWRA
18
JOURNALOF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
associated with the late Wisconsinan glacial advance
(Swanston, 1969).
L a n d s l i d e s were i n i t i a t e d in soils d e r i v e d from
glacial till classified as Spodosols (87 percent), and
regions of exposed rock where soils include Inceptisols
(10 percent) and Entisols (3 percent). The spodisols
are sandy with an internal angle of friction of 35 ° and
an effective cohesion of 8 k P a (Shroeder, 1983). They
are classified primarily as typic humicryods, which
are moderately-well to well-drained soils, typically
greater than 60 cm in depth.
Precipitation was recorded in Hollis, central Prince
of Wales Island. Precipitation for eight consecutive
days preceding the storm event initiating the landslides t o t a l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 160 mm. D u r i n g the
storm t h a t initiated these landslides, an additional
209 m m of rain fell. W e a t h e r stations at sea level
recorded near freezing conditions, so some wet snowfall and associated rapid s n o w m e l t also m a y have
occurred. In addition, a 2 percent increase in rainfall
for every 30 m rise in elevation near Hollis has been
d o c u m e n t e d in p r e v i o u s s t o r m s ( W a l k o t t e n a n d
Patric, 1967). Personal accounts indicate local periods
of high intensity rainfall and wind. Storm cells were
d o c u m e n t e d in s e v e r a l a r e a s n e a r high l a n d s l i d e
activity. The closest w e a t h e r station that m e a s u r e d
wind speeds was located 128 km NE in Petersburg,
Alaska, where wind speeds of 18.4 m/s were reported.
The forests on Prince of Wales Island are dominated by stands of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla),
S i t k a s p r u c e (Picea sitchensis), red c e d a r (Thuja
plicata), A l a s k a y e l l o w - c e d a r (Chamaecyparis
nootkatensis), and shore pine (Pinus contorta). Yellowc e d a r decline, a n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y of o l d - g r o w t h
forests exists in some of the areas. The decline has
b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a n g e in soil t e m p e r a t u r e ,
chemistry, and/or change in hydrology as opposed to
an association with pests or pathogens (Hennon et
al., 1990; H e n n o n a n d S h a w , 1997). U n d e r s t o r y
species include red h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium parvifloium), A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y (Vaccinium alaskaense),
r u s t y menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), and devil's
club (Opopanax horridus). Skunk cabbage (Lysichitom americanus), a n d f a l s e h e l b o r e (Veratrum
eschscholtzii) grow in the wettest areas. Windthrow is
the dominant forest disturbance (Harris et al., 1974;
Harris, 1989; Nowacki and Kramer, 1997). Clearcutring of the old-growth forests has occurred since the
1950s r e s u l t i n g in a m o s a i c of c l e a r c u t s , second
growth, and old growth patches. In this study, forests
are i d e n t i f i e d as old g r o w t h if no h a r v e s t i n g h a s
occurred, second growth if harvested before 1985, and
clearcut if harvested after 1985.
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
METHODS
A total of 45 landslides were labeled and randomly
s e l e c t e d u s i n g a r a n d o m n u m b e r g e n e r a t o r from
inventories conducted by the Ketchikan area of the
Tongass National Forest (Johnson, 1993; Landwehr,
1993). These inventories were developed through lowelevation (less than 300 m) aerial reconnaissance surveys and road surveys. Fifteen landslides were
randomly selected from clearcuts, second-growth, and
old-growth forests, respectively. We use landslides as
a descriptive term for all rapid soil failures. Debris
flows are specified if it was apparent that the initial
failure m a s s became liquefied as indicated by flow
deposits.
Each landslide and debris flow was examined from
the point of initiation to the point of deposition to
evaluate initiation, runout, and deposition characteristics. Characteristics of the initiation zones included
land use, indicators of hydrology, plant disturbance,
and terrain configuration controlling slope stability.
Initiation zones were defined as the locations where
groundwater seepage converged in subsurface depressions or "hollows." Head scarps of failures m a y have
migrated upslope following failure, but for the most
part, initiation zones were characterized by a clear
headwall and rapid downslope channeling into preexisting gullies, which t r a n s p o r t e d resulting debris
downslope. I n d i c a t o r v e g e t a t i o n conditions at t h e
immediate vicinity of landslide initiation included the
presence of blowdown, decayed stumps, standing dead
trees, cedar decline, split trees, leaning or "pistol butted" trees (tree trunks bending in downhill direction
at ground level), logging disturbance, and presence of
hydrophytic vegetation such as skunk cabbage. Indicator terrain conditions analyzed included elevation
at the landslide initiation zone, distance to the ridgeline, slope, mean soil depth of failure mass within the
failure zone, width of failed soil mass, and eroded volume.
The r u n o u t of l a n d s l i d e s and d e b r i s flows w a s
defined as the affected region between the initiation
zone and the final deposition zone. Analysis of runout
included a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a n g e s in l a n d u s e
encountered along the landslide or debris flow path,
measurements of runout widths and lengths, and erosional and depositional trends. These t r e n d s were
described for r u n o u t segments, divided and sorted
according to slope gradient category. Segment length
ranged from 3 to 100 m, averaging 28 m with 4 to 21
segments per landslide. The fraction of total runout
length occurring per slope gradient category is presented in conjunction with the range of volumes of
erosion or deposition per unit runout area. Analysis of
variance and t-tests were used to statistically analyze
19
JAWRA
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
differences in erosion or deposition per slope gradient
category. Differences were judged to be statistically
significant at P = 90 percent (p = 0.10).
Final, or terminal deposits at the end of the landslide r u n o u t tracks were characterized by depositional
slope, composition, volume, and location. For deposits
in streams, order and stream type were determined.
Stream type was defined as Class I if the stream supported anadromous fish populations, Class II if supp o r t i n g r e s i d e n t fish such as c u t t h r o a t t r o u t , and
Class III and IV if without fish populations (USDA,
1997). Size and number of logs were counted at some
of the landslide deposits.
A comparison of woody debris to soil volume ratios
for clearcuts and old-growth forests was e s t i m a t e d
using the following equation:
forests m a y have occurred. As a result, failure rates
and volumes per area per landuse were not calculated.
Initiation of landslides was closely associated with
landforms. At least 40 out of 45 (89 percent) of the
failures initiated in bedrock hollows (bedrock depressions where colluvium, woody debris and water collect), a phenomenon common in the Pacific Northwest
(Dietrich and Dunne, 1978). The remainder occurred
on planar slopes. Till was the primary failure material in at least 75 percent of the sites. Slope and soil
depth at landslide initiation sites were similar for all
land use types (Table 1). Initiation aspects differed.
Nine out of 15 of landslides in old growth trended to
the northeast and southeast, 11 out of 15 landslides in
clearcuts occurred on west and s o u t h w e s t aspects,
a n d 10 out of 15 of t h e l a n d s l i d e s w i t h i n second
growth occurred on south-facing slopes.
Springs a n d seepage were found at m o s t of the
l a n d s l i d e scarps at the soil/till (bedrock) contacts
(Table 2). Approximately 90 percent of the sites had
two or three seeps t h a t converged at the base of the
bedrock/till hollow. Hydrophytic vegetation was more
common at clearcut sites (7 out of 15) t h a n in oldgrowth (3 out of 15) or second-growth (2 out of 15)
sites. Five of the seven sites within clearcuts having
h y d r o p h y t i c vegetation were h a r v e s t e d less t h a n a
year before the landslides occurred. Root deterioration was apparent at 10 but of 15 sites within each of
the land use types.
Residual logging disturbance was apparent in 7 out
of 15 second-growth sites and in 5 out of 15 sites in
clearcuts, typically in the form of corridors where logs
were dragged along and across the failure scarp. In
addition, at several of the sites above the headwall,
rotten logs directed water to the hollow where failure
occurred.
A (Tr) Vtr : A (d)
where, A = area of landslide; Tr = average number of
trees per area; d = average depth of soil; and Vtr =
average tree volume.
From this ratio, comparisons were made between
old-growth and clearcut forests. Tree densities used in
this calculation were 255 trees per ha with an average
volume of 2.2 m 3 per tree, values typical for a productive, well drained forest in southeast Alaska (Rogers
and van Hees, 1992). Within clearcuts, stump volume
was assumed to be 1/20 the size of an entire tree, or
0.11 m 3. Woody debris on the forest floor was not
included in this calculation because it varied considerably across sites.
RESULTS
Initiation
Runout
The areas of initiation (head scars) for 40 of the 45
l a n d s l i d e s and debris flows in t h e r a n d o m sample
were greater t h a n 200 m 2 (volumes greater t h a n 77
m 3) except one slope failure within clearcut forests,
and two failures w i t h i n old-growth and second-growth
forests. This has been the m i n i m u m size consistently
observed under the old-growth forest canopy of southe a s t A l a s k a at the p h o t o g r a p h i c scale of 1:12,000
( S w a n s t o n a n d M a r i o n , 1991). O t h e r s t u d i e s in
coastal regions of Oregon (Oregon D e p a r t m e n t of
Forestry, 1998) have found t h a t the m i n i m u m observable size of landslide i n i t i a t i o n zones u n d e r forest
canopy was 418 m 2 (roughly 15 by 27 m) using 1:6,000
and 1:12,000 scale aerial photographs. Although we
believe our sample is unbiased, we acknowledge t h a t
some bias toward larger landslides within old-growth
JAWRA
At least one-third of the sampled landslides traveled from one land use type into a n o t h e r land use
type, and were t h e r e b y affected by road crossings,
change in woody debris loading, and change in the
size of standing timber (Figure 2). In lieu of this complexity, details of r u n o u t were described solely for
the landslides t h a t remained consistently within the
forest type in which they initiated (nine within each
landuse type).
The m a j o r i t y of f a i l u r e s (5 out of 9) w i t h i n old
growth split j u s t below the zone of initiation. These
landslides split when standing trees (greater than 0.3
m in diameter) impeded the flow path of the failure
mass and forced it to shift into several channels. Two
20
JOURNAL
OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCESASSOCIATION
Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
TABLE 1. Summary of Landslide Initiation Site Characteristics (n = 15 for each land use type).
L a n d u s e Type
Mean Value
Maximum
Standard
Deviation
Minimum
OLD GROWTH
Soil Depth (m)
Width (m)
Slope (degrees)
Elevation (m)
Distance to Ridgeline (m)
Eroded Volume (m3)
1.2
19
38
370
234
382
2.0
32
55
608
701
855
0.5
10
31
172
50
25
0.5
6
7
115
198
274
SECOND Growth
Soil Depth (m)
Width (m)
Slope (degrees)
Elevation (m)
Distance to Ridgeline (m)
Eroded Volume (m3)
1.1
17
34
256
282
633
2.2
49
45
396
1037
3952
0.4
7
27
183
46
20
0.7
13
5
85
296
1037
CLEARCUTS
Soil Depth (m)
Width (m)
Slope (degrees)
Elevation (m) .
Distance to Ridgeline (m)
Eroded Volume (m3)
1.2
13
36
391
165
347
2.0
35
47
500
671
1332
0.6
5
25
195
61
104
0.4
9
6
83
157
322
TABLE 2. Conditions at Sites of Landslide Initiation (n = 15 per condition per land use type).
Site C o n d i t i o n
Clearcuts
Second Growth
Old G r o w t h
3
6
1
2
9
3
1
5
15
7
3
6
0
0
11
0
0
7
13
2
8
7
3
3
9
2
4
0
13
3
Blowdown
Pistol Butted Trees
Split Trees
Leaning Trees
Decayed Stumps and Decayed Snags
Cedar Decline (CD)
Standing Dead (other than CD)
Yarding Disturbance
Groundwater Seepage
Hydrophytic Vegetation
o f t h o s e five l a n d s l i d e s t u r n e d i n t o c h a n n e l i z e d d e b r i s
flows and followed pre-existing gullies. Another two
landslides flowed out onto planar slopes and upon
splitting, appeared to undercut the adjacent slopes
causing additional slides. One landslide split initially
a n d t h e n r e t u r n e d to t h e o t h e r flow p a t h l e a v i n g a n
i s l a n d of t r e e s . O n l y o n e o f t h e f i v e l a n d s l i d e s i n v e n t o r i e d h a d a m a j o r i t y o f d e p o s i t i o n in a s t e e p c h a n n e l .
A t t h i s s i t e , t h e f l o w p a t h c r o s s e d a s t e e p (21 °, 37 p e r JOURNALOF THE AMERICANWATER RESOURCESASSOCIATION
c e n t ) c h a n n e l w i t h a j u n c t i o n a n g l e o f 70 °, a n d t h e
majority of the flow stopped in the channel. Of the
remaining
four landslides that did not split, two
flowed into channels and two remained wide and
unchannelized.
Unlike landslides in old-growth forests, those in
second growth and clearcuts did not split. Four out of
nine landslides and debris flows in second growth
f l o w e d i n t o s t e e p c h a n n e l s (> 20 °, 36 p e r c e n t ) , t h e r e s t
21
JAWRA
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
Old arowlh
Initiation
Runout
Second growth
Deposition
# slides
Initiation
~
h
Runout
Deposition
# slides
4 Sgroe~w~ltc['JS°econgnrdodwth51
5
Clearcuts
1
Initiation
Runout
Deposition
# slides
1
4
1
0ro 1 '
4
Figure 2. The Initiation and Runout of Landslides on Prince of Wales Island with Changes in Land Use Indicated.
Note t h a t for at least one-third of the landslides, runout passed into a different land use.
were wide and unchannelized. All of the landslides
and debris flows in clearcuts flowed into steep firstorder t h r o u g h third- order c h a n n e l s (>20", 36 percent).
The longest r u n o u t segments occurred within oldgrowth forests followed by those in clearcuts and second growth. Five out of nine of the failures in old
growth had large widths (> 20 m) for the first 75 m
w h e r e a s o n l y two l a r g e - w i d t h l a n d s l i d e w i t h i n
clearcuts traveled 25 m before decreasing in width
( F i g u r e 3d). T h e m a j o r i t y of l a n d s l i d e s w i t h i n
clearcuts h a d r u n o u t s t h a t i n i t i a l l y were m e d i u m
widths (10-19 m) and did not travel distances exceeding 400 m (Figure 3c). Small-width landslides within
second growth, clearcuts, and old growth traveled <
200, < 300, and < 600 m, respectively (Figure 3b). Two
failures in second growth started with large widths
and an a d d i t i o n a l two l a n d s l i d e s became large in
width. Five r u n o u t segments from these four landslides had runout distances exceeding 101 m (Figure
3d).
Deposition within the r u n o u t of debris flows and
landslides occurred on slopes as steep as 38" (78 percent) in old growth and second growth (Figure 4a).
Deposition occurred as berms along the flow path and
piles of soil and woody debris t h a t had been backedup behind standing trees. For old-growth forests, the
amount of erosion was nearly equal to the amount of
JAWRA
deposition on slopes from 19 to 28" (34 to 54 percent).
These slopes accounted for thirty-three percent of the
total runout distance occurring in old-growth forests
(from Figure 4d).
Although landslides and debris flows in old growth
were generally larger in size t h a n landslides in second growth and clearcuts, there was more erosion per
a r e a in clearcuts t h a n in old growth. Erosion was
dominant, as indicated by median, upper and lower
quartile values, on slope gradients greater t h a n 29"
(56 percent) in old growth (Figure 4a) and second
growth (Figure 4c), and greater t h a n 19" in clearcuts
(Figure 4b). These slope gradients accounted for 38
percent, 29 percent, and 55 percent of the total runout
l e n g t h s , r e s p e c t i v e l y (Figure 4d). In o t h e r words,
there was a tendency for more erosion to occur along
the majority of the runout lengths within clearcuts.
Slope gradients from 19 to 23" (34 to 42 percent) had
significantly more erosion per unit area in clearcuts
t h a n in old growth (t-tests; p = 0.02). On these slope
gradients, mean erosion was 0.28 m3/m 2 (volume per
area) in clearcuts (n = 12) while in old-growth (n =
16), deposition was dominant with a mean volume of
0.16 m3/m 2. A significant difference was also found on
9 to 28" (16 to 54 percent) slope gradients (p = 0.08).
Here, 0.03 m3/m 2 was eroded in clearcuts (n = 50),
and in old growth (n = 57), 0.15 m3/m 2 was deposited.
22 JOURN
OAFTLHA
EMERC
IW
ANATERRESOURC
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SSOCA
ITO
IN
Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
a) All slides together
b) Small width landslides
(< 10 m)
c) Medium width landslides d) Large width landslides
(10-19 m)
(>20 m)
m l m m m m m m mi J m m m m m m | m im m m m m |
2 6 - 50
51 -75
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76-100
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1
;
[ ] Second growth I
701 -800
801 -900
0
6
9
0
2
4
6
Cumulative Frequency
"0
2
4
6
2
Frequency
Figure 3. Landslide Runout Width and Length for: (a) All Landslides Together, (b) Small Width
Landslides, (c) Medium Width Landslides, and (d) Large Width Landslides.
Deposition
deposited in muskeg ponds (wetland bogs or fens) t h a t
are classified as Class II due to use by resident fish.
The remainder of the debris flows deposited in Class
III and Class IV channels without fish. In contrast, all
of t h e l a n d s l i d e s in c l e a r c u t a n d s e c o n d - g r o w t h
forests deposited in Class III and Class IV channels,
e x c e p t for one l a n d s l i d e in s e c o n d g r o w t h t h a t
deposited in a Class II stream (Table 4).
The relative proportion of woody debris to sediment
in the landslide deposits was greater in old growth
t h a n clearcuts. Deposits in clearcuts consisted of sediment, woody debris fragments and stumps with rootwads, as compared to slides in old growth which were
composed of sediment, entire trees and woody debris
fragments. Slide deposits in old growth often had a
snout of woody debris on the downward side. Deposits
in second growth deposits were similar to those in
clearcuts if the second growth was relatively young,
and more similar in composition to old growth with
i n c r e a s i n g age. Deposits in old-growth forests h a d
from 98 to 300 logs (with diameters from 0.2 to 2.0 m).
When a large snout of wood existed within a single
deposit, smaller woody debris and sediment was often
backed-up behind it. Lacking a large woody debris
snout, the unimpeded sediment freely moved greater
distances in the downstream or downslope direction.
The estimated percentage of woody debris derived
from 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ha landslides and debris flows
Final, or terminal deposits were located at the end
of the runout tracks. Maximum and mean deposit volu m e s were l a r g e s t in o l d - g r o w t h f o r e s t s a n d t h e
smallest in clearcuts (Table 3). The slope upon which
the final deposits were located ranged from 2.5 to 19"
(5 to 34 percent). Depositional processes appeared to
be enhanced by large standing trees (> 0.3 m diameter), a lack of channelization, and r u n o u t onto road
surfaces on slopes less t h a n 15" (27 percent). Four of
the nine landslides and debris flows t h a t t r a v e l e d
through second growth and clearcuts ended at or near
roads (Figure 2).
T w e n t y out of 27 t e r m i n a l deposits occurred in
first-order and second-order stream channels on 4 to
19' slopes (7 to 34 percent) with a mean of 10" (16 percent) (Table 4). Two sites (in a clearcut and second
growth) did not deposit in channels. The remaining
five slides deposited in third- and fourth-order channels on slopes ranging from 2.5 to 9" (5 to 16 percent)
slopes with a mean slope of 6 ° (10 percent). Two landslides/debris flows in old growth deposited in a fourthorder, Class I, or anadromous fish bearing channel.
Only one of these failures had a major impact on the
channel by introducing over 100 m 3 of sediment and
woody debris, while the other slide deposited approximately 10 m 3 of sediment and wood. Two debris flows
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
23
JAWRA
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
Old-growth f o r e s t
Slope (degrees)
<4
A
~
4rob
9to13
14to 18
19 to 23
24 to 28
29 to 33
34 to 38
39 to 43
>44
2
E
g
- -
o
:
-1
._~
II
-2
UJ
a)
-4
• m~ximum
-- upper quartile
• median
-- lowerquartille
• minimum
Clearcuts
3
~'
..---.,~
I
2
E
E
v
~
o
-1
..~
-2
W
b)
-4
Second
growth
2
%
1
o
8
==.
-1
-2
"~
c)
-3
-4
0.3
J=
a
0.25
0.2
~0.15.
lS
0.1
.
u. 0.05
o
d)
<4
4to8
9to13
14to 18
19 to 23
24 to 28
Slope (degroes)
29 to 33
34 to 38
39to43
>44
Figure 4. Distributions (box and whisker plots) of Erosion and Deposition in: (a) Old Growth, (b) Clearcuts, and (c) Second
Growth by Slope Category, and (d) Fraction of Total Runout Length per Slope Category (deposition is indicated
by positive volumes and erosion by negative volumes along the Y-axis). Note more erosion in clearcuts.
JAWRA
24
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATtON
Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
TABLE 3.Characteristics of Landslide Terminal Deposits (n = 9 for each land use type).
M e a n Value
Maximum
Minimum
Standard
Deviation
OLD GROWTH
Slope (degrees)
Width (m)
Volume (m 3)
10
26
756
19
72
2649
2.5
5
10
5
24
958
SECOND GROWTH
Slope (degrees)
Width (m)
Volume (m 3)
13
21
514
17
53
2268
4
7
100
10
14
692
CLEARCUTS
Slope (degrees)
Width (m)
Volume (m 3)
7
11
187
12
20
724
3
5
13
3
5
197
Landuse Type
TABLE 4. Number of Landslide Terminal Deposits Per Stream Order and Stream Class
[Class I, anadromous fish; Class II, resident fish; Class III and IV, without resident fish
populations (U.S.D.A., 1997)] with Average Slope Indicated in Parentheses (total n = 27).
Landuse
First Order
C l a s s IV
Old Growth
2 (14", 25%)
Second Growth
Clearcuts
Totals
Second Order
C l a s s III
Third Order
C l a s s II
Fourth Order
Class I
3 (8", 12%)
2 (7 °, 12%)
2 (2.5",5%)
5 (15", 27%)
2 (6 °, 10%)
1 (7 °, 12%)
0
4 (12", 21%)
4 (10", 18%)
0
0
9
3
2
11
with average soil depths of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 m indicates t h a t the proportion of woody debris in a deposit
was greatest when landslides derived from clearcuts
and old growth were large and soils were shallow
(Figure 5). Landslide deposits in old-growth forest
typically h a d ten times the woody debris volume of
deposits originating in clearcuts.
t h a n clearcut or old-growth sites, due mainly to earlier removal of easily reachable, h i g h value timber.
These land use pattern differences not only relate to
d i f f e r e n c e s in f o r e s t h y d r o l o g y a n d f o r e s t h e a l t h
which m a y be associated with the initiation of landslides, but also affect runout length. Although it is diff i c u l t to d i r e c t l y c o m p a r e l a n d s l i d e s w i t h i n t h e
different landuse types because of differences in hillslope location, some trends are apparent.
DISCUSSION
Initiation
While our selection of landslides was random, the
pattern of land use distribution was not. In southeast
Alaska, clearcuts are often located in mid-slope and
upper-slope regions of wide, U-shaped glacial valleys
whereas areas of remaining old growth typically occur
in steep V-shaped valleys above clearcuts or in steep
canyons. In addition, old growth is common on valley
side-slopes due to economic and regulatory reasons.
Second-growth sites are generally lower in elevation
JOURNALOF THE AMERICANWATER RESOURCESASSOCIATION
Seven of 15 landslides occurred within one year of
forest harvest on clearcut sites, in contrast to the general 2-5 y e a r d e l a y f o u n d by o t h e r s ( Z e i m e r a n d
Swanston,1977; Zeimer, 1981; O'Loughlin and Zeimer,
1982). This difference could be due to the magnitude
of the storm and site conditions, including the condition of roots and preponderance of site s a t u r a t i o n .
L a n d s l i d e s in c l e a r c u t s m a y h a v e been i n i t i a t e d
25
JA WR A
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
4O
• Clearcuts
°m
o
Q.
30
:i!iiii!il
25
iii~iiiiil
15
iiii?!iiil
10
ii'?:?:?::
[] Oldgrowth
:!~!:!:!
o
o
5
ii~i!!iiil
ii;i~i~i~i
0
i!i!iiiiil
:
,
n
. . . . , . .
N
Failure size (ha) (soil depth (m))
Figure 5. Estimated Proportion of Woody Debris in Clearcut and Old Growth Landslide Deposits.
Calculations are plotted by size of landslide scar and by depth of erosion
(in parenthesis). Woody debris diameters are greater than 23 cm.
regardless of storm and harvest timing due to preharvest hydrologic and root conditions predisposing some
sites to failure. Five out of seven landslide scarps
within clearcuts having failures within one year of
forest h a r v e s t h a d a p r e p o n d e r a n c e of rotted roots
that pre-dated harvest activities and hydrophytic vegetation, specifically skunk cabbage. Skunk cabbage is
indicative of a high water table (Minore, 1969) and is
also w e l l - c o r r e l a t e d with t o p o g r a p h i c convergence
(area where ground water concentrates).
Topographic models such as TOPOG (O'Loughlin,
1986) and T O P M O D E L (Beven and Kirkby, 1979)
quantify the degree to which ground saturation due to
rising ground w a t e r is possible. These models have
been linked to s t a b i l i t y models ( M o n t g o m e r y and
Dietrich, 1994), but are dependent on detailed topographic scale. Lacking the appropriate topographic
data, we suggest that the prevalence of wetland vegetation in conjunction with steep slopes, convergent
topography, and bedrock hollows, are indicative of
high landslide potential. These indicators of landslide
hazard, when combined with a decrease in overstory
canopy, m a y markedly alter the magnitude and timing of peak pore pressures in convergent topography
following major rainstorms. For example, in southeast
Alaska, as much as 22 percent of the rainfall (where
rainfall for one storm was 203 mm) is intercepted by
hemlock and spruce forests (Patric, 1966). Loss of forest not only results in a decrease in root strength, but
also increases the a m o u n t of precipitation directly
reaching the ground, decreases evapotranspiration,
and m a y decrease the time it takes for the groundwater table to rise to the soil surface.
JAWRA
A reduction of root strength as well as a lack of
overstory vegetation m a y have played a key role in
triggering some landslides as blowdown, rotted roots,
or cedar decline occurred on 93 percent of old-growth
locations, 73 percent of clearcut sites, and 80 percent
of second-growth forests. Within clearcuts, skunk cabbage was present on a minority of the landslide sites
t h a t occurred 2-6 y e a r s post h a r v e s t (13 percent).
Skunk cabbage was found in 20 percent of old-growth
sites and in 13 percent of second-growth sites. Factors besides topographic control on hydrology, perhaps
including y a r d i n g d i s t u r b a n c e and changes in root
strength, m a y have triggered these landslides. If all
other variables are similar, roots have a greater relative role in the stability of hillslopes when soil depths
are shallow (Johnson and Wilcock, 1997).
Runout and Deposition
Wide valleys and trellis drainage systems of Prince
of Wales Island, characteristic of glaciated systems,
c o n t r o l l e d p a t t e r n s of r u n o u t and d e p o s i t i o n . In
this recently deglaciated landscape, channel development is relatively young (generally less than 10,000
ybp), compared to older, nonglaciated landscapes in
Oregon and California where drainage systems are
dendritic. A comparison of m e a s u r e d and predicted
runout lengths with corresponding change in elevation for both of these landscapes (Benda, personal
c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; M o n t g o m e r y and Dietrich, 1994)
indicates t h a t in nonglaciated systems the average
26
JOURNAL
OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
runout slope is approximately 14 ° (25 percent) whereas it is approximately 23 ° (42 percent) in glaciated
systems. Linear relationships for change in elevation
a n d r u n o u t l e n g t h i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s in r u n o u t
trends for landslide occurring within different geomorphic regions (Figure 6).
C h a n n e l g r a d i e n t s at landslide deposits r a n g e d
from 3 to 19 ° (5 to 34 percent); a higher range than
t h a t found in Oregon, California, and J a p a n where
depositional slopes range from 1 to 10 ° (2 to 18 percent) (Ikeya, 1981; Benda and Cundy, 1989). Benda
and C u n d y (1989) found t h a t deposition typically
occurs on 8 ° (14 percent) slope g r a d i e n t s in thirdorder channels and 1 ° slope gradients in fifth-order
channels. In Alaska, deposition occurred on slopes
averaging 10 ° (18 percent) in first-order and secondorder channels. Differences in deposition location m a y
be due to the lack of channel confinement in Alaska
as compared to other regions. The rapid decrease in
low-order stream gradients found in Alaska as compared a gradual decrease in channel gradients elsew h e r e , m a y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to h i g h e r s l o p e s of
deposition. In both areas, higher depositional slopes
m a y be attributed to lower water content (Johnson,
1984), increased woody debris content, higher angle
tributary junctions, and/or smaller basin area (Ikeya,
1981; Benda and Cundy, 1990).
B e c a u s e t h e location of l a n d s l i d e occurrence is
associated with landscape form, the location of any
particular land use within a landform affects both
occurrence and deposition of landslides. Slides in oldgrowth forest tend to deposit within a range of stream
orders whereas slides in second growth and clearcuts
tended to deposit in lower order (higher class) channels within the valley floor. Slides in second growth
and clearcuts tended to flow from the slopes of wide
U-shaped valleys and deposit in valley floors, likely
because they lacked the momentum to reach the higher order, lower gradient mainstem channels. All of the
l a n d s l i d e s t h a t moved into h i g h e r o r d e r c h a n n e l s
occurred in steeper portions of the landscape more
dendritic in form. The difference in erosion and deposition processes within runouts was largely due to the
effect of large standing trees in old-growth and second-growth forests that blocked the flow of oncoming
debris. In addition, sediment and woody debris were
b a c k e d - u p b e h i n d l a r g e fallen logs in o l d - g r o w t h
derived deposits.
The size and pattern of deposits of fine sediment
and large woody debris can impact fisheries habitat
( S w a n s o n and L i e n k a e m p e r , 1978; Bisson et al.,
1992). While t h e m a j o r i t y of l a n d s l i d e / d e b r i s flow
deposits do not reach higher order, main stem channels (habitat for many anadromous fish populations),
the composition of deposits h a s i m p o r t a n t implications for fisheries habitats. First, large woody debris
retained temporarily in deposits and released during
s u b s e q u e n t storms is an important source of woody
d e b r i s r e c r u i t m e n t to s t r e a m c h a n n e l s . Secondly,
steep tributaries that are contiguous with main stem
channels provide debris and s e d i m e n t r e c r u i t m e n t
conduits. Third, m a i n and t r i b u t a r y channels m a y
be particularly sensitive to inputs of fine sediment
introduced from channels flowing across and through
250
X
°°°*
x
Deglaciated landscape , , .
Y = 0.4172x - 5.7526 ~
200
R 2 = 0.8807
E
A
=
O
.,"
150
=
A
A
~
"
..-,t
100
%
Xx X'x~ "x'~
C
o
X
x ;,¢-"
..x
>
e
.. • "
. . "
50
.y~
X"
0
×~xr ~"
r "'X
A
Non-glaciated landscapes
y = 0.2487x + 14.695
R2 = 0.9398
^
!
I
!
I
:
;
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Observed lengths (m)
Figure 6. Change in Elevation Plotted as a Function of Obseiwed Length of Landslides Occurring on Prince of
Wales Island (shown as X's), Oregon (average value from Benda, personal communication, shown as
diamond), and in California (Montgomery and Dietrich, 1994, shown as triangles).
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION
27
JAWRA
Johnson, Swanston, and McGee
landslide deposits - particularly if the sediment is not
backed-up behind woody debris. This lack of back-up
is the typical case for l a n d s l i d e s occurring within
clearcuts. These i m p l i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t understanding the recruitment and storage of sediment and
large woody debris in time and space at a landscape
scale is e s s e n t i a l to i n t e r p r e t i n g the variability of
landslide impacts within a watershed context (Benda
et al., 1998).
forests had five times the woody debris volumes of
deposits originating from clearcuts. Lacking large
woody debris volumes, fine sediment from clearcuts
tended to migrate further down tributary channels to
t h e receiving main stem channels, possibly to the
detriment of anadromous fish habitats.
Before an understanding of the effects of land mana g e m e n t on landslide initiation and r u n o u t can be
developed, the underlying routing of sediment and
large woody debris need to be understood in a landscape context. In the glaciated systems of Prince of
Wales Island, most deposits from landslides or debris
flows do not immediately reach main stem channels
t h a t are i m p o r t a n t h a b i t a t s for a n a d r o m o u s fish.
Hence, management of this habitat will benefit from
an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t d e s i r a b l e levels of w o o d y
debris m a y occur as a result of recruitment from natural hillslope failure routed through the few steep
r e a c h e s contiguous to the main stern channels. In
addition to these inputs, woody debris r e c r u i t m e n t
occurs as a result of direct inputs from riparian forest
adjacent to the main stem channel and as a result
from r e c r u i t m e n t from t r i b u t a r i e s . I n p u t m e c h a nisms, in addition to landslides, include blowdown,
bank erosion, and inputs due to forest mortality; natural processes largely controlled by topography and
c l i m a t e . Finally, m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s m a y b e n e f i t
through the acknowledgement and integration of historical correlations between these naturally occurring
disturbance processes and the habitats they create.
CONCLUSIONS
E x a m i n a t i o n of a r a n d o m s a m p l e of l a n d s l i d e s
within a deglaciated landscape in southeast Alaska
indicated t h a t n a t u r a l site conditions, e v i d e n c e of
past blowdown, and hillslope position largely determined locations of landslide initiation and position of
final deposition. We found that 89 percent of initiation sites had rotted roots, convergent topography,
evidence of blowdown, and wetland vegetation which
predated any human-related disturbances. Runout of
landslides appeared to be affected by drainage pattern. A trellis form, typical of glaciated t e r r a i n in
southeast Alaska, tended to induce deposition in firstor second-order channels in wide U-shaped valleys
with slopes averaging 9" (18 percent), leaving main
stem channels unaffected. Less typically, debris flows
crossed mainstem channels at 90" angles. In contrast,
the uppermost regions of glaciated systems, as well as
t h e d e n d r i t i c d r a i n a g e s y s t e m s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of
nonglaciated systems, typically had longer runouts
and a lower average depositional slope. This feature
was due to the existence of acute angles at s t r e a m
junctions and gradual slope change encountered as
the debris flows moved into higher order channels
from lower order channels.
When effects of clearcutting were superimposed on
n a t u r a l site conditions, several factors appeared to
contribute to the enhancement or suppression of landslide and debris flow impacts. These factors included
an increase in triggering mechanisms associated with
loss of forest canopy and loss of soil strength due to
root cohesion. In addition, there was a significant difference in erosion and deposition characteristics of
runout due to loss of the roughness effects provided
by s t a n d i n g trees. For example, on slopes ranging
from 19 to 23" (34 to 42 percent), erosion (with a mean
of 0.28 m3/m 2) w a s d o m i n a n t in r u n o u t p a t h s of
debris flows in clearcuts while deposition (mean of
0.16 m3/m 2) was dominant in old growth. Different
patterns of erosion and deposition may have affected
c o m p o s i t i o n of f i n a l d e p o s i t s in old g r o w t h a n d
clearcut stands. To illustrate, we estimated that the
composition of deposits originating from old-growth
JAWRA
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Funding for this study was provided by the U.S.D.A., Forest
Service, Ketchikan Area of the Tongass National Forest and PNW
Research Station, Juneau, Alaska. Soil scientists Roger Johnson
and Dennis Landwehr produced the landslide inventories from
which our sample was derived, and aided immensely in the field
work. We also thank Richard Woodsmith, Rachel Baker, Dave Mongomery, Terry Shaw, and three anonymous reviewers for their
extremely useful editing and critiques of the manuscript.
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Landslide Initiation, Runout, and Deposition Within Clearcuts and Old-Growth Forests of Alaska
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