Bulletin of Mathematical Analysis and Applications ISSN: 1821-1291, URL:

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Bulletin of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
ISSN: 1821-1291, URL: http://www.bmathaa.org
Volume 2 Issue 4, Pages 54-61.
TOTALLY UMBILICAL CR-LIGHTLIKE SUBMANIFOLDS OF
INDEFINITE KAEHLER MANIFOLDS
(DEDICATED IN OCCASION OF THE 70-YEARS OF
PROFESSOR HARI M. SRIVASTAVA)
MANISH GOGNA, RAKESH KUMAR, R. K. NAGAICH
Abstract. In this paper, we consider totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Kaehler manifolds and give a classification theorem for this.
1. Introduction
Cauchy Riemann (CR) submanifolds of Kaehler manifolds with Riemannian
metric were introduced by Bejancu in 1978, [1, 2]. Then, totally umbilical CRsubmanifolds of Kaehler manifolds were studied by Bejancu [3], Blair-Chen [4].
Duggal [5, 6], introduced Lorentzian 𝐢𝑅-submanifold and claimed a fruitful mutual
interplay between 𝐢𝑅-submanifolds and physical spacetime geometry. Recently,
Duggal-Bejancu [7, 8], introduced CR-lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Kaehler
manifolds and related the study with the physically important asymptotically fiat
spacetimes which further lead to the Twistor theory of Penrose and the Heaven theory of Newman. The growing importance of lightlike submanifolds in mathematical
physics, in particular, their use in relativity and many more, motivated the authors
to study lightlike submanifolds extensively. In this direction, present paper deals
with the study of totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Kaehler
manifolds.
2. Lightlike Submanifolds
We recall notations and fundamental equations for lightlike submanifolds, which
are due to the book [8] by Duggal-Bejancu.
¯ , 𝑔¯) be a real (π‘š + 𝑛)-dimensional semi-Riemannian manifold of constant
Let (𝑀
index π‘ž such that π‘š, 𝑛 β‰₯ 1, 1 ≀ π‘ž ≀ π‘š + 𝑛 βˆ’ 1 and (𝑀, 𝑔) be an π‘š-dimensional
¯ and 𝑔 the induced metric of 𝑔¯ on 𝑀 . If 𝑔¯ is degenerate on the
submanifold of 𝑀
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 53C15, 53C40, 53C50.
Key words and phrases. 𝐢𝑅-lightlike submanifold, indefinite Kaehler manifold, totally umbilical submanifold.
c
⃝2010
Universiteti i Prishtinës, Prishtinë, Kosovë.
Submitted May 17, 2010. Published October 18, 2010.
54
TOTALLY UMBILICAL CR-LIGHTLIKE SUBMANIFOLDS
55
¯ . For a
tangent bundle 𝑇 𝑀 of 𝑀 then 𝑀 is called a lightlike submanifold of 𝑀
degenerate metric 𝑔 on 𝑀
¯ : 𝑔¯(𝑒, 𝑣) = 0, βˆ€π‘£ ∈ 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀, π‘₯ ∈ 𝑀 },
𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ = βˆͺ{𝑒 ∈ 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀
(2.1)
¯ . Thus, both 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀 and 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀 βŠ₯
is a degenerate 𝑛-dimensional subspace of 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀
are degenerate orthogonal subspaces but no longer complementary. In this case,
there exists a subspace π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡π‘₯ 𝑀 = 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀 ∩ 𝑇π‘₯ 𝑀 βŠ₯ which is known as radical (null)
subspace. If the mapping
π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 : π‘₯ ∈ 𝑀 βˆ’β†’ π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡π‘₯ 𝑀,
(2.2)
¯ is
defines a smooth distribution on 𝑀 of rank π‘Ÿ > 0 then the submanifold 𝑀 of 𝑀
called π‘Ÿ-lightlike submanifold and π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 is called the radical distribution on 𝑀 .
Let 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) be a screen distribution which is a semi-Riemannian complementary
distribution of π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘(𝑇 𝑀 ) in 𝑇 𝑀 , that is,
𝑇 𝑀 = π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 βŠ₯𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ),
(2.3)
βŠ₯
βŠ₯
𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) is a complementary vector subbundle to π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 in 𝑇 𝑀 . Let π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )
and π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) be complementary (but not orthogonal) vector bundles to 𝑇 𝑀 in
¯ βˆ£π‘€ and to π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 in 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ )βŠ₯ respectively. Then, we have
𝑇𝑀
π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) = π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )βŠ₯𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ).
(2.4)
¯ βˆ£π‘€ = 𝑇 𝑀 βŠ• π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) = (π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 βŠ• π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ))βŠ₯𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )βŠ₯𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ).
𝑇𝑀
(2.5)
Let u be a local coordinate neighborhood of 𝑀 and consider the local quasi¯ along 𝑀 , on u as {πœ‰1 , ..., πœ‰π‘Ÿ , π‘Šπ‘Ÿ+1 , ..., π‘Šπ‘› , 𝑁1 , ..., π‘π‘Ÿ ,
orthonormal fields of frames of 𝑀
π‘‹π‘Ÿ+1 , ..., π‘‹π‘š }, where {πœ‰1 , ..., πœ‰π‘Ÿ }, {𝑁1 , ..., π‘π‘Ÿ } are local lightlike bases of Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 ∣u ),
Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) ∣u ) and {π‘Šπ‘Ÿ+1 , ..., π‘Šπ‘› }, {π‘‹π‘Ÿ+1 , ..., π‘‹π‘š } are local orthonormal bases of
Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ) ∣u ) and Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) ∣u ) respectively. For this quasi-orthonormal fields of
frames, we have
Theorem 2.1. [8] Let (𝑀, 𝑔, 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ), 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ )) be an π‘Ÿ-lightlike submanifold of
¯ , 𝑔¯). Then, there exists a complementary vector
a semi-Riemannian manifold (𝑀
bundle π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) of π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 in 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ )βŠ₯ and a basis of Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) ∣u ) consisting
of smooth section {𝑁𝑖 } of 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ )βŠ₯ ∣u , where u is a coordinate neighborhood of
𝑀 , such that
𝑔¯(𝑁𝑖 , πœ‰π‘— ) = 𝛿𝑖𝑗 ,
𝑔¯(𝑁𝑖 , 𝑁𝑗 ) = 0, for any
𝑖, 𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, .., π‘Ÿ},
(2.6)
where {πœ‰1 , ..., πœ‰π‘Ÿ } is a lightlike basis of Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘(𝑇 𝑀 )).
¯ be the Levi-Civita connection on 𝑀
¯ . Then, according to the decomposiLet βˆ‡
tion (2.5), the Gauss and Weingarten formulas are given by
¯ 𝑋 π‘Œ = βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ + β„Ž(𝑋, π‘Œ ), βˆ€π‘‹, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ),
βˆ‡
(2.7)
¯ 𝑋 π‘ˆ = βˆ’π΄π‘ˆ 𝑋 + βˆ‡βŠ₯ π‘ˆ, βˆ€π‘‹ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ), π‘ˆ ∈ Ξ“(π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )),
βˆ‡
(2.8)
𝑋
βŠ₯
where {βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ, π΄π‘ˆ 𝑋} and {β„Ž(𝑋, π‘Œ ), βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘ˆ } belongs to Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ) and Ξ“(π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )), respectively. Here βˆ‡ is a torsion-free linear connection on 𝑀 , β„Ž is a symmetric bilinear
form on Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ) which is called second fundamental form, π΄π‘ˆ is linear a operator
on 𝑀 , known as shape operator.
According to (2.4), considering the projection morphisms 𝐿 and 𝑆 of π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) on
π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) and 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ), respectively, (2.7) and (2.8) give
¯ 𝑋 π‘Œ = βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ + β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, π‘Œ ) + β„Žπ‘  (𝑋, π‘Œ ),
βˆ‡
(2.9)
56
MANISH GOGNA, RAKESH KUMAR, R. K. NAGAICH
𝑙
𝑠
¯ 𝑋 π‘ˆ = βˆ’π΄π‘ˆ 𝑋 + 𝐷𝑋
βˆ‡
π‘ˆ + 𝐷𝑋
π‘ˆ,
𝑙
(2.10)
𝑠
𝑙
)), 𝐷𝑋
π‘ˆ
where we put β„Ž (𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝐿(β„Ž(𝑋, π‘Œ )), β„Ž (𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝑆(β„Ž(𝑋, π‘Œ
= 𝐿(βˆ‡βŠ₯
𝑋 π‘ˆ ),
𝑠
βŠ₯
𝐷𝑋 π‘ˆ = 𝑆(βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘ˆ ).
As β„Žπ‘™ and β„Žπ‘  are Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ))-valued and Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ))-valued respectively, therefore, we call them the lightlike second fundamental form and the screen second
fundamental form on 𝑀 . In particular
¯ 𝑋 𝑁 = βˆ’π΄π‘ 𝑋 + βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ 𝑁 + 𝐷𝑠 (𝑋, 𝑁 ),
βˆ‡
(2.11)
¯ 𝑋 π‘Š = βˆ’π΄π‘Š 𝑋 + βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ π‘Š + 𝐷𝑙 (𝑋, π‘Š ),
βˆ‡
(2.12)
βŠ₯
where 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ), 𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )) and π‘Š ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )).By using (2.4)-(2.5)
and (2.9)-(2.12), we obtain
𝑔¯(β„Žπ‘  (𝑋, π‘Œ ), π‘Š ) + 𝑔¯(π‘Œ, 𝐷𝑙 (𝑋, π‘Š )) = 𝑔(π΄π‘Š 𝑋, π‘Œ ),
(2.13)
𝑔¯(β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, π‘Œ ), πœ‰) + 𝑔¯(π‘Œ, β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, πœ‰)) + 𝑔(π‘Œ, βˆ‡π‘‹ πœ‰) = 0,
(2.14)
𝑔¯(𝐴𝑁 𝑋, 𝑁 β€² ) + 𝑔¯(𝑁, 𝐴𝑁 β€² 𝑋) = 0,
(2.15)
βŠ₯
β€²
for any πœ‰ ∈ Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 ), π‘Š ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )) and 𝑁, 𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )).
Let 𝑃 be the projection morphism of 𝑇 𝑀 on 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ). Then using (2.3), we can
induce some new geometric objects on the screen distribution 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) on 𝑀 , as:
βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑃 π‘Œ = βˆ‡βˆ—π‘‹ 𝑃 π‘Œ + β„Žβˆ— (𝑋, π‘Œ ),
(2.16)
and
βˆ‡π‘‹ πœ‰ = βˆ’π΄βˆ—πœ‰ 𝑋 + βˆ‡βˆ—π‘‘
𝑋 πœ‰,
{βˆ‡βˆ—π‘‹ 𝑃 π‘Œ, π΄βˆ—πœ‰ 𝑋}
βˆ—
(2.17)
βˆ—
for any 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ) and πœ‰ ∈ Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 ), where
and {β„Ž (𝑋, π‘Œ ),
βˆ‡βˆ—π‘‘
πœ‰}
belong
to
Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇
𝑀
))
and
Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
𝑀
)
respectively.
βˆ‡
and
βˆ‡βˆ—π‘‘ are linear
𝑋
connections on complementary distributions 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) and π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 , respectively. β„Žβˆ—
and π΄βˆ— are Ξ“(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 )-valued and Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ))-valued bilinear forms and called as
second fundamental forms of distributions 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) and π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 , respectively.
The screen distribution 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) is said to be totally geodesic if β„Žβˆ— (𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 0 for
any 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ).
From the geometry of Riemannian submanifolds and non-degenerate submanifolds, it is known that the induced connection βˆ‡ on a non-degenerate submanifold
is a metric connection. Unfortunately, this is not true for a lightlike submanifold.
¯ a metric connection, we have
Indeed, considering βˆ‡
(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑔)(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = 𝑔¯(β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, π‘Œ ), 𝑍) + 𝑔¯(β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, 𝑍), π‘Œ ),
(2.18)
for any 𝑋, π‘Œ, 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ). From [8] page 171, using the properties of linear connection, we have
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Žπ‘™ )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ (β„Žπ‘™ (π‘Œ, 𝑍)) βˆ’ β„Žπ‘™ (βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ, 𝑍) βˆ’ β„Žπ‘™ (π‘Œ, βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑍),
(2.19)
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Žπ‘  )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ (β„Žπ‘™ (π‘Œ, 𝑍)) βˆ’ β„Žπ‘  (βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ, 𝑍) βˆ’ β„Žπ‘  (π‘Œ, βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑍).
(2.20)
Barros-Romero [9], defined indefinite Kaehler manifolds as
¯ , 𝐽,
¯ 𝑔¯) be an indefinite almost Hermitian manifold and βˆ‡
¯ be
Definition: Let (𝑀
¯
¯
the Levi-Civita connection on 𝑀 with respect to 𝑔¯. Then 𝑀 is called an indefinite
¯ that is,
Kaehler manifold if 𝐽¯ is parallel with respect to βˆ‡,
¯ 𝑋 𝐽)π‘Œ
¯ = 0,
(βˆ‡
¯ ).
βˆ€ 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀
(2.21)
TOTALLY UMBILICAL CR-LIGHTLIKE SUBMANIFOLDS
57
3. CR-lightlike submanifolds
¯ , 𝐽,
¯ 𝑔¯) be a real 2π‘š-dimensional indefinite Kaehler manifold
Definition: Let (𝑀
¯ . Then, 𝑀 is said to be a CR-lightlike
and 𝑀 ba an 𝑛-dimensional submanifold of 𝑀
submanifold if the following two conditions are fulfilled:
¯
𝑀 ) is distribution on 𝑀 such that
(A) 𝐽(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
¯
π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 ∩ 𝐽(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
𝑀 ) = 0.
βŠ₯
(3.1)
β€²
(B) There exist vector bundles 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ), 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ), π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ), 𝐷0 and 𝐷 over 𝑀
such that
¯
¯ 0 ) = 𝐷0 ; 𝐽(𝐷
¯ β€² ) = 𝐿1 βŠ₯𝐿2 ,
𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 ) = {𝐽(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
𝑀 ) βŠ• 𝐷′ }βŠ₯𝐷0 ; 𝐽(𝐷
(3.2)
where 𝐷0 is a non-degenerate distribution on 𝑀 , 𝐿1 and 𝐿2 are vector sub-bundles
of π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) and 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ), respectively.
Clearly, the tangent bundle of a CR-lightlike submanifold is decomposed as
𝑇 𝑀 = 𝐷 βŠ• 𝐷′ ,
(3.3)
¯
𝐷 = π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡ 𝑀 βŠ₯𝐽(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
𝑀 )βŠ₯𝐷0 .
(3.4)
where
Theorem 3.1. [8]: Let 𝑀 be a 1-lightlike submanifold of codimension 2 of a real
¯ , 𝐽,
¯ 𝑔¯) such that 𝐽(π‘…π‘Žπ‘‘π‘‡
¯
2m-dimensional indefinite almost Hermitian manifold (𝑀
𝑀)
is a distribution on 𝑀 . Then 𝑀 is a CR-lightlike submanifold.
Lemma 3.2. Let 𝑀 be a CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite Kaehler manifold and screen distribution be totally geodesic. Then, βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )) for any
𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )).
¯ 𝑋 π‘Œ, 𝑁 ) = 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝐴𝑁 𝑋) =
Proof. For any 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )), 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ, 𝑁 ) = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡
βˆ—
𝑔¯(β„Ž (𝑋, π‘Œ ), 𝑁 ). Hence, using hypothesis with Theorem (2.1), the lemma follows.
β–‘
Lemma 3.3. Let 𝑀 be a CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite Kaehler mani¯ = π½βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 𝑋 for any 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ).
fold. Then, βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝐽𝑋
Proof. Let 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), we have
¯ π‘Œ)
𝑔(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝐽𝑋,
¯ 𝑋 𝐽𝑋
¯ βˆ’ β„Ž(𝑋, 𝐽𝑋),
¯
= 𝑔¯(βˆ‡
π‘Œ)
¯
¯
¯
¯
= 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝐽𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝑔¯(𝐽 βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑋, π‘Œ )
¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π½π‘Œ
¯ ) = βˆ’π‘”(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑋, π½π‘Œ
¯ )
= βˆ’¯
𝑔 (βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π‘Œ ),
= 𝑔¯(π½βˆ‡
¯
¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 0 then, non-degeneracy of 𝐷0 implies the result.
that is 𝑔(βˆ‡π‘‹ π½π‘‹βˆ’
π½βˆ‡
β–‘
4. Totally Umbilical CR-lightlike submanifolds
Definition: A lightlike submanifold (𝑀, 𝑔) of a semi-Riemannian manifold
¯ , 𝑔¯) is said to be totally umbilical in 𝑀
¯ if there is a smooth transversal vec(𝑀
tor field 𝐻 ∈ Ξ“(π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )) on 𝑀 , called the transversal curvature vector field of 𝑀 ,
such that for all 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ),
β„Ž(𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝐻 𝑔¯(𝑋, π‘Œ ).
(4.1)
58
MANISH GOGNA, RAKESH KUMAR, R. K. NAGAICH
Using (2.9), it is easy to see that 𝑀 is a totally umbilical, if and only if, on each
coordinate neighborhood u, there exists smooth vector fields 𝐻 𝑙 ∈ Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )) and
𝐻 𝑠 ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ )), such that β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝐻 𝑙 𝑔¯(𝑋, π‘Œ ), β„Žπ‘  (𝑋, π‘Œ ) = 𝐻 𝑠 𝑔¯(𝑋, π‘Œ ).
Theorem 4.1. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite Kaehler manifold and screen distribution be totally geodesic.. Then, the screen
transversal curvature vector field 𝐻 𝑠 of 𝑀 belongs to 𝐿βŠ₯
2.
Proof. Let π‘Š ∈ Ξ“(𝐿2 ) and 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ) then for a totally umbilical 𝐢𝑅-lightlike sub¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π½π‘Š
¯ ) = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 𝐽𝑋,
¯ π½π‘Š
¯ )=
manifold, with lemmas (3.2) and (3.3), we have 𝑔¯(𝐽¯βˆ‡
𝑠
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝐽𝑋, π½π‘Š ) + 𝑔¯(β„Ž (𝑋, 𝐽𝑋), π½π‘Š ) = 𝑔¯(π½βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑋, π½π‘Š ) = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑋, π‘Š ) = 0 and
¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π½π‘Š
¯ ) = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 𝑋, π‘Š ) = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑋, π‘Š )+¯
𝑔¯(𝐽¯βˆ‡
𝑔 (β„Žπ‘  (𝑋, 𝑋), π‘Š ) = 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑋)¯
𝑔 (𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š ).
𝑠
Hence, we have 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑋)¯
𝑔 (𝐻 , π‘Š ) = 0. Since 𝐷0 is non-degenerate therefore
𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š ) = 0, this implies that 𝐻 𝑠 ∈ Ξ“(𝐿βŠ₯
β–‘
2 ).
Theorem 4.2. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an in¯ and screen distribution be totally geodesic. Then,
definite Kaehler manifold 𝑀
β€²
𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯ π‘Š = π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍, βˆ€ π‘Š, 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷 ).
¯ be an indefinite Kaehler manifold, therefore, 𝐽¯βˆ‡
¯ π‘π‘Š = βˆ‡
¯ 𝑍 π½π‘Š
¯ ,
Proof. Since, 𝑀
this gives
𝑑 ¯
¯ 𝑍 π‘Š + π½β„Ž(𝑍,
¯
(4.2)
π½βˆ‡
π‘Š ) = βˆ’π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍 + βˆ‡π‘ π½π‘Š.
Interchange the role of 𝑍 and π‘Š , in the above equation and subtract the resulting
equation from it, we get
¯
¯ βˆ’ βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ π½π‘Š.
¯ 𝑍 π‘Š βˆ’ βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑍) + βˆ‡π‘‘ 𝐽𝑍
(4.3)
𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯ π‘Š βˆ’ π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍 = 𝐽(βˆ‡
π‘Š
Taking inner product with 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), then we have
¯ βˆ’ 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘ π‘Š, 𝐽𝑋).
¯
𝑔¯(𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯(βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑍, 𝐽𝑋)
¯ π‘Š βˆ’ π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍, 𝑋) = 𝑔
(4.4)
¯ = 𝑔¯(βˆ‡
¯ π‘Š 𝑍, 𝐽𝑋)
¯ = 𝑔¯(𝐽𝑍,
¯ βˆ‡
¯ π‘Š 𝑋) = 𝑔¯(𝐽𝑍,
¯ βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑋)+¯
¯ β„Žπ‘  (π‘Š, 𝑋))+
Now, 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑍, 𝐽𝑋)
𝑔 (𝐽𝑍,
𝑙
¯
𝑔¯(𝐽𝑍, β„Ž (π‘Š, 𝑋)). Since 𝑀 is a totally umbilical 𝐢𝑅-lightlike submanifold, therefore for any π‘Š ∈ Ξ“(𝐷′ ) and 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), we have β„Žπ‘  (π‘Š, 𝑋) = 𝐻 𝑠 𝑔¯(π‘Š, 𝑋) =
¯
¯ βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑋), using Lemma
0, β„Žπ‘™ (π‘Š, 𝑋) = 𝐻 𝑙 𝑔¯(π‘Š, 𝑋) = 0. Thus, 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑍, 𝐽𝑋)
= 𝑔¯(𝐽𝑍,
¯
¯
(3.2), this gives 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘Š 𝑍, 𝐽𝑋) = 0. Similarly, 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘ π‘Š, 𝐽𝑋) = 0, so (4.4), implies
𝑔¯(𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯ π‘Š βˆ’ π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍, 𝑋) = 0. Then, non-degeneracy of 𝐷0 , implies that 𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯ π‘Š =
π΄π½π‘Š
β–‘
¯ 𝑍.
Theorem 4.3. ([8]) Let 𝑀 be a 𝐢𝑅-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite Kaehler
¯ . Then the totally real distribution 𝐷′ is integrable, if and only if, the
manifold 𝑀
β€²
shape operator of 𝑀 satisties 𝐴𝐽𝑍
¯ π‘Š = π΄π½π‘Š
¯ 𝑍, βˆ€ π‘Š, 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷 ).
Thus we have the following
Corollary 4.4. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite Kaehler manifold then, the totally real distribution 𝐷′ is integrable.
Definition: For a CR-lightlike submanifold 𝑀 , a plane 𝑋 ∧ 𝑍, with 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 )
¯
and 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷′ ) is called a CR-lightlike section. The sectional curvature 𝐾(πœ‹)
of a
CR-lightlike section πœ‹ is called CR-lightlike sectional curvature.
Theorem 4.5. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefi¯ . Then, the CR-lightlike sectional curvature of 𝑀 vanishes,
nite Kaehler manifold 𝑀
¯
that is, 𝐾(πœ‹)
= 0 for all CR lightlike sections πœ‹.
TOTALLY UMBILICAL CR-LIGHTLIKE SUBMANIFOLDS
59
¯ then, (2.19)
Proof. Since, 𝑀 is a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of 𝑀
and (2.20) implies
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Žπ‘™ )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑙 βˆ’ 𝐻 𝑙 {(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑔)(π‘Œ, 𝑍)},
𝑠
𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑠
(4.5)
𝑠
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Ž )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) =
βˆ’ 𝐻 {(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑔)(π‘Œ, 𝑍)}.
(4.6)
β€²
For a 𝐢𝑅-lightlike section πœ‹ = 𝑋 ∧ 𝑍, 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷 ), (2.18) implies that
(βˆ‡π‘‹ 𝑔)(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = 0. Therefore, (4.5)-(4.6) give
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Žπ‘™ )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) = 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑙 ,
𝑠
(4.7)
𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑠 .
(βˆ‡π‘‹ β„Ž )(π‘Œ, 𝑍) =
(4.8)
Using (3.9) at page 171 of [8] with above equations, we have
¯
{𝑅(𝑋,
π‘Œ )𝑍}π‘‘π‘Ÿ = 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑙 βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘™π‘Œ 𝐻 𝑙 + 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)𝐷𝑙 (𝑋, 𝐻 𝑠 )
βˆ’π‘”(𝑋, 𝑍)𝐷𝑙 (π‘Œ, 𝐻 𝑠 ) + 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑠 βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)βˆ‡π‘ π‘Œ 𝐻 𝑠
+𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)𝐷𝑠 (𝑋, 𝐻 𝑙 ) βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)𝐷𝑠 (π‘Œ, 𝐻 𝑙 ).
(4.9)
For any 𝑉 ∈ Ξ“(π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )), above equation gives
¯
𝑅(𝑋,
π‘Œ, 𝑍, 𝑉 ) = 𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (βˆ‡π‘™π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑙 , 𝑉 ) βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (βˆ‡π‘™π‘Œ 𝐻 𝑙 , 𝑉 )
+𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (𝐷𝑙 (𝑋, 𝐻 𝑠 ), 𝑉 ) βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (𝐷𝑙 (π‘Œ, 𝐻 𝑠 ), 𝑉 )
+𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (βˆ‡π‘ π‘‹ 𝐻 𝑠 , 𝑉 ) βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (βˆ‡π‘ π‘Œ 𝐻 𝑠 , 𝑉 )
+𝑔(π‘Œ, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (𝐷𝑠 (𝑋, 𝐻 𝑙 ), 𝑉 ) βˆ’ 𝑔(𝑋, 𝑍)¯
𝑔 (𝐷𝑠 (π‘Œ, 𝐻 𝑙 ), 𝑉 ),(4.10)
then, in particular, for any unit vectors 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷) and 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷′ ), we have
¯
¯ 𝐽𝑍)
¯ = 𝑅(𝑋,
¯
𝑅(𝑋,
𝑍, 𝐽𝑋,
𝑍, 𝑋, 𝑍) = 0.
(4.11)
Hence the result.
β–‘
Lemma 4.6. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite
¯ and screen distribution be totally geodesic. Then, π΄π‘Š 𝑋 =
Kaehler manifold 𝑀
𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š )𝑋 and 𝐴𝑁 𝑋 = 𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑙 , 𝑁 )𝑋 for any 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ).
Proof. Let π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ) then, for totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold, from
(2.13), we have 𝑔(𝑋, π‘Œ )¯
𝑔 (𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š ) = 𝑔(π΄π‘Š 𝑋, π‘Œ ), then non-degeneracy of 𝐷0 , gives
¯
¯ , then (βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 𝑔¯)(π‘Œ, 𝑁 ) = 0, further
the result. Since, βˆ‡ is a metric connection on 𝑀
𝑙
this gives, 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‹ π‘Œ, 𝑁 ) + 𝑔¯(β„Ž (𝑋, π‘Œ ), 𝑁 ) = 𝑔(𝐴𝑁 𝑋, π‘Œ ). Then, by using Lemma
(3.2), we get 𝑔¯(β„Žπ‘™ (𝑋, π‘Œ ), 𝑁 ) = 𝑔(𝐴𝑁 𝑋, π‘Œ ), then using umbilicity of 𝑀 , we get
𝑔(𝑋, π‘Œ )¯
𝑔 (𝐻 𝑙 , 𝑁 ) = 𝑔(𝐴𝑁 𝑋, π‘Œ ), and again using non-degeneracy of 𝐷0 , second result follows.
From above lemma it is clear that 𝑔¯(𝐻, 𝑉 )𝑋 = 𝐴𝑉 𝑋, βˆ€ 𝑉 ∈ Ξ“(π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )), 𝑋 ∈
Ξ“(𝐷0 ).
β–‘
Lemma 4.7. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefinite
¯ . Then, βˆ‡π‘‘ is a metric linear connection on π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ).
Kaehler manifold 𝑀
Proof. By lemma (4.6), we have
π΄π‘Š 𝑋 = 𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š )𝑋,
(4.12)
¯
for any π‘Š ∈ Ξ“(𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 )) and 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ). Now, taking into account that βˆ‡ is a
metric connection and using (2.8), we have
βŠ₯
𝑔¯(π΄π‘Š 𝑋, 𝑁 ) = 𝑔¯(π‘Š, βˆ‡π‘‘π‘‹ 𝑁 ),
(4.13)
60
MANISH GOGNA, RAKESH KUMAR, R. K. NAGAICH
where π‘Š ∈ 𝑆(𝑇 𝑀 βŠ₯ ), 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝑇 𝑀 ) and 𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 )). Since 𝑋 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ) then,
(4.12) and (4.13), give 𝑔¯(π‘Š, βˆ‡π‘‘π‘‹ 𝑁 ) = 𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑠 , π‘Š )¯
𝑔 (𝑋, 𝑁 ) = 0. Hence, the lightlike
transversal vector bundle π‘™π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ) is parallel with respect to βˆ‡π‘‘ , then with Theorem
(2.3) at page 159 of [8], βˆ‡π‘‘ is a metric connection on π‘‘π‘Ÿ(𝑇 𝑀 ).
β–‘
Theorem 4.8. Let 𝑀 be a totally umbilical CR-lightlike submanifold of an indefi¯ and screen distribution be totally geodesic. If dimension𝐷′ >
nite Kaehler manifold 𝑀
1, then 𝑀 is a CR lightlike product or a totally real submanifold.
Proof. Since, dimension 𝐷′ > 1, so choose two non-parallel vectors 𝑋, π‘Œ ∈ Ξ“(𝐷′ )
¯ π‘‹π‘Œ = βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 π½π‘Œ
¯ . Then, lemma (4.6) gives π½βˆ‡
¯ 𝑋 π‘Œ + 𝑔¯(𝑋, π‘Œ )𝐽𝐻
¯ =
such that 𝐽¯βˆ‡
𝑑 ¯
¯
βˆ’¯
𝑔 (π½π‘Œ, 𝐻)𝑋 + βˆ‡π‘‹ π½π‘Œ . Taking inner product with 𝑋 and using lemma (3.2), we
have
¯ )βˆ₯𝑋βˆ₯2 = 𝑔(𝑋, π‘Œ )¯
¯
𝑔¯(𝐻, π½π‘Œ
𝑔 (𝐻, 𝐽𝑋).
(4.14)
Interchanging the role of 𝑋 and π‘Œ in above equation, we get
¯
¯ ).
𝑔¯(𝐻, 𝐽𝑋)βˆ₯π‘Œ
βˆ₯2 = 𝑔(𝑋, π‘Œ )¯
𝑔 (𝐻, π½π‘Œ
(4.15)
Using (4.14), in above equation, we get
¯ ) = 𝑔(𝑋, π‘Œ )2 /(βˆ₯𝑋βˆ₯2 βˆ₯π‘Œ βˆ₯2 )¯
¯ ).
𝑔¯(𝐻, π½π‘Œ
𝑔 (𝐻, π½π‘Œ
(4.16)
¯ . Thus, we have (a)
The possible solutions of (4.16) are (a) 𝐻 = 0 or (b) 𝐻βŠ₯π½π‘Œ
¯ β€² )βŠ₯ . Combining (a) with lemma (4.6) and
𝑀 is totally geodesic or (b) 𝐻 ∈ (𝐽𝐷
Theorem (3.5), at page 209 of [8], we have first part of the theorem.
¯ β€² )βŠ₯ . We observe that for 𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(𝐽𝐷
¯ β€²)
Next, suppose that 𝐻 βˆ•= 0 and 𝐻 ∈ (𝐽𝐷
¯ 𝑍 𝐽𝑁
¯ = 𝐽¯βˆ‡
¯ 𝑍 𝑁 gives βˆ‡π‘ 𝐽𝑁
¯ = π½βˆ‡
¯ 𝑑 𝑁 . This implies that for
and 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), βˆ‡
𝑍
¯ β€² ) and 𝑍 ∈ Ξ“(𝐷0 ), βˆ‡π‘‘ 𝑁 ∈ 𝐽𝐷
¯ β€² , by Lemma (3.2). Also, 𝑔¯(𝑁, 𝐻) = 0,
𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(𝐽𝐷
𝑍
then by lemma (4.7), we have 𝑔¯(βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ 𝑁, 𝐻) = βˆ’¯
𝑔 (𝑁, βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ 𝐻). This together with
¯ β€² ) gives 𝑔¯(𝑁, βˆ‡π‘‘ 𝐻) = 0. Hence, βˆ‡π‘‘ 𝐻 ∈ (𝐽𝐷
¯ β€² )βŠ₯ . Now, for 𝑍 ∈
βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ 𝑁 ∈ Ξ“(𝐽𝐷
𝑍
𝑍
¯ 𝑍 𝐽𝐻
¯ = 𝐽¯βˆ‡
¯ 𝑍 𝐻, this gives
Ξ“(𝐷0 ), we have βˆ‡
¯
¯ βˆ’ 𝑔¯(𝐻 𝑙 , 𝐻)𝐽𝑍
¯ + π½βˆ‡
¯ 𝑑𝑍 𝐻 = βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ 𝐽𝐻,
βˆ’¯
𝑔 (𝐻 𝑠 , 𝐻)𝐽𝑍
or
¯
¯ + π½βˆ‡
¯ 𝑑𝑍 𝐻 = βˆ‡π‘‘π‘ 𝐽𝐻.
βˆ’¯
𝑔 (𝐻, 𝐻)𝐽𝑍
¯ = 0 for any 𝑍 ∈ 𝐷0 . Hence, 𝐷0 = {0},
By virtue of lemma (4.7), it follows that 𝐽𝑍
this proves the second part.
β–‘
Acknowledgments. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for
his/her comments that helped us improve this article.
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Manish Gogna
Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College, Fathehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India.
E-mail address: manish [email protected]
Rakesh Kumar
University College of Engineering (UCoE), Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
E-mail address: [email protected], dr [email protected]
R. K. Nagaich
Department of Mathematics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India.
E-mail address: dr [email protected]
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