North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Division of Accountability Services

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North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
Division of Accountability Services
North Carolina Testing Program
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Public Schools of North Carolina
State Board of Education
Department of Public Instruction
Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-2825
www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
The guiding mission of the North Carolina State Board of Education is that every public school student
will graduate from high school, globally competitive for work and postsecondary education and
prepared for life in the 21st Century.
HOWARD N. LEE
Chairman :: Raleigh
KATHY A. TAFT
Greenville
ROBERT “TOM” SPEED
Boone
WAYNE MCDEVITT
Vice Chair :: Asheville
KEVIN D. HOWELL
Raleigh
MELISSA E. BARTLETT
Statesville
BEVERLY PERDUE
Lieutenant Governor :: New Bern
SHIRLEY E. HARRIS
Troy
JOHN A. TATE III
Charlotte
RICHARD MOORE
State Treasurer :: Kittrell
EULADA P. WATT
Charlotte
PATRICIA N. WILLOUGHBY
Raleigh
NC DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
June St. Clair Atkinson, Ed.D., State Superintendent
301 N. Wilmington Street:: Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-2825
In compliance with federal law, NC Public Schools administers all state-operated educational programs,
employment activities and admissions without discrimination because of race, religion, national or ethnic origin,
color, age, military service, disability, or gender, except where exemption is appropriate and allowed by law.
Inquiries or complaints regarding discrimination issues should be directed to:
J.B. Buxton, Deputy State Superintendent :: Office of Innovation and School Transformation
6301 Mail Service Center :: Raleigh, NC 27699-6301 :: Telephone 919-807-3200 :: Fax 919-807-4065
Visit us on the Web:: www.ncpublicschools.org
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
This manual was prepared by:
Mildred Bazemore, Chief
Test Development Section
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
Division of Accountability Services
Jim Kroening, Performance Assessments Director
Test Development Section
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
Division of Accountability Services
Akia Beverly-Worsley, Writing Content Specialist
North Carolina State University
Technical Outreach for Public Schools
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Table of Contents
Section I Purpose/Background
ƒ Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
ƒ Background ....................................................................................... 1
ƒ Writing Advisory Committees ........................................................... 3
ƒ Timeline for NC Writing Assessments .............................................. 5
Section II Scoring Information
ƒ Scorers ............................................................................................... 6
ƒ Distributed Scoring ............................................................................ 7
ƒ Reliability Standards for Distributed Scoring ...................................8
ƒ Reader Bias ...................................................................................... 10
ƒ Total Writing Score Calculation Examples....................................... 11
ƒ Achievement Levels (General Assessment) ...................................... 11
ƒ Achievement Level Descriptors (General Assessment)................... 12
Section III Score Reporting
ƒ State Data ......................................................................................... 13
ƒ School and Student Data.................................................................. 13
Section IV Composing Features
ƒ Content component..............................................................................
o Focus ..................................................................................... 14
o Organization...........................................................................15
o Support and Elaboration .......................................................15
o Style ........................................................................................15
ƒ Conventions component ......................................................................
o Sentence Formation.............................................................. 16
o Usage ..................................................................................... 16
o Mechanics ............................................................................. 16
ƒ Content Rubric for NC General Writing Assessment.......................17
ƒ Conventions Rubric for NC General Writing Assessment .............. 18
ƒ Examples of Common Conventions Errors .................................... 19
Section V Scoring Rubric Applications
ƒ Guide Set for Grade 10 General Assessment ............................ 20-32
o 2008 Writing Prompt for Grade 10 General Assessment ........
o Student Exemplars (anchor papers).........................................
o Guide Set Annotations (score explanations) ............................
ƒ
Training Set for Grade 10 General Assessment ........................ 33-49
o Score Tally Sheet: Training Set ................................................
o Student Exemplars (sample papers) ........................................
o Training Set Annotations (score explanations)........................
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
ƒ
Qualification Set for Grade 10 General Assessment ..................50-61
o Score Tally Sheet: Qualification Set..........................................
o Student Exemplars (sample papers) ........................................
o Qualification Set Annotations (score explanations) ................
ƒ
Contact Information ............................................................................
o Accountability Division......................................................... 62
o Instructional Services Division............................................. 62
o Evaluation Sheet .......................................................................
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
INTRODUCTION
This training has been designed to deepen your understanding of the North Carolina
Writing Assessment and the test development process. This is accomplished through
historical perspective and the explanation of field testing, prompt review, prompt
selection criteria, scorer qualifications, scoring procedures, and rubric application to
student responses.
It is not the intent of this manual to neither represent nor reflect classroom practice in
the teaching of writing to students. Quality writing instruction is based on sound
pedagogy from which student performance is reflected. The North Carolina Department
of Public Instruction Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
provides this manual and training material for use in understanding the writing
assessment and the application of the rubric to selected student responses. The student
responses represent a range of potential score points that demonstrate the performance
of features indicative of those being assessed. The responses do not represent the only
way a student’s response might attain a particular score point. It is important to read
the annotations for each sample to understand how the rubric was applied to that
particular response.
BACKGROUND
The North Carolina General Assembly in 1977 enacted legislation directing the State
Board of Education (SBE) to evaluate annually the educational progress of North
Carolina students in the first, second, third, sixth, and ninth grades. “A Plan for the
Measurement of Writing in North Carolina” was presented to and approved by the SBE
in November, 1982. As described in that plan, a field test of sixth and ninth graders was
conducted in the spring of 1983, and formal administrations in both grades occurred in
January of 1984. In 1985-86, the writing assessment at grade 9 was reassigned to grade
8. The program was expanded in 1991-92 to include a grade 10 writing assessment as an
English II End-of-Course test and again in 1992-93 to include writing at grade 4. In
1995-96 the program was reduced to the assessment of writing at grades 4, 7, and 10.
Currently, students are administered writing assessments at grades 4, 7, and 10.
In 2000, the SBE commissioned a Writing Assessment Task Force to offer suggestions
to the NCDPI on ways to redesign the Writing Assessment at Grades 4, 7, and 10. The
program was redesigned effective with the 2002-2003 school year. The redesign
included eliminating the focused-holistic method of hand scoring which had been used
by the North Carolina Program since its inception. In addition, the redesign eliminated
the grade 10 English II Writing Assessment and instead requires a once-a-year writing
assessment, administered in the spring of grade 10, which focuses on informational
writing. The mode of writing for grade 4 remains narrative, while the grade 7 mode of
writing has changed from expository to argumentative. The Writing Assessment at
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Grades 4, 7, and 10 is scored (effective with the 2002-2003 school year) using the North
Carolina Writing Assessment Scoring Model Rubrics for Content and Conventions.
Grade Levels and Types of Writing by Year
Year
198384
198485
198586
198687
198788
198889
198990
199091
199192
199293
199394
199495
199596
199697
199798
199899
199900
200001
200102
4
6
7
8
9
Descriptive
Persuasive
Expository
Expository
10
Expository
Persuasive
Descriptive
Expository
Expository
Persuasive
Descriptive
Expository
Expository
Persuasive
Descriptive
Expository
Expository
Expository
Persuasive
Expository
Narrative Descriptive
Expository
Expository
Narrative Expository
Persuasive
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
Expository
Narrative
Expository
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200203
200304
200405
200506
200607
200708
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
Narrative
Argumentative
Informational
The North Carolina Writing Assessment at Grades 4, 7, and 10 has undergone
significant changes in the past several years. The changes continue to reflect the
importance of writing as a part of quality instruction, the changes in the
English/Language Arts Standard Course of Study, and the desire of stakeholders to
encourage the use of standard grammatical features in student writing.
WRITING ADVISORY COMMITTEES
During the summer, prior to the start of the school year, North Carolina educators are
recruited to participate on the Writing Advisory Committees.
There are currently six Writing Advisory Committees: Grade 4 General, Grade 4
NCEXTEND2, Grade 7 General, Grade 7 NCEXTEND2, Grade 10 General, and Grade
10 NCEXTEND2 OCS.
Committee membership is based on staggered terms and consists of (at least):
• six grade level specific practicing classroom teachers (3 year term)
• five grade-span specific practicing classroom teachers (2 year term)
• one professional from the English/Language Arts department of NCDPI
• one post secondary professional with experience relevant to the specific
grade level of the committee (3 year term)
• one professional in the area of special education (2 year term)
• one professional in the area of limited English proficiency (2 year term)
• one professional from the Test Development Section of NCDPI
Committee members are qualified individuals who are divergent thinkers, possess
leadership skills, which support the NC Writing Assessment at Grades 4, 7, and 10, have
a positive record of service, and will devote the necessary time required to the Writing
Advisory Committee to ensure that the objectives of the committee are achieved. Efforts
are made to ensure that the committees reflect the racial and ethnic diversity of North
Carolina’s fourth, seventh and tenth grade student populations and that the major
geographic regions in the state are represented.
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The primary purpose of the Writing Advisory Committee(s) is to make
recommendations based not on what students can do, but what students should be
expected to do as outlined in the NC Standard Course of Study (SCS) for
English/Language Arts. Another duty of the Writing Advisory Committees is to provide
advice and input for the selection of prompts, sample papers, and annotations to be
used in the scoring of student responses.
In September of each school year, the Writing Advisory Committees meet to select the
operational and alternate prompts for the current school year, as well as prompts
necessary for field testing. The committee examines each potential prompt using
statistical data from the field tests. All prompts are reviewed for socioeconomic,
racial/ethnic, gender, regional, and religious biases before being selected for statewide
administration. Each prompt is also reviewed for accessibility in order to ensure that all
prompts are appropriate for the NCEXTEND2 Writing Assessment student population.
In February, the Writing Advisory Committees are convened to conduct the first round
of range-finding. Range-finding is a major step in the scoring process. The rangefinding process involves the scoring contractor, Writing Advisory Committees, NCDPI
Accountability Services/Test Development Section Staff, NCSU-TOPS staff, NCDPI
Instructional Services, English/Language Arts staff, and NCDPI Exceptional Children
staff. The contractor provides samples of student field test responses. The Writing
Advisory Committees view and score the student field test responses to establish
“anchor papers.” All committee members must come to consensus and unanimously
agree on the Content and Conventions score given to each response.
The Anchor papers represent examples of particular score points and are referenced by
the scorers during the scoring process. They are used in conjunction with scoring
rubrics to help in deciding what score points student responses are assigned. This helps
to ensure that consistency in standards is applied to all responses.
In March, days after the operational administration, range-finding occurs again. Round
two of the range-finding process is the same as above EXCEPT that the samples
gathered from students are “Live” responses. “Live” student responses refer to
responses that students wrote during the operational test administration. In order to
obtain sample responses, a representative sample of schools is contacted and asked to
send test materials to NCDPI instead of returning them to the contractor. The
contractor uses these samples of student responses to conduct the final range-finding
prior to the start of the scoring project.
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
WRITING ASSESSMENTS TIMELINE
September
NC Writing Advisory Committees meet to
select Field Test, Operational, and Alternate
prompts
February
NC Writing Advisory Committees meet for RangeFinding meetings (Round–One)
March
Operational Administration (Second Tuesday)
[Exception: When Easter is in March, then first Tuesday]
NC Writing Advisory Committees meet for RangeFinding meetings (Round-Two)
Late March –
End of April
Operational Assessment Scoring Window
Conducted by Pearson Educational Measurement
May – June
Scores uploaded, reports generated, project
closes, and training materials are developed.
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Scoring Information
Scorers
The scoring project occurs after training materials are assembled using the papers
scored during the range-finding process. For the project, there is a minimum of five
days of training and qualifying. The training materials consist of a scoring rubric, a set
of guide (anchor) papers, three training sets, and three qualifying sets. After training
and qualifying, scoring begins. There are over 300,000 responses that are scored across
all three grades and six assessments. Each response is 100% second scored, meaning
that two scorers, independent of each other, assign content and convention scores for
each response.
Individuals who score the North Carolina Writing Assessments (general and
NCEXTEND2) must successfully complete a variety of activities prior to scoring
student responses.
First, a potential scorer must have the necessary qualifications. A post-secondary
degree is required of all applicants. Scorers must have documented experience in the
field of English, Writing, or Education. Scorers must also pass a preliminary
grammatical and written exam. Many who score the North Carolina Writing
Assessment at Grades 4, 7, and 10 have prior scoring experience and exceed the
minimum requirements. When initial employment is granted, scorers receive training
from the contractor specific to bias and large scale assessment. Examples of reader bias
are reviewed with the scorers, and the information has been included in the Reader Bias
chart following this section.
Next, potential scorers must successfully complete the training and qualifying phase
specific to the North Carolina project. Training and qualifying of potential scorers takes
approximately one week. Scorers who have had extensive experience scoring the North
Carolina project are trained as scoring supervisors. These scoring supervisors are given
additional training to act as an initial resource when scorers have questions. They assist
in the monitoring of scorers.
Those individuals trained as scorers are given the scoring rubrics, narrative composing
features, and application sets. They are not supplied with additional materials such as
the NC Standard Course of Study as this leads to individual interpretation of the
curriculum and would impact the validity and reliability of scoring. Readers are trained
using those student responses that were scored by the North Carolina Writing Advisory
Committee to understand how the rubric is to be applied to student responses.
After readers are trained, they must qualify to score. Qualification involves applying the
rubrics and guide set to selected student responses. Potential scorers have three
opportunities to accurately assign both content and conventions scores to at least
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seventy percent of the student responses. Readers must go through all three
opportunities regardless of when in the process they qualify.
Finally, those readers who have passed the qualification requirements are provided with
student responses that they score with another qualified scorer. This “partner score”
allows scorers to ease into the scoring process and permits scoring supervisors and
scoring directors to monitor and retrain when necessary.
Scorers are monitored by both the scoring contractor and NCDPI on a daily basis
throughout the project. Any scorer that begins to drift from the 70% reliability
requirement is retrained or dismissed. Any responses scored by readers who are
dismissed, are sent back into the pool of responses to be scored and any assigned scores
are removed from those students’ records.
Data is collected throughout the course of the scoring process and is reviewed each day
by NCDPI Accountability/Test Development Section and NCSU-TOPS staff. This data is
compiled and analyzed for several purposes, including but not limited to, validity,
reliability, and frequency (score point and Total Writing Score) distributions.
Distributed Scoring for 2008
Since receiving recommendations from the Writing Assessment Task Force in 2001, the
NCDPI has worked toward the goal of involving North Carolina educators in the scoring
process for the Writing Assessments. The advancement of modern technology has
enabled NCDPI to transition from a regional-based scoring model to a distributed
scoring model (remote web-based secure access system) for the North Carolina General
Writing Assessments at Grades 4, 7, and 10. Using a distributed scoring model, trained
North Carolina educators, who qualified, were given the opportunity to score the North
Carolina General Writing Assessments along with qualified professional scorers.
Many North Carolina educators were interested in the opportunity to score the general
writing assessments; however the number of scoring positions was limited.
Approximately 20 percent of the scorers who participated in the training and
qualification process at each grade level were North Carolina educators (see table
below).
Grade 4
Grade 7
Grade 10
87 NC
Educators
77 NC
Educators
87 NC
Educators
444 Total
Scorers
397 Total
Scorers
440 Total
Scorers
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
19.6%
19.4%
19.7%
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Distributed Scoring utilizes the process of scanning the handwritten student responses
into the vendor’s computerized database system, which distributes them securely to
scorers using the web-based password-protected system. Computer technology enabled
scorers to securely download the necessary computer applications and score student
responses.
Traditionally, the NCDPI has contracted with a vendor to score the large-scale writing
assessments in regional scoring centers. The vendor operated these regional scoring
centers and supervised the scorers under strict quality control measures. All training
sessions for scorers, however, were conducted by NCDPI Test Development and NCSUTOPS staff who were present at these scoring centers. The NCEXTEND2 Writing
Assessments continued to be scored in this manner due to the small population size and
modified nature of the assessments.
Pearson, the vendor for these projects, maintained a central headquarters to supervise
the distributed scoring and regional scoring operations. In addition, NCDPI personnel
monitored scorers and the scoring process through secure online web access. The
NCDPI generated real-time scoring reports and daily data statistics.
Reliability Standards for Distributed Scoring
All scorers, including North Carolina educators who applied to become scorers, had to
meet the rigorous requirements set forth by the NCDPI as in previous years. Scorers
first had to meet the eligibility criteria, sign Test Security and Confidentiality
Agreements, pass the necessary training requirements, and qualify for a scoring
position.
After qualifying to score the assessments, scorers were required by NCDPI to maintain
the industry standard inter-rater perfect agreement (reliability) of 70 percent. Scorers
also had to maintain a 70 percent validity standard (agreement with “true scores”
assigned to responses by the Writing Advisory Committees and NCDPI Test
Development Staff). All scorers who did not meet or exceed the 70 percent standards
(inter-rater and validity) were removed from the project and all scores assigned to
student responses were invalidated. These student responses were subsequently
rescored by two qualified scorers.
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Grade Level
4 General
4 General
Rubric Trait
Content
Conventions
IRR*
71.3
74.1
Validity
80.9
78.7
4 NCEXTEND2
4 NCEXTEND2
Content
Conventions
77.0
78.4
73.7
75.4
7 General
7 General
Content
Conventions
75.1
71.6
85.2
87.1
7 NCEXTEND2
7 NCEXTEND2
Content
Conventions
77.1
75.1
84.6
78.9
10 General
10 General
Content
Conventions
71.9
77.1
78.1
79.4
10 NCEXTEND2 OCS
10 NCEXTEND2 OCS
Content
Conventions
75.9
76.0
80.8
71.5
*IRR refers to inter-rater perfect agreement (reliability).
Note: The inter-rater perfect agreement (reliability) when combined with the
adjacent agreement exceeded 99 percent.
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Reader Bias
Reader Bias refers to personal factors that may affect a reader’s perception of a student’s
response, but have no basis in a scoring guide. Below are factors that affect some
readers but must not be allowed to have an impact on scoring.
Appearance of
Response
Length of
Response
Repetition of
Response
Offensive or
Disturbing
Content
Unusual
Approaches to
the Prompt
Response to
Prompt
Reactions to
Style
Writer
Personality
Reactions to
Performance
Assessments
The quality of the handwriting, the use of cursive or printing, margins,
editing marks, cross-outs, and overall neatness are not part of the
scoring criteria.
The length of a student’s paper is not part of the scoring criteria.
Readers should take into consideration only whether the finished piece
feels complete and has the components required. The size of a student’s
handwriting can make a paper look longer or shorter on the page than it
actually is.
Although readers may tire of reading several papers on the same topic, it
is important to remember that for each student the response represents
a unique attempt.
If a student uses vulgar language, adopts a sexist or racist point of view,
or perhaps takes a naïve or narrow approach to a topic, readers should
not let the student’s point of view affect the score. Likewise, readers
should not let a student’s lifestyle or maturity level influence them either
positively or negatively regarding their writing.
It is tempting to want to reward an especially creative approach to a
prompt, a poem for example, or a slant on the topic no one else has used.
Readers should remember that an unusual or creative attempt alone
does not necessarily constitute an upper level paper. The overall attempt
must be successful.
Likewise, an unusual approach handled
successfully should not be scored punitively.
In the classroom, there may be a “correct” response to a writing
assignment. For this assessment, students are free to respond any way
they choose. There is no right or wrong “answer” as long as it is clear the
student is attempting to reply to the prompt.
A reader’s own grammatical biases should not play a part in assigning a
score if the student has not violated standard writing conventions. In
other words, beginning a sentence with “and”, the absence of a formal
thesis sentence, the use of first or second person, or an informal tone are
not necessarily wrong in this type of assessment.
Writers may come across as brash, sassy, cute, self-aware, shy, surly,
flat, honest, or naïve. Readers are scoring the written passage, not the
writer’s personality.
Some readers may approach writing assessments with their own biases
in favor of one type of assessment over another. Or, they may feel as
though the standards used in an assessment violate their own sense of
good writing. It is important for each reader to set aside his/her own
biases in order to keep the scoring as standardized and as fair to each
student as possible.
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Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Total Writing Score Calculation Examples
TWS = 2 X (R1 Content + R2 Content) + (R1 Conventions + R2 Conventions)
Example 1
Reader 1 Content
2 Reader 2 Content
3 Total Content Score
Conventions 1
Conventions 2 Total Conventions Score
(Total Content Score x 2) + Total Conventions Score = Total Writing Score
5 x 2 = 10
+ 3
=
13 Achievement Level III
5
3
Example 2
Reader 1 Content
3 Reader 2 Content
3 Total Content Score
Conventions 0
Conventions 0 Total Conventions Score
(Total Content Score x 2) + Total Conventions Score = Total Writing Score
6 x 2 = 12
+ 0
=
12 Achievement Level III
6
0
Example 3
Reader 1 Content
2 Reader 2 Content
2 Total Content Score
Conventions 2
Conventions 2 Total Conventions Score
(Total Content Score x 2) + Total Conventions Score = Total Writing Score
4x2=8
+ 4
=
12 Achievement Level III
4
4
Achievement Levels:
NC General Writing Assessment at Grades 4, 7, and 10
On October 2, 2003, the State Board of Education approved the Writing Assessment
Achievement Levels for grades 4, 7, and 10. The Achievement Levels for the General
Assessments are as follows and can be found in the State Board of Education Policy Manual
listed as HSP-C-018:
Subject/Grade
Writing
4, 7, & 10
Level I
Level II
Level III
Level IV
4-7
8-11
12-16
17-20
According to State Board of Education policy, the standard for proficiency is a test score
of Achievement Level III or above on the North Carolina General Writing Assessment.
NOTE: The approved Achievement Level ranges and descriptors for the NC General
Writing Assessments at Grades 4, 7, and 10 are posted on the NC State Board of
Education website: http://sbepolicy.dpi.state.nc.us/.
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General Writing Assessment Achievement Level Descriptors
Grade 10
Achievement Level I:
Students performing at this level do not have sufficient mastery of knowledge and skills in this
subject area to be successful at the next grade level.
Students performing at Achievement Level I have made an attempt to address the task but there
is weak, inconsistent, or little or no sense of progression from one idea to another, resulting in a
loss of focus on the topic/subject. Little or no relevant details are present that support the
topic/subject. The students display a lack of minimal knowledge of sentence structure, usage,
spelling, and punctuation necessary to be successful at the next grade level.
Achievement Level II:
Students performing at this level demonstrate inconsistent mastery of knowledge and skills in
this subject area and are minimally prepared to be successful at the next grade level.
Students performing at Achievement Level II exhibit some sense of control of the purpose,
audience, and context of the response. An organizational structure establishing minimal
relatedness between and among ideas and/or events impacts logical progression and a few
general or unelaborated details are present. The students display patterns of errors in conventions
and are minimally prepared to be successful at the next grade level.
Achievement Level III:
Students performing at this level consistently demonstrate mastery of grade level subject matter
and skills and are well prepared for the next grade level.
Students performing at Achievement Level III maintain consistent control of the purpose,
audience, and context of the response. A sense of organization, a logical progression of ideas,
and sufficiently developed support and elaboration are present. Students display a consistent
control of conventions and style and are well prepared for the next grade level.
Achievement Level IV:
Students performing at this level consistently perform in a superior manner clearly beyond that
required to be proficient at grade level work.
Students performing at Achievement Level IV demonstrate the use of higher order thinking skills
in presenting a unified progression of ideas while examining the relationships between and
among those ideas. In-depth support and elaboration is shown through the use of precise,
appropriate language. Students display a skillful use of conventions and style clearly beyond that
required to be proficient at grade level work.
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Score Reporting
State Data
Data is reported at the state level. Results are disaggregated by subgroups, i.e. gender,
disability or ability (AIG), Title I, and free-reduced lunch. Scores are reported by the
total population tested, percent of students at proficiency, and results by achievement
level. A writing report is generated each year compiling a summary of all writing
assessment results, including general scoring observations.
School and Student Data
Each school is provided with rosters listing student results by class. The information is
provided by the scoring contractor to LEAs on CD. Each CD contains class rosters with
individual student results, as well as, the imaged student responses by class.
School CD’s are shipped to each LEA test coordinator along with two copies of the
Individual Student Report (ISR). The ISR is a paper report of the individual student
results. The report lists the total content score, total conventions score, total writing
score, and corresponding achievement level for each student. The ISR also provides an
explanation of the composing features, information about scoring procedures, and
definitions of the four achievement levels specific to the grade level and particular
assessment.
More information about the state testing results can be found on the NCDPI website at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/shared/statetestsresults
More information about the reports of academic performance can be found on the NCDPI
website at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/reports/writingandopenended
More information about the writing assessments can be found on the NCDPI website at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/writing/.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
13
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
COMPOSING FEATURES
The informational response at Grade 10 involves the explanation and analysis of
relationships. Understanding the purpose, audience, and context of a given task shapes
the writer's focus. The response may be supported by the ideas and information
provided in the prompt, the student's own experiences, other readings, and/or
observations. The specific types of informational writing assessed in Grade 10 are
definition and cause/effect.
•
In the definition response, the student goes beyond dictionary definition and
elaborates on details and characteristics. The response identifies a key word or
concept, explains it to the reader, and answers the question “What is it?”
•
In the cause/effect response, the student may focus on the causes, effect(s), or
both (as appropriate to the specific task).
NOTE: The composing features that are to be observed assume specific meanings when
applied to student responses. In order to demonstrate a reasonable level of control in
any of the features below, the students must have written a sufficient amount. The
North Carolina Writing Assessments have two components for which scores are given:
Content and Conventions. An explanation of each feature and its application to the
responses are provided below.
CONTENT COMPONENT:
Focus, Organization, Support and Elaboration, and Style
FOCUS
Focus is the topic/subject established by the writer in response to the writing task. The
writer must clearly establish a focus as he/she fulfills the assignment of the prompt. If
the writer retreats from the subject matter presented in the prompt or addresses it too
broadly, the focus is weakened. The writer may effectively use an inductive
organizational plan, which does not actually identify the subject matter at the beginning
and may not literally identify the subject matter at all. The presence, therefore, of a
focus must be determined in light of the method of development chosen by the writer.
•
If the reader is confused about the subject matter, the writer has not effectively
established a focus.
•
If the reader is engaged and not confused, the writer probably has been effective
in establishing a focus.
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Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
ORGANIZATION
Organization is the progression, relatedness, and completeness of ideas. The writer
establishes for the reader a well-organized composition, which exhibits a constancy of
purpose through the development of elements forming an effective beginning, middle,
and end.
•
The writer establishes relationships between and among ideas and/or events
throughout the response.
•
The response demonstrates a clear progression of related ideas and/or events and
is unified and complete.
SUPPORT AND ELABORATION
Support and Elaboration is the extension and development of the topic/subject. The
writer provides sufficient elaboration to present the ideas and/or events clearly. Two
important concepts in determining whether details are supportive are relatedness and
sufficiency.
•
Relatedness: To be supportive of the subject matter, details must be related to the
focus of the response. Relatedness has to do with the directness of the
relationship that the writer establishes between the support and elaboration and
the topic/subject. Supporting details should be relevant and clear. Effective use of
concrete, specific details strengthens the response.
•
Sufficiency: Sufficiency has less to do with the amount and more to do with the
specificity and effectiveness of the support and elaboration provided. The writer
must present his or her ideas with enough power and clarity to cause the support
to be sufficient. Undeveloped details, redundancy, and the repetitious
paraphrasing of the same point often characterize insufficiency. Effective use of
concrete, specific details strengthens the response.
STYLE
Style is the control of language that is appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context
of the writing task. The writer's style is evident through word choice and sentence
fluency.
•
Skillful use of precise, purposeful vocabulary enhances the effectiveness of the
composition through the use of appropriate words, phrases and descriptions that
engage the audience.
•
Sentence fluency involves using a variety of sentence styles to establish effective
relationships between and among ideas, causes, and/or statements appropriate
to the task.
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Summer 2008
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
CONVENTIONS COMPONENT:
Sentence Formation, Usage, and Mechanics
CONVENTIONS
Conventions involve correctness in sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. The
writer has control of grammatical conventions that are appropriate to the writing task.
Errors, if present, do not impede the reader's understanding of the ideas conveyed.
•
Sentence Formation is the complete expression of an assertion, explanation,
proposal, question, or command.
•
Standard usage includes agreement, tense, and case.
•
Mechanics involve the use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Content Rubric
Points
4
3
Descriptions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
1
NS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Topic/subject is clear, though it may or may not be explicitly stated
Maintains focus on topic/subject throughout the response
Organizational structure establishes relationships between and among ideas and/or events
Consists of a logical progression of ideas and/or events and is unified and complete
Support and elaboration are related to and supportive of the topic/subject
Consists of specific, developed details
Exhibits skillful use of vocabulary that is precise and purposeful
Demonstrates skillful use of sentence fluency
Topic/subject is generally clear, though it may or may not be explicitly stated
May exhibit minor lapses in focus on topic/subject
Organizational structure establishes relationships between and among ideas and/or events,
although minor lapses may be present
Consists of a logical progression of ideas and/or events and is reasonably complete, although minor
lapses may be present
Support and elaboration may have minor weaknesses in relatedness to and support of the
topic/subject
Consists of some specific details
Exhibits reasonable use of vocabulary that is precise and purposeful
Demonstrates reasonable use of sentence fluency
Topic/subject may be vague
May lose or may exhibit lapses in focus on topic/subject
Organizational structure may establish little relationship between and among ideas and/or events
May have major lapses in the logical progression of ideas and/or events and is minimally complete
Support and elaboration may have major weaknesses in relatedness to and support of the
topic/subject
Consists of general and/or undeveloped details, which may be presented in a list-like fashion
Exhibits minimal use of vocabulary that is precise and purposeful
Demonstrates minimal use of sentence fluency
Topic/subject is unclear or confusing
May fail to establish focus on topic/subject
Organizational structure may not establish connection between and among ideas and/or events
May consist of ideas and/or events that are presented in a random fashion and is incomplete or
confusing
Support and elaboration attempts to support the topic/subject but may be unrelated or confusing
Consists of sparse details
Lacks use of vocabulary that is precise and purposeful
May not demonstrate sentence fluency
This code may be used for compositions that are entirely illegible or otherwise
unscorable: totally blank responses, responses written in a foreign language, exact
restatements of the prompts, and responses that are completely off- topic or incoherent.
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Conventions Rubric
Points
2
1
0
Descriptions
Exhibits reasonable control of grammatical conventions appropriate to the
writing task
•
Exhibits reasonable control of sentence formation
•
Exhibits reasonable control of standard usage including agreement,
tense, and case
•
Exhibits reasonable control of mechanics including use of
capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
Exhibits minimal control of grammatical conventions appropriate to the
writing task
•
Exhibits minimal control of sentence formation
•
Exhibits minimal control of standard usage including agreement, tense,
and case
•
Exhibits minimal control of mechanics including use of capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling
Lacks control of grammatical conventions appropriate to the writing task
•
Lacks control of sentence formation
•
Lacks control of standard usage including agreement, tense, and case
•
Lacks control of mechanics including use of capitalization, punctuation,
and spelling
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Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Examples of Common Convention Errors
Sentence Formation:
A sentence is an expression of an assertion, explanation, proposal, question, or
command.
Fragment
Run-ons
•
•
•
•
Phrases or clauses used incorrectly which interfere
with the meaning of the sentence.
•
•
When I go to school.
Then I started to write.
I think they need to get up earlier so they
can get ready for school and have time to
eat breakfast they need to get up at an
earlier time.
I knew that I would never get away with it
and plus I had two tests that day and I
didn’t really want to go.
While sleeping, they need to go to bed
earlier.
Drinking my milk, the cookies seemed
irresistible.
Usage:
Standard usage includes agreement, tense, and case.
Incorrect use of verbs
Pronoun misuse
Incorrect formations
Failure to use a word according to its standard
meaning (homophone)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students is very disruptive.
People was laughing at the guy’s answers.
The girls went to play with there own teams.
Between you and I, the test was hard.
hisself, theirselves, bestest
How did you no (know)?
Tell them to right (write) a letter home.
Mechanics:
Mechanics involves the use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Incorrect Capitalization
Incorrect Punctuation
Pattern of misspellings of common words or incorrect
pluralization.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Did he give It away?
The teacher’s name is tom evans.
Jose and i went to the store.
George eats Bananas and Oranges.
Why did she go home early.
John plays golf tennis and baseball.
“Tom said Go to the store.”
freind for friend
boxs for boxes
droped for dropped
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Guide Set
GRADE 10
Content & Conventions
Scoring Rubric
Applications
Note: Papers are ordered by Content, not Total Writing Score
This publication and the information contained within must not be used for personal or
financial gain. North Carolina LEA school officials and teachers, parents, and students may
download and duplicate this publication for instructional and educational purposes only.
Others may not duplicate this publication without prior written permission from the North
Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) Division of Accountability Services/North
Carolina Testing Program.
© 2008 All Rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or
in part, without prior written permission from the North Carolina Testing Program, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27601-2825.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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2008 North Carolina Testing Program
Writing, Grade 10
Do Not Reproduce—NCDPI
Write an article for your school newspaper on the effects of technology on everyday life. You may use
the following information, your own experiences, observations, and/or readings.
We’ve arranged a civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology. We
have also arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. This is a prescription for
disaster. We might get away with it for a while, but sooner or later this combustible mixture of ignorance and
power is going to blow up in our faces.
Source: Carl Sagan
We are the children of a technological age. We have found streamlined ways of doing much of our routine work.
Printing is no longer the only way of reproducing books. Reading them, however, has not changed.
Source: Lawrence Clark Powell
Information and communications technology unlocks the value of time, allowing and enabling multi-tasking,
multi-channels, multi-this and multi-that.
Source: Li Ka Shing
Many people see technology as the problem behind the so-called digital divide [the gap between those who have
access to technology and those who do not]. Others see it as the solution. Technology is neither. It must operate in
conjunction with business, economic, political and social system[s].
Source: Carly Fiorina
As you write an article for your school newspaper on the effects of technology on everyday life,
remember to
❑
Focus on the effects of technology on everyday life.
❑
Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article.
❑
Organize your article so that your ideas progress logically.
❑
Include relevant details to clearly develop your article.
❑
Edit your article for standard grammar and language usage.
Use the blank sheet of paper given to you by your teacher to plan your article. Anything you write on
the blank sheet will not be scored. You must write the final copy of your article on pages 3 and 4 of your
test booklet.
Write the final copy of your article on pages 3 and 4 of your test booklet.
© 2008 All rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the express written permission of the North Carolina
Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N.C.
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
GUIDE SET ANNOTATIONS
Paper
G-1
Score
Notes
Content/Conventions
(TWS=Total Writing Score)
1/0
Guide Paper 1 (TWS =4)
Content Score 1– The topic of this minimal response is
unclear. The organizational structure fails to establish
connections between ideas, as the student primarily repeats
information from the prompt. Support and elaboration
include sparse details, consisting mostly of attempts to
define the quotes (. . . now what that means is that you can
do, many things such as homework, projects and maybe
look up information on colleges that you might have
interests in attending. . . . meaning that people who do not
a computer see it as a bad thing and people who have
access to a computer see it as a good thing because it
helps with their jobs, help count money and etc). The
article lacks use of vocabulary that is precise and
purposeful, as it contains mainly recopied quotes. Sentence
fluency is not demonstrated, because very little of the
writing is the student’s original ideas.
Conventions Score 0– So much of the response is quoted
from the prompt that little of the student’s own writing is
present. Not enough original content is written to exhibit
minimal control of sentence formation, usage, or
mechanics. Additionally, errors are present in sentence
formation, usage, and punctuation in the material that is
original.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
21
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-2
1/0
Guide Paper 2 (TWS =4)
Content Score 1– The topic is confusing and unclear. The
student attempts to focus on the idea that technology is
essential for everyday life, but fails to establish
connections between and among ideas, which consist of
random unrelated ideas (Technology is the key source for
getting the information we need in our everyday lifes. It
effects everyone in its own way. Some watch t.v., some use
the internet, some even use there cell phones to find what
is happening in the world that day). The sparse details and
elaboration attempt to support the topic, but are confusing
(. . . i personally dont have the internet so i have to get my
news from the television. Technology is a fast growing
market in the world today. We like having it and it
definatly helps us out). The response lacks precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency is not
demonstrated.
Conventions Score 0– The response exhibits a lack of
control of grammatical conventions. Frequent errors are
present. Errors are dense and severe in a brief paper.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-3
1/1
Guide Paper 3 (TWS =6)
Content Score 1– While the response establishes a vague
topic (Technology is the key to almost everything in this
world today), details are sparse and repetitive (You can do
things much faster though. . . . It makes life more easier
for some people. . . .it is much easier and quicker to get it
done). Organizational structure consists of the student’s
attempt to explain the quotations from the prompt and does
little to establish connections between ideas. Support and
elaboration are confusing (For example, if you need to
look up something it would be much easier and faster than
to look it up in the phone book. It makes life more easier
for some people. But as for other things it can be a major
problem). The response lacks precise and purposeful
vocabulary, and so little original work is written that
sentence fluency is not demonstrated.
Conventions Score 1– This essay exhibits minimal
control of grammatical conventions. Errors are present in
usage (easier for easy... to for too). It contains a fragment
(To tell you how does it effect your life and others), and
some sentence formation errors. Errors are too dense to
warrant a higher score.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-4
2/0
Guide Paper 4 (TWS =8)
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is organized
around the possibility of negative outcomes to
technological advances (is having fast communication,
eaiser tasks all worth the price of our future? No one
knows but with technology increasing by the day, we are
soon to find out). Some organizational structure is present
but little relationship is established between ideas, leading
to major lapses in the logical progression of ideas
(Everyday task are made simple because of technology,
but take that technology away and the task can become
extremely difficult. We can send emails, text messages and
memos at the speed of light making communication faster.
This is efficient in the work place, schools and even home
life). Support and elaboration consists of general details
presented in a list-like fashion (Some argue that
technology is taking over humans. They even say
technology is taking jobs. Advances in technology are very
rapid and are worldwide), exhibiting major weaknesses.
The response displays minimum use of precise and
purposeful vocabulary and minimum use of sentence
fluency.
Conventions Score 0– This response demonstrates a lack
of control of grammatical conventions. Errors are dense
and severe and include word usage errors (Everyday task
are made simple... with something positive there is usualy
somethings negitive... All of the amazing things that
technology can do are things humans use to do...), some
punctuation errors (What effect might this have on our
daily lives and even our futures) and a sentence fragment
(Which lessins job positions).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-5
2/1
Guide Paper 5 (TWS =10)
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is somewhat
vague (Society depends alot on technology). There is an
attempt to organize the paper around the positive and
negative effects of specific technologies, but support and
elaboration show some weaknesses in relatedness to the
topic (Cell phones and texting are really popular with
teenagers. Theres nothing wrong with this, but has gotten
to the point where they use codes or shorten letters to
represent a word because they’ve gotten to lazy to write
the whole thing out). Development is general and
repetitive, and the few details offered are presented in a
list-like fashion (It also is a positive use when using for
entertainment. It starts becoming a negative thing, when
it’s abused. People become lazy and just sit around all day
eating and watch t.v. . . . Video games . . . can keep a child
busy and quiet, but its a negative thing when children
eliminate physical activity, and sit in front of the t.v.
playing videogames allday). The response exhibits
minimum use of both vocabulary that is precise and
purposeful and sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 1– The response demonstrates
minimum control of grammatical conventions. The essay
displays some errors in mechanics and usage including the
use of punctuation (Theres nothing wrong with this... This
is how americas obesity weight keeps increasing) and
incorrect verb choice (Today typing has tooken over,
instead of handwriting... Videogames is also a positive and
a negative). Sentence formation errors are also present
(The daily use of cell phones, television or even internet
has become very dependen).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-6
2/1
Guide Paper 6 (TWS =10)
Content Score 2 – The topic of this essay is somewhat
vague (. . . technology. . . effects Americans jobs, everyday
transportation and health). There is an attempt at an
organizational structure, but support and elaboration show
some weaknesses in relatedness to the topic (Subways run
using technology. But what happens when technology mess
up? There is no person to correct the mistake, the crash
will inevedably happen). Details presented are general and
underdeveloped (When I was visiting her she took me to
her lab. There was all sorts of fancy equipment, all of it
fancy technology. She explained to me that this technology
is helping her find a cure for certain types of cancer). The
response displays minimal use of precise and purposeful
vocabulary and minimal sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 1– This response demonstrates
minimal control of grammatical conventions. Errors are
present in punctuation (...at least thats what Lawrence
Clark Powell thinks... it effects Americans jobs...What
good is technology if we do not know how to improve and
correct its ) and usage (We loved technology, and we hate
it when it does not work... All this would not be possible
without technology). Some spelling errors also occur
(...corralates... inevedably... tehnology... possitive...).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
26
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-7
2/2
Guide Paper 7 (TWS =12)
Content Score 2– The topic of this article is somewhat
vague (As we see how essential technology is in our lives,
we must realize that it is there for our use, but we should
not go so far as to become dependant on technology), but
remains focused on and organized around incidents in
which the student feels the outcomes are dependent upon
technology. The article has major lapses in logical
progression of ideas (. . . a baby was born with a type of
disease, that fifty years ago, they probably would not have
been able to cure. The result of being able to do scientific
reasearch has helped save many lives and continues to do
so. If doctors continue to discover new things, one day
they may just find a cure to serious diseases) and is
minimally complete. While some specific detailed
elaboration is demonstrated, major weaknesses in
relatedness to and support of the topic are exhibited (. . .
Kate forgot to write her term paper. She had found one on
the internet and was able to copy. . . . The ramification of
her actions would be getting expelled or suspended for
plagerism. An individual cannot be dependant on
technology to do everything for them). The article displays
minimal use of precise and purposeful vocabulary and
sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 2– While some errors are present, this
response exhibits reasonable control of grammatical
conventions. Errors include a few examples of
inappropriate word choice (Her teacher had recognized
the paper due to the fact that she had wrote that same
paper three years ago) and one sentence fragment
(Noticing that the suspect was sitting one row behind the
celebrity.)
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-8
3/2
Guide Paper 8 (TWS =16)
Content Score 3– The subject of this response is clear (No
matter what kind of technology it is, there are still several
negative effects of technology that all lead to laziness.
these effects include a dependence on technology, the need
to be immediately satisfied and a lack of focus). The
organizational structure establishes relationships between
and among ideas (Whenever I type up an essay on the
computer I use the spell check application to check for
spelling and grammatical errors for me. I also use the son
of citation website to do all of my citations. Instead of
doing these things on my own, I have become dependent
on technology and too lazy to do it myself). The support
and elaboration consist of some specific details that
support the topic (Not only do people need to be
immediately satisfied with one piece of technology, but
with multiple pieces of technology at the same time.
People are often found talking on cell-phones, getting
directions from their GPS navigation system, driving and
eating all at the same time). There is reasonable use of
both precise and purposeful vocabulary and sentence
fluency.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-9
3/2
Guide Paper 9 (TWS =16)
Content Score 3– This response maintains focus on a
clear topic (Technology has improved our education,
provided a plethora of ways to communicate, and caused
our generation to stand out as the first to be born and
raised entirely in the age of technological development).
Organizational structure establishes relationships among
ideas. The essay exhibits a reasonably complete logical
progression of ideas, although minor lapses occur (PDAs,
advanced calculators, textbooks on CD, educational
resources on computers and digital learning tools, and an
unceasing presentation of media and information greatly
benefit our education. We have also seen the replacement
of outdated encyclopedias with a list of internet resources
that stretch to infinity and beyond; accessible at the click
of our mouses. The emergence of the opportunity to take
highschool or college classes online is a beneficial effect
as well). Elaboration consists of some specific details that
support the writer’s ideas Reasonable use of precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency are present (I
have had a computer in my house since the age of 3; the
use of which has become second nature. . . . Looking back,
past generations never had this familiarity and
technological prevalence).
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-10
3/2
Guide Paper 10 (TWS =16)
Content Score 3– The topic of this essay is clear
(Technology is affecting ones life at home, work, and
school). The organizational structure establishes
relationships and the paper remains focused on the
beneficial effects of technology. Support and elaboration
consist of some specific details, but there are minor
weaknesses in relatedness to and support of the subject
(…. a small team of workers stand off at a far and safe
distance operating the large machines. These workers are
experiencing the effects of technology in the workplace. . .
. Scientists prognosticate that by the year 2040 all factory
work will be done by some kind of robot or machine). The
essay demonstrates reasonable use of vocabulary and
sentence fluency (For most people this mark resides in
their living room, where it is plugged into the wall. Over
75% of Americans have a television in their house. At the
end of a taxing day, as the family collapses onto the couch
and switches on the television, most do not even consider
the technological marvel that they are staring at).
Conventions Score 2– The response displays reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
With much written correctly, very few errors are present,
apart from a few errors in mechanics (whats inside...ones
life...ones home...ones favorite program...todays people).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
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North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-11
4/2
Guide Paper 11 (TWS =20)
Content Score 4– The topic of this response is clear,
although not explicitly stated until the final paragraph
(Technology is both a blessing and a curse upon society. . .
.it is crucial that the effects of technology be understood
before it is used. Otherwise, high risks are run). The focus
is maintained throughout the response, with an effective
organizational structure and a logical progression of ideas
(The average high-schooler is surrounded by technology,
form calculators for math homework to cell phones for
communication to mp3-playser for entertainment. In the
grand scheme of things, this is a relatively recent
development; a mere forty years ago, the idea of a
personal computer was unheard of, and anyone who
needed to make a call outside of the home had to find a
pay phone. Now information and communication are at the
fingertips of anyone with access to the right gadgets). This
unified and complete response skillfully utilizes the given
quotations, interweaving pertinent sections with specific,
developed details which are strongly related to the prompt
(In Carl Sagan’s opinion, too many people use technology
without understanding how it works, . . . There are many
things that people do not know how to do on their own
because they have tools to do it for them – what will
happen to society if these tools one day fail? Of course,
not many people find themselves out in the woods and in
need of a calculator to do some logorithms at the same
time, but imagine if air-traffic radar, or stoplights, or
computers stopped working. Travel could become
dangerous, and important information could be lost
forever). The essay exhibits skillful use of both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 2– The response demonstrates
reasonable control of sentence formation, word usage, and
mechanics. Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
31
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
G-12
4/2
Guide Paper 12 (TWS =20)
Content Score 4– This response develops a clear and
specific topic (. . . technology overall has the result of
bringing together disparate groups of people who
otherwise would not have an opportunity for contact, while
still maintaining close personal relationships that already
existed. It can also vastly improve the quality of life).
Focus is maintained throughout the essay, and the
organizational structure serves to connect ideas and to
engage the reader. The response is unified and complete.
The writer’s ideas are supported by specific and detailed
examples of Mexican brothers contrasted with the
student’s medically struggling brother (All his life, Jacinto
will be able to support himself and his family, including
Carlos – a skill that might not be his if it weren’t for the
technology to produce cheaper and more effective
vaccines. Jacinto is not the only beneficiary of technology
in our society. Closer to home, my own brother
appreciates its effects every day as he struggles to move
past a painful concussion). Skillful use of both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency are
consistently demonstrated throughout the piece (When we
think of technology we tend to consider only the images of
the middle-class, average family – actually above-average
in many respects – watching a DVD on a flat-screen
television. We do not consider a health clinic in Mexico, a
cement-block room with a dirt floor and a line of people
outside the door, to be a bearer of the latest in
technological advancements).
Conventions Score 2– The essay displays reasonable
control of sentence formation, world usage, and
mechanics. Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
32
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Training Set
GRADE 10
Content & Conventions
Scoring Rubric
Applications
This publication and the information contained within must not be used for personal or
financial gain. North Carolina LEA school officials and teachers, parents, and students may
download and duplicate this publication for instructional and educational purposes only.
Others may not duplicate this publication without prior written permission from the North
Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) Division of Accountability Services/North
Carolina Testing Program.
© 2008 All Rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or
in part, without prior written permission from the North Carolina Testing Program, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27601-2825.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
33
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Score Tally Sheet: Training Set
You may use this sheet to practice scoring the following student responses. Record your scores
for Content and Conventions and then compare them against the actual scores located at the end
of this section.
PAPER #
My
Content
Score
My
Conventions
Score
State
Content
Score
State
Conventions
Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
% Agree 1
1
In order to maintain industry standard and NC scoring requirements of at least 70%, you must
have an exact agreement in Content and Conventions for 11 of the 15 responses.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
34
Summer 2008
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TRAINING SET ANNOTATIONS
Paper
Score
Notes
Content/Conventions
TA-1
2/2
Training Set A, Paper 1
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is somewhat
vague (Technology saves us time and money, but can also
harm us). There is an attempt at organizational structure
but little relationship is established between and among
ideas, resulting in major lapses in logical progression of
ideas (. . . technology saves us money, which, in a world
growing as fast as ours is, is always considered a plus. If
we didn’t have cars, but instead used horses, it would cost
money to feed the horse, provide shelter and pay for
medical needs. The Internet, another major technology,
allows people to advertise, buy, sell and deliver right from
the comfort of their rolling, cushioned, computer chair).
While some details are present, they are presented in a listlike fashion (Think about the minute we spend waiting for
a whole meal to heat up in a microwave, and then consider
how long it would take to make that meal from scratch,
and then have to heat it over a fire. Cars, are another
perfect example of technology used daily, which saves us
lots of time). The response displays minimal use of
vocabulary that is precise and purposeful and minimum
use of sentence fluency.
This essay is best compared to G-6 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
35
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-2
1/0
Training Set A, Paper 2
Content Score 1– The subject of this response is
confusing and unfocused (There are many ways why &
how technology can effect or community, and society).
There is an attempt at an organizational structure, but it
fails to establish connections between and among ideas.
The sparse details and elaboration attempt to support the
topic, but are seemingly unrelated and confusing (It can
affect us by us not being able to call people or talk to
them. because we worry about is the people going to cut
my phone of, can I afford it. With the people don’t have
maybe the are poor or they just might not have no family.
When do communicate we act like we can stand each
other, and we get mad). The response lacks precise and
purposeful vocabulary and no sentence fluency is
demonstrated.
This essay is best compared to G-3 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 0– This essay displays lack of control
of grammatical conventions appropriate to the writing
task. Numerous sentence formation, usage, and mechanical
errors impede the reader’s understanding of the ideas
conveyed.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
36
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-3
3/2
Training Set A, Paper 3
Content Score 3– The topic of this response is generally
clear, though not explicitly stated until the last paragraph
(Technology has, since the beginning, aided man’s
survival and dominance over the world). While remaining
focused on the subject overall, a minor lapse occurs when
the student chooses to write to man’s history of technology
as opposed to the “effects of technology on everyday life.”
Although the organizational structure has minor
weaknesses establishing relationships between ideas (A
brand new computer processor is not only vastly smaller
than the previous model, its processing speed is measured
with the prefix ”terra-“. To put that into perspective, the
human brain is measured in terrabytes. The capabilities of
something that can fit on your finger tip are ever
increasing), the essay is still reasonably complete and a
logical progression of ideas is demonstrated. Support and
elaboration consist of some specific details that support the
topic (Through time, man has invented tools to make work
faster and easier. First came writing, then came scrolls
and books. Moveable type cut the time of printing books
form months and years to days and weeks. Then, the
printer was invented, and now printing entire books can
take minutes). Reasonable use of both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency is displayed
throughout.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
37
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-4
4/2
Training Set A, Paper 4
Content Score 4– This response develops a clear and
specific topic (The power we hold in our hands
[technology] is being taken for granted, and negative
effects are slowly beginning to overpower the magnificent
good that we gain from the use of such devices). The focus
is maintained throughout the response, with an effective
organizational structure and a logical progression of ideas
(Cell phones, instant messengers, webcams, friend
oriented sites, and even online games open new gateways
for human communication. The simplicity of using those
devices always have their drawbacks, however. Friends
that are just hanging out together suddenly are distanced
because of a phone call. They may be in the same room
physically but mentally they could be thousands of miles
away from one another). This unified and complete
response consists of support and elaboration which are
strongly related to the topic. Specific, developed details
are present (Sites like myspace can connect people from a
school, but even though they can talk for hours there, they
never speak a word to one another as they pass in the
hallways. . . . They don’t understand how to interpret a
glance or a tone of voice and end up socially confused. A
“new autism” seems to be sweeping schools and
communities everywhere, and its effects are far from
positive). The essay exhibits consistently skillful use of
both precise and purposeful vocabulary and sentence
fluency.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
38
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-5
2/2
Training Set A, Paper 5
Content Score 2– While the topic of this response is clear
(Three effects of technology on everyday life are less
family time, an over dependence of inanimate objects, and
it causes cooperation), a major lapse in focus is
demonstrated in the 3rd body paragraph as the writer
misinterprets a given excerpt. Although a strong first body
paragraph exhibits a logical progression of ideas, linking
technology to a growing distance between family
members, the unexplained and thus somewhat confusing
support and elaboration in the second body paragraph
should be considered a major weakness in relatedness to
and support of the subject (In the play “Rossum’s
Universal Robots,” a company produces robots for most
businesses in the world. The robots do the simplest of tasks
and cause humans to have almost no point of existing. The
world lays their lives in the hands of the lifeless and
souless creatures. This example shows that everyday
technology is being used to do simple tasks that humans
should do). The response shows minimal use of precise or
purposeful vocabulary, and sentence fluency is also
minimal.
This essay is best compared with G-7 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 2– Although some errors are present,
this response displays reasonable control of grammatical
conventions. Errors are minor and include problems with
usage (Technology is an extremely important to this
person and to thousands of others in the world). Overall,
the response exhibits reasonable control of sentence
formation, usage, and mechanics.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
39
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-6
3/1
Training Set A, Paper 6
Content Score 3– While not explicitly stated, the student
is clearly focused on the dangers of being “completely
dependent on the use of technology in every aspect of our
existence.” The organizational structure of this rhetorical
essay establishes relationships between and among ideas,
although a minor lapse occurs on the second page of the
response (What many people see as an age of enlightment
is just an age of terror. Technology has made everything
easier cooking to killing. True, that steak would take
longer then ten minutes to cook, but would the mass
destruction of a nuclear warhead been made possible? The
answer is no. Modern weapons are just bi products of
technology). Support and elaboration consist of some
specific details that support the topic (We have survived as
a species for thousand of years before the introduction of
technology . . . . Cell phones, lap tops, cable TV with 500
channels. Do we need this? It makes life easier but in the
hunter-gather sense of our ancestors these things our
material not necessity). The writer engages the audience
(As Carl Sagan said . . . . Is this not true? I agree with Mr.
Sagan, society has reached a point where we our overly
dependent on technology), and shows a reasonable use of
precise and purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 1– This response displays minimal
control of grammatical conventions. Usage errors are
frequent and persistent (our for are . . . to for too . . . is
bring . . . thousand of years). Other errors include
mechanical errors in capitalization and punctuation (mr.
Sagan... home computer, Cars, television... Technology
and it’s biproducts).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
40
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-7
1/0
Training Set A, Paper 7
Content Score 1– The topic is confusing and unclear. The
student seems to focus on technology in “everyday life,”
but the organizational structure fails to establish
connections between and among ideas (Now when
computers were just introduced to the world the had limits,
but know you can, send messages around the world in the
blink of an eye. You unlimited things with the modern day
computer. Computer are costing the post office to lose alot
of business because of E-mailing). The sparse details and
elaboration attempt to support the topic, but are confusing
(Car are one of the most used technology I know of. But
technology can be bad because, humans can get attached
to material things easily, and it would be harder for us to
adjust to drastic change. Medicine has also advanced
because technology). The response lacks both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence structure.
This essay is best compared to G-2 or G-3 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 0– This response exhibits a lack of
control of grammatical conventions appropriate to the
writing task. Persistent and numerous sentence formation
(Even children in elementary), usage (Car are one of the
most interesting technology... Some of the worst disease
mankind has faced... Cellphone play a major role in
society today), and mechanical errors (Its a logical
concept... In the 80’s... Its really amazing...) impede the
reader’s understanding of the ideas conveyed.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
41
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-8
2/2
Training Set A, Paper 8
Content Score 2– While the topic is clear (Some
[technology] may cause children to not have as much
physical activity while others help with better medical
advances and more ways of communication), the
organizational structure establishes little relationship
between ideas (Today with all the new medicines and
machines, people are now living to be over one-hundred
years old. You are also able to get your prescription
medicines within a few hours which in turn helps you to
get better quicker. Technological advances have really
helped the medical world). Support has major weaknesses
in relatedness to and support of the topic, and elaboration
is general and repetitious (Children no longer want to go
outside and play. Instead they want to play their video
games or watch television. . . . This is because of the lack
of physical activity that children get today. There are so
many different kinds of video games out there today that
all children are interested in doing are playing those
games. Also children enjoy television so much that they
just want to stay inside and watch television). Precise and
purposeful vocabulary is minimal, as is sentence fluency.
This essay is best compared to G-6 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
42
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-9
3/2
Training Set A, Paper 9
Content Score 3– The topic of this response is clear,
although not explicitly stated until the final paragraph
(Given the facts, technology is an effective part of
eveyones daily life schedule. . . . It will continue to evolve
and aid us in life saving situations). Organizational
structure establishes relationships between and among
ideas, however, a minor lapse occurs in the first body
paragraph as the student attempts to integrate a given
excerpt without total success. Support and elaboration
consists of some specific details (Picture a cold, dreary,
and desolate location filled with wanderers and nomads.
How could a house be built with out the technology of
tools? Travel would be a myth if it was not for the evolving
structure of technology. From the batteries in a toy car to
the solar panels and generators of most eco-friendly
buildings technology is a force to be reckoned with)
although a minor weakness in relatedness to and support of
the topic is present in the third body paragraph at the top
of the second page when the student tries to juxtapose the
“Atomic-bombing in Japan” with “life giving” medical
technologies. Reasonable use of both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency occurs
throughout (Sitting at a local Starbucks I notice a man
glued to his Laptop computer. He pecks away at those keys
producing the sound of countless plastic raindrops
descending from the sky).
Conventions Score 2– While some errors are present, this
response exhibits reasonable control of grammatical
conventions. Minor usage errors are present (Weather
instead of whether...) as well as some spelling mistakes
(emaculate... generaters...), but the mistakes are infrequent
enough to make this paper a best-fit score of 2 for
conventions.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
43
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-10
1/1
Training Set A, Paper 10
Content Score 1– The subject of this response is
confusing, as the student never really establishes a focus
on the topic of technology in everyday life. The
organizational structure does little to establish connections
between ideas, as the ideas are presented in a random and
confusing fashion (Technology today is one of the reasons
that so many people live in poverty, because computer’s
are doing just about everything people could do. For
example, when you walk into a hospital, what is the first
thing you notice? Computers are everywhere. IV
machines, CT Scanners, EKG machines...everywhere!
What would this world be if we didn’t have technology?).
Support and elaboration consist of sparse details that
attempt to support the topic, but are unrelated and
confusing (In factories, every where you turn, you see
machines doing the work. But then again, humans have no
idea when technology is going to fail and not complete the
task).
Conventions Score 1– This response demonstrates
minimal control of grammatical conventions. It contains
significant errors in mechanics, particularly related to
punctuation (Not just cell phone’s... who knows where the
world is going to be ten year’s down the road... because
computer’s are doing just about everything). Due to the
brevity of the response, errors are too severe for this essay
to achieve a higher conventions score.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
44
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-11
3/2
Training Set A, Paper 11
Content Score 3– Although a topic is not stated explicitly,
the writer of this essay is clearly focused on the
importance of balancing “the positives of technology with
the negatives of it.” Using a narrative organizational
structure, relationships are established between and among
ideas (This is no problem for Susie because she can
quickly type a few key words into a search engine, and all
the information Susie needs to write her paper comes onto
the screen. An hour later, Susie has a two page, doublespaced paper ready to print out. Before printing, Susie
remembers to press “spell check”, a clever little program
that checks for spelling errors in a typed document). The
response contains logical progression of ideas and is
reasonably complete. Support and elaborations consists of
some specific details (. . . when she comes home she likes
to forget about it for a couple of hours. The best way for
Susie to do this is to turn on the TV and watch a few
episodes of her favorite show or to just listen to music on
her ipod. Sometimes it also helps to gossip with her friends
over the telephone while heating up a snack for herself in
the microwave). While vocabulary is often simple,
sentence fluency use is reasonable.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
45
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-12
2/0
Training Set A, Paper 12
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is vague
(Technology has had the its biggest effect on us the last
couple of years). Major lapses in focus are exhibited as the
writer moves from positive to negative effects of
technology without establishing relationships between and
among ideas (Technology effect even helps out with the
enviroment. Such as; hybrids, solar powered cars, energy
saving equipment. this will help set up a better life for our
future generations). Support has major weaknesses in
relatedness to and support of the topic (With technology
grows so is the need gathering new from around the world.
Technology lets us connect as a world as one, which is
called online internet. This effect helps us understand
another in other states or other news in countries). While
some specific details are presented, most ideas are
underdeveloped. The essay exhibits minimal use of both
precise and purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 0– This response exhibits a lack of
control of grammatical conventions appropriate to the
writing task. Persistent and numerous sentence formation
(Instead of sending letters and taking days to get to its
destination), usage (Which now and days we really do
have to), and mechanical errors (Well I know one thing you
know its called a Ipod) impede the reader’s understanding
of the ideas conveyed.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
46
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-13
3/2
Training Set A, Paper 13
Content Score 3– The subject of this response is generally
clear (Even though technology in our everyday lives is
currently benign, it could, potentially, rise up and destroy
us), but a minor lapse in focus occurs in the first body
paragraph as the student equates “an expanded social
world” with MP3 players and reading, both of which are
solitary pursuits. Overall, organizational structure
establishes relationships between and among ideas and a
logical progression of ideas (We have undergone a
paradigm shift: a change in the way society thinks. This
change, facilitated by the growing demand for instant
gratification, has led to an expectation for information to
arrive in an instant. If we have a package being sent by
“snail mail,” we quickly become frustrated when it has not
arrived within a few days) leads to a reasonably complete
essay. A minor weakness in support occurs as the writer
integrates a given excerpt but uses no details to elaborate
on the explanation of the quote (. . . despite its largely
helpful effects, technology brings some unfortunate
unintended consequences. According to Carl Sagan, . . . .
This means that as we become more and more dependent
on technology, we give it and those in charge of it more
and more power over us). Although the student has a more
skillful command of language and sentence fluency, it is
not enough, by itself, to merit a higher score point.
Conventions Score 2– The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
47
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-14
1/0
Training Set A, Paper 14
Content Score 1– The subject of this response is
confusing, as the student never really establishes a focus
on the topic of effects of technology on everyday life.
Organizational structure fails to establish connections
between and among ideas, as the ideas are presented in a
random fashion and are confusing (And you would think
alot of people knew how television works or even how
today we got it made, thanks to Bill Gates we have
remotes, back then there was’nt a such thing as a remote
people would have to getup whenever they wanted to
change a channel, If you Did’nt know we have it made in
todays society). Support and elaboration consists of sparse
details that attempt to support the topic, but are unrelated
and confusing (I see people today with cell phones and
most of them dont even think about the important things
like how did cell phones become so popular or, how you’re
able to on most phones get to call anywhere in the world
and talk to anyone or, maybe even when they were
invented). The response lacks vocabulary that is precise
and purposeful. The thoughts are so random and confusing
that sentence fluency is not demonstrated.
Conventions Score 0– The response demonstrates lack of
grammatical conventions. Errors in punctuation are
persistent and pervasive, and impede the reader’s
understanding of the ideas conveyed. Other errors include
capitalization (Technology is what we use in everyday life.
For example, Television Radios Cell Phones, even
microwaves are technology) and sentence construction
(And you would think alot of people know how television
works or even how today we got it made, thanks to Bill
Gates we have remotes, back then there wasn’t a such
thing as a remote people would have to get up whenever
they wanted to change a channel, If you Didn’t know we
have it made in todays society). This paper earns a score of
0 for conventions.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
48
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
TA-15
2/2
Training Set A, Paper 15
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is somewhat
vague (Whether you like it or not, technology is an
important part of every day life. It helps you get through
your day, but it can hurt you or others). The organizational
structure establishes little relationship between and among
ideas (Weapons like guns are a huge part of military
technology, and yet people don’t always understand their
danger. . . . Even when people understand them, they are
still dangerous, sometimes even more so. Every day on the
news you hear about another murder or suicide. These
were brought about by technology), as major lapses also
occur in the misplaced introduction of quoted excerpt
material. Support and elaboration consists of general,
underdeveloped details presented in a list-like manner,
which leads to major weaknesses in relatedness to and
support of the subject (Without technology, traveling from
North Carolina to Kansas, a trip I have made twice by
airplane, wouldn’t take a few hours, it would take a few
days. We can also communicate much more quickly with
instant messages and e-mailing. Technology has made it
possible for us to communicate with people on the other
side of the world). Minimal use of both precise and
purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency is
demonstrated.
This essay is best compared to G-7 in the Guide set.
Conventions Score 2– While some errors are present, this
response exhibits reasonable control of grammatical
conventions. Errors include minor errors in punctuation
(easy to spread to everyone everywhere...) and usage (It
makes thing simpler like getting from work to home in
your cars).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
49
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Qualification Set
GRADE 10
Content & Conventions
Scoring Rubric
Applications
This publication and the information contained within must not be used for personal or
financial gain. North Carolina LEA school officials and teachers, parents, and students may
download and duplicate this publication for instructional and educational purposes only.
Others may not duplicate this publication without prior written permission from the North
Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) Division of Accountability Services/North
Carolina Testing Program.
© 2008 All Rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or
in part, without prior written permission from the North Carolina Testing Program, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27601-2825.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
50
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Score Tally Sheet: Qualification Set
You may use this sheet to practice scoring the following student responses. Record your scores
for Content and Conventions and then compare them against the actual scores located at the end
of this section.
PAPER #
My
Content
Score
My
Conventions
Score
State
Content
Score
State
Conventions
Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
% Agree 2
2
In order to maintain industry standard and NC scoring requirements of at least 70%, you must
have an exact agreement in Content and Conventions for 7 of the 10 responses.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
51
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Qualification Set Annotations
Paper
Score
Notes
Content/Conventions
QI-1
2/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 1
Content Score 2-The topic of the response is somewhat
vague (As we all know technology has played a big part in
our lives). There is an attempt at organizational structure
through references to personal experiences, observations,
and an example from the movies. Although a good first
body paragraph exhibits a logical progression of ideas,
linking technology to surviving a bout with cancer, the
unexplained support and elaboration in the second body
paragraph is a major weakness in relatedness to and
support of the subject (Did you ever stop to think the space
shuttle was technology?. . . With the digital cameras we on
earth can actually see space, even if we've never been.
What about the tracking systems they must have in order
to pin point the moon instead of wandering into another
dimension). Minimal use of precise and purposeful
vocabulary is exhibited as is minimal use of sentence
fluency.
Conventions Score 2-The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
52
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-2
3/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 2
Content Score 3- The topic of the response is generally
clear (. . . our society is becoming overly dependent on
technology, and it is causing very unhealthy habits as well
as the inability for students and adults alike to think for
themselves). The organizational structure is developed
around the negative effects technology has on health,
social habits, and on intellect, although the structure has
minor weaknesses establishing relationships between ideas
(People's over-dependency on technology also can pose
negative mental effects, even though technology is
supposed to help. So many people struggle with math
because they were always taught to use a calculator when
a problem became too tough. Computers, now, can solve
any problem a person has without them having to hardly
move. Some people's only exercise was walking through
the mall when they went shopping). The response has some
specific details but there are minor weaknesses in support
and elaboration of the topic (People, especially kids see no
reason to do things with people since they have everything
they want and more in their own houses. Some people will
not go out with people at certain times because a certain
show would be coming on then). Reasonable use of both
precise and purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency is
displayed throughout.
Conventions Score 2-The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
53
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-3
1/0
Qualification Set 1, Paper 3
Content Score 1-The writer of this response fails to
establish a focus on the subject. The organizational
structure does not establish a connection between and
among ideas as the majority of the essay paraphrases the
prompt material (Today in the world we are discovering
that civilization is beening placed most crucial elements
profoundly depend on science + technology. We also make
things so difficult no one really understand science and
technology, so which means somewere along the line there
will be a disater). The sparse details and elaboration
attempted as support are confusing (In the world today we
have found all kind of routes + paths for much of our daily
work, Just like reproducing books you don't only need
printers to make a book, even though reading a book has
not changed any). The response lacks precise and
purposeful vocabulary and no sentence fluency is
demonstrated.
Conventions Score 0-This essay exhibits a lack of control
of grammatical conventions appropriate to the writing
task. Numerous sentence formation, usage, and mechanical
errors impede an understanding of the ideas conveyed in
what is a brief response.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
54
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-4
2/1
Qualification Set 1, Paper 4
Content Score 2-The subject of this response is vague (. .
. technology is a very big part of my life). The response is
organized around examples that demonstrate how
technology has made activities easier for people, and there
are major lapses in the progression of ideas (. . .
technology has made it very easy to get into peoples bank
accounts, personal identity, also its a lot easyier for a
freak to find me. . . when me and my mom go to a resurant
for dinner or something, i get nervous when the waiter
takes her bank card when we get the bill. It would be
really esay for them to write that number down). Support
and elaboration consists of underdeveloped details
presented in a list-like manner (Same thing with
computers, i dont even have to spell anymore, it does it for
me. Also I dont think iv sent a letter in 6 years, E-mail, and
myspace and AIM (aol instant mesagger) rid out the
concept of mailing a letter for me). The response exhibits
minimal use of precise and purposeful vocabulary and
sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 1-The response displays minimal
control of grammatical conventions. It has numerous
errors in mechanics including missing apostrophes from
contractions, incorrect capitalization, and misspellings of
simple words (esay for easy, carful for careful). Moreover,
there are a number of sentence fragments (no thinking
involved . . . just push buttons).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
55
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-5
3/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 5
Content Score 3-The topic of this response is generally
clear (Technology, although sometimes a hassle to learn
how to use, simplifies our lives, allows us to make
advances in medicine, and assists in making our schools a
more interesting place to learn). The organizational
structure has minor weaknesses establishing relationships
among ideas (Technology is used in family practices to
keep patients healthy and in the ER to save lives. New
drug cures for fatal illness are found by scientists using
technology. Technology also contributes to global
communications, so doctors, pharmasists, and chemists
around the world can work together to make our Earth a
healthier place), but the response has logical progression
of ideas and is reasonably complete. Support and
elaborations consists of some specific details (Videos taken
with under-water cameras and microscopes that let kids
get up close and personal with whatever is shown on the
slide). There is a reasonable use of precise and purposeful
vocabulary as well as reasonable use of sentence fluency.
Conventions Score 2-The essay exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
56
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-6
2/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 6
Content Score 2– The topic of this response is clear (The
three main effects [of technology] to me are that life is
easier, we have better health, and the best yet – more
leisure time!). Some organizational structure is present, but
little relationship is established between ideas (Technology
has so-gratefully made farming easier, and less of a strain
on farmers. We now have computers that will do even
more complicated jobs for us), leading to major lapses in
logical progression of ideas. Support and elaboration
exhibit major weakness, consisting of some specific details
presented in a list-like fashion (Do you know what a Jarvic
Heart, or a pace-maker does? . . . Ocular implants allow
deaf children a chance to hear. Diabetics can check blood
sugar easily). The student engages the audience (With all
the car-making-robots and mechanical hearts, you wonder
where the people are. Well, I know where they are.
They’re out), but the response demonstrates minimal use
of precise or purposeful vocabulary.
Conventions Score 2– While some errors are present, this
response displays reasonable control of grammatical
conventions. Errors include a sentence fragment
(Something that will be good for everyone).
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
57
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-7
4/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 7
Content Score 4 – The topic of this essay is clear (While
technology may have brought on powerful changes for the
better, it has also brought a lust and a dependency that are
decidedly toxic to the intellect and sheer ability to function
of our society today), and the writer remains focused on
this idea throughout the paper. The organizational
structure serves to connect ideas and engage the reader.
The paper is unified and complete. The writer’s ideas are
supported by many specific details (In Fight Club, a
motion picture, a character named Tyler Durton proclaims
that we are caught in a disgusting cycle of self
improvement. He states that people don’t need coats from
Armani exports, when a Wal-Mart jacket will satisfy the
need for clothing and warmth. . . . A man is working
overtime this very day, just so that he can afford the
payments on his new Mercedes, when he could have easily
saved his down payment and bought three months worth of
food for his family). The response exhibits skillful use of
both purposeful vocabulary and sentence fluency (It is a
sad thing that the creative originality of inventors past has
been so dulled by the monotony of day-to-day life. Now
technology has resorted to cosmetic improvements to
attract greedy customers to the enticing smell of silicon
and metals).
Conventions Score 2 – This essay demonstrates
reasonable control of sentence formation, word usage, and
mechanics. Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
58
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-8
1/0
Qualification Set 1, Paper 8
Content Score 1-The subject of this response is confusing
and unfocused (Technology is the most used resource thats
why we sould not waste on things that are not important.
Just on things we really need not just on things we want).
There is an attempt at organizing the response around
examples of how technology is used by kids, teachers, and
adults, but the sparse details and elaboration are confusing
(Teachers use computers to keep track of there students
grade, to know when they have a faculty meeting without a
computer which technology created, teachers would have
to do all of these things by hand). The response lacks
precise and purposeful vocabulary and no sentence fluency
is demonstrated.
Conventions Score 0- The essay lacks control of
grammatical conventions appropriate to the writing task.
There are numerous sentence formation, usage, and
mechanical errors in this brief response.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
59
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-9
3/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 9
Content Score 3– The subject of this response is generally
clear (. . . our world has become so distracted by the
effects of technology and even a bit oblivious to what we
should give more thought and attention to). The
organizational structure establishes relationships between
and among ideas, however, a minor lapse is demonstrated
in the weakly-related concluding paragraph. Support
consists of some specific detail, elaborated by the student’s
personal experiences, which displays a logical progression
of ideas (. . . myspace. For some its not too big of a
distraction but form many others it can keep us from our
daily tasks and leave us behind with much to catch up on.
For myself myspace is very addicting. . . . As soon as I got
home I sat right in front of the computer and got on
myspace. I lost track of time . . . . The next day at school I
got zeros in all my classes). The response is reasonably
complete. the essay exhibits reasonable use of precise and
purposeful vocabulary and reasonable use of sentence
fluency (Maybe at first you think “oh well, sending text
messages is fun and who could it hurt?”. But the negative
effects to that theory are far more complicated then it
would appear to be. There are so many kids in schools
getting in trouble for secretly texting back and forth but
soon that secret is no longer hidden and when its revealed
it causes a big distraction not only to all the students in the
class but to the teacher as well).
Conventions Score 2– This response demonstrates
minimal control of grammatical conventions. there are
persistent errors in . Errors are also present in .
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
60
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
QI-10
2/2
Qualification Set 1, Paper 10
Content Score 2-While the topic of this response is clear
(Technology is used to make our lives comfortable and
safe) a major lapse of focus occurs in the third paragraph
when the writer begins to talk about the advantages
technology brings to information gathering. There is an
attempt at organizational structure by organizing the
response around examples that demonstrate technology's
benefits at making lives more comfortable and safer, but
there are major lapses in the progression of ideas ( There
are heaters and air conditioners to make the room a
person is in comfortable or to a desired temperature.
Lights can be turned on with a simple switch or button.
Not many today would like to walk down a dark hall with a
simple candle or freeze during a cold winter). While some
details are present, most are undeveloped (The class could
use a computer. By using a computer, information is
automatically there. The class could get recent updates
about China without ever having been to China). Precise
and purposeful use of vocabulary is minimal as is sentence
fluency.
Conventions Score 2-The response exhibits reasonable
control of sentence formation, word usage, and mechanics.
Very few errors are present.
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
61
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
CONTACT INFORMATION
ACCOUNTABILITY DIVISION
Jim Kroening, NCDPI, Senior Education and Evaluation Consultant
for Performance Assessments
JKroening@dpi.state.nc.us
Akia Beverly-Worsley, NC State University – Technical Outreach for Public Schools (TOPS),
Education Consultant for NC Writing Assessments
Akia_Worsley@ncsu.edu
Additional Writing Assessment information and resources may be found at:
www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/writing
INSTRUCTIONAL SERVICES DIVISION
Tara Almeida, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades K-5
TAlmeida@dpi.state.nc.us
Lisa Llewellyn, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades K-5
Lllewellyn@dpi.state.nc.us
Carolyn Southerland, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades K-5
CSoutherland@dpi.state.nc.us
Phyllis Blue, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades 6-8
PBlue@dpi.state.nc.us
Patricia Chalmers, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades 6-8
PChalmers@dpi.state.nc.us
Bob Alexander, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades 9-12
BAlexander@dpi.state.nc.us
Vinetta Bell, NCDPI, English/Language Arts Consultant
Grades 9-12
VBell@dpi.state.nc.us
Freda Lee, NCDPI, Exceptional Children’s Division Consultant
Grade 10 OCS
FLee@dpi.state.nc.us
Additional Instructional information and resources may be found at:
www.learnnc.org/dpi/instserv.nsf
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
62
North Carolina General Writing Assessment
at Grades 4, 7, and 10
Grade 10 Trainer Manual 2008
Training Evaluation
Tell me about it…
I came expecting…
I got…
As a result of this session, I will…
I especially
appreciated…
I would like
to suggest…
Other comments?
NCDPI Division of Accountability Services/Test Development Section
Summer 2008
63
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