Effectiveness of Preservatives in Tropical Muffins By Perri Steinfeld Culinary Science 2015 Advisor: Rosemary Trout Trial One Abstract In this study a tropical muffin made with ingredients such as pineapples, bananas, and, non-fat yogurt will be prepared along with a preservative. The tropical and healthful ingredients in these muffins have high levels of water activity, witch put the product at risk of spoiling quickly. Mold growth is the most frequent case of bakery product spoilage (Guynot et al). Preservatives such as Propionates, Sorbates, Benzoates, and Acetic acid are mold inhibitors that can also decrease the pH of baked products, extending shelf life. Typically these preservatives work better in low pH products (Guynot et al). Essential oils can also act as natural preservative. Essential oils are volatile natural substances containing organic compounds. They are made from aromatic plants and have a strong odor. Essential oils are known for their antimicrobial properties (Abay et al). Samples made with the essential oils can be marketed as a clean label product, witch would appeal to a mass market. Preservative will be dosed at 0.3%, and compared to a control. Samples will be observed and noted for sensory attributes to include texture, moisture and general. Background The preservative used in this experiment was ALDO MSLG KFG, a product made by Lonza. Lonza is a Swiss Pharma&Biotech and specialty ingredient company. In the functional ingredient category Lonza offers products that improve the appearance, feel, and functionality of foods and other goods. Found under the classification of specialty esters and emollients ALDO has several uses. The suggested applications include baked goods, shortenings, Dairy products, confectionaries, potatoes, and pet foods (Loza). ALDO has a kosher food grade certification and is on the FDA’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) list of food additives (Loza). The code of federal regulations indicates that ALDO is a Glyceryl Monostearate. Glyceryl Monostearates are also know as monostearin, a mixture of Glyceryl Monostearate, glyceryl monopalmitate, and glyceryl esters of fatty acids found in commercial stearic acid. Glyceryl Monostearate is pepared by glycerolysos of fats and oils derived from edible sources or by esterification with glycerin of stearic acids derived from edible sources (FDA). The material safety data sheet (MSDS) that accompanies a sample of ALDO states the specific ingredients as mono, di, and tri glycerides, fatty acids, and water (Loza). Glyerides are know to improve flavor perceptions in baked goods, similar to the way an addition of fat would effect a flavor profile. However a major difference the addition of a glyceride would make to a baked good that the addition of another fat may not make is the retro gradation of crumb staling. Glyceried create a separation of the gluten starch interface and inhibit sailing while producing a softer and more uniform crumb increasing the textural attributes of the product (Hebeda). General suggested usage levels for glycerides in baked goods lie between 1% and 4% (Hebeda). The usage level suggested by Lonza is 4% to 6%, based on the weight of the fat in the formulation (Loza). In this experiment additional fats were removed form the formulation in order to increase the overall perceived healthfulness of the product. Therefore the calculation was based on the weight of an egg, the ingredient with the highest fat content. TEMPLATE DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com • • • • • • • • • • • Trial Two One control made with no food additives .A test made with ALDO 2.6g of ALDO (5% of the weight of an egg) added to the dry ingredients The product was made utilizing the muffin method Dry ingredients were scaled and mixed together • All-purpose flour, whole wheat flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt, cinnamon, and ALDO added to the test Separately the wet ingredient were scaled and mixed together • Brown sugar, bananas, yogurt, honey, apple sauce, an egg, and milk The wet ingredients were added to the dry ingredients Finally pineapple and the zest of an orange were folded into the batter The batter was portioned into tins and baked at 325° for 20 minutes The muffins cooled and then packaged individually The muffins were observed each day for appearance, texture, taste, and scent until they spoiled Control Day Zero Test Day Zero • • • • • • • • • • • • One control made with no food additives A test made with ALDO The amount of ALDO used was doubled 5.2g of ALDO (10% of the weight of an egg) added to the dry ingredients The product was made utilizing the muffin method Dry ingredients were scaled and mixed together • All-purpose flour, whole wheat flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt, cinnamon, and ALDO added to the test Separately the wet ingredient were scaled and mixed together • Brown sugar, bananas, yogurt, honey, apple sauce, an egg, and milk The wet ingredients were added to the dry ingredients Finally pineapple and the zest of an orange were folded into the batter The batter was portioned into tins and baked at 325° for 20 minutes The muffins cooled and then packaged individually The muffins were observed each day for appearance, texture, taste, and scent until they spoiled. Control Day Zero Day Two Day Three Test • Trial one, day zero both products had optimal color, flavor, and scent • The texture of the test muffin was superior to the control from day zero • Attributes of both muffins declined as time went on • Both muffins molded and became inedible on day three • Degradation began when moisture appeared on the muffin tops (day two) • This moisture altered mouth feel and taste perception • ALDO assisted with the texture of the test muffin • No significant difference in the shelf life of the product • Trial two, day zero both products had optimal color, flavor, scent, and texture • The test muffin was firm and bready • The control acted similarly to trial one • Moisture appear on the muffin top early on • Both mouth feel and flavor profile were effected by the moisture • Doubling the additive to 10% of the weight of an egg had negative effects on the texture and mouth feel • The test lasted one extra day, slightly extending the shelf life of the product. Future Research ALDO is not an ideal additive to this product due to the lack fat in the formulation. Perhaps in conjunction with another additive it could improve the texture and extend the shelf life of the product. There is still much work to do when it comes to preservatives and food preservation processes. Identified customer trends state that consumers are looking for clean label products. New and innovative technologies will have to be explored in order to offer quality products with extended shelf lives. Day Zero Resources Day One Day One Findings and Outcomes Day One Day One Day Two Day Two Day Three Day Three Day Two Day Three Day Four Day Four FDA. "Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Sec. 184.1324." U.S. Food and Drug Association. N.p., 1 Apr. 2014. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. Guynot, M. E., A. J. Ramos, D. Salva, V. Sanchis, and S. Marin. "Combined Effects of Weak Acid Preservatives, PH and Water Activity on Growth of Eurotium Species on a Sponge Cake." International Journal of Food Microbiology 76 (2002): 39-46. Elsevier. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. Guynot, M. E., A. J. Ramos, V. Sanchis, and S. Marin. "Study of Benzoate, Propionate, and Sorbate Salts as Mould Spoilage Inhibitors on Intermediate Moisture Bakery Products of Low PH (4.5–5.5)." International Journal of Food Microbiology 101 (2005): 161-68. Science Direct. Web. 25 Mar. 2015. Hebeda, Ronald E., and Henry F. Zobel. Baked Goods Freshness: Technology, Evaluation, and Inhibition of Staling. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996. Print. Irkin, Reyhan, Secil Abay, and Fuat Aydin. "Inhibitory Effects of Some Plant Essential Oils Against Arcobacter Butzleri and Potential for Rosemary Oil as a Natural Food Preservative." Journal of Medicinal Food 14.3 (2011): 291-96. Web. 25 Mar. 2015. Lonza Inc. "Aldo™ MSLG KFG." Lonza Products and Services. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. Lonza Inc. Materials Safety Data Sheet. N.d. ALDO MSLG KFG. Allendale, NJ.