UW-Stout Chemical Hygiene Plan

Chemical Hygiene Plan
Created by:
Created on:
Jane Rank
Revised on:
Purpose, Scope and Applicability ...................................................................................................3
Availability and Review .................................................................................................................3
Terminology ................................................................................................................................3
Enforcement and Authority ...........................................................................................................4
Responsibilities ............................................................................................................................5
General Laboratory Rules and Policies ...........................................................................................8
Hazard Identification and Communication .....................................................................................8
Control Measures to Reduce Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals .................................................... 11
Chemical Inventory and Storage ................................................................................................. 17
Chemical Waste Management ................................................................................................. 18
Controlled Substances (Drug Enforcement Agency) .................................................................. 19
Training................................................................................................................................. 19
Medical Surveillance and Consultation ..................................................................................... 20
Working Alone in the Laboratories........................................................................................... 21
Laboratory Visitation .............................................................................................................. 22
Appendix A Key UW-Stout Personnel .................................................................................................. 23
Appendix B Assessing Risks in the Laboratory ..................................................................................... 24
Appendix C Labels ............................................................................................................................. 28
Appendix D Safety Data Sheets and Resource Material ........................................................................ 33
Appendix E Fume Hoods .................................................................................................................... 37
Appendix F Laboratory Safety Procedures ........................................................................................... 40
Appendix G Laboratory Visitor Policy for Minors .................................................................................. 58
Appendix H Work with Particularly Hazardous Substances ................................................................... 60
Appendix I Emergency and Medical Response ..................................................................................... 67
Appendix J Chemical Spills ................................................................................................................. 75
Appendix K Hazardous Waste Management ........................................................................................ 78
Appendix L UW-Stout Laboratory Eye Protection Policy ........................................................................ 84
Appendix M Glove Use and Selection in UW-Stout Laboratories ............................................................ 88
Appendix N Safety Equipment ............................................................................................................ 93
Appendix O Exposure Limits ............................................................................................................ 100
Appendix P Program Review and Update Log .................................................................................... 102
1. Purpose, Scope and Applicability
1.1. The purpose of this Chemical Hygiene Plan is to comply with the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories standard,
29 CFR 1910.1450 (referred to as the Laboratory Standard in the remainder of this document).
UW-Stout is committed to protecting employees from health hazards associated with chemicals
in university laboratories.
1.2. This plan does not specifically address protection needed against biological, radiological or other
hazards (e.g., electrical, laser, mechanical).
1.3. Laboratories meeting the following four criteria are subject to the Laboratory Standard:
1.3.1. Chemical manipulations are carried out on a laboratory scale. That is, chemical containers
are of a size that could be easily and safely manipulated by one person.
1.3.2. Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used.
1.3.3. The procedures involved are not part of a production process, nor in any way simulate a
production process.
1.3.4. Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and commonly used to
minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.
1.4. The following UW-Stout departments and organizations are covered by the Laboratory Standard
and this Chemical Hygiene Plan: Biology, Chemistry, Food and Nutrition, Physics and the
Sustainability Sciences Institute. The Laboratory Standard shall serve as the legal authority and
be referred to when interpreting specific requirements not otherwise written in this plan.
2. Availability and Review
2.1. Copies shall be kept in the office of the Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) and Safety and Risk
Management. Each department with laboratory activities shall also have a copy readily available
for reference. It is also available on the UW-Stout Laboratory Safety website:
2.1.1. Login to the UW-Stout Intranet.
2.1.2. Copy this link into your browser:
2.2. This plan shall be reviewed annually and updated as necessary by the CHO.
3. Terminology
3.1. “CHO” shall refer to the UW-Stout Chemical Hygiene Officer who has been delegated overall
responsibility for implementation of this Chemical Hygiene Plan.
3.2. “Laboratory Standard” shall refer to 29 CFR 1910.1450, Occupational Exposure to Hazardous
Chemicals in Laboratories.
3.3. “Laboratory Supervisor” shall refer to any individual who supervises employees or has students
working under their direction in a UW-Stout laboratory covered by the Laboratory Standard. This
will include:
3.3.1. Department Chairs who supervise faculty in their area.
3.3.2. Laboratory technicians who supervise employees, student workers or volunteers in their
work area.
3.3.3. Laboratory instructors supervising students in instructional labs.
3.3.4. Principal investigators (PIs) and researchers who supervise employees, student workers,
and/or students, volunteers or visitors conducting research in their work area.
3.3.5. The Director of Safety and Risk Management, who supervises the CHO.
3.3.6. Supervisors of non-laboratory employees who work in Jarvis Science Wing and Addition
and Heritage Hall (e.g., custodial and maintenance staff). .
3.4. “Safety Data Sheet” (SDS) is used in place of the term Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to
reflect OSHA’s adoption of the UN’s Global Harmonization System of Classification and Labeling
of Chemicals (GHS) terminology in the Hazard Communication standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200.
3.5. “CISPro” is the web-based chemical inventory system implemented in summer 2011 for the
chemical and biological inventories of the departments of Chemistry, Biology, Physics and Food
& Nutrition and the Sustainability Sciences Institute.
4. Enforcement and Authority
4.1. The UW-Stout Chancellor has delegated authority to oversee implementation of this Chemical
Hygiene Plan to the CHO.
4.2. Issues concerning potential violation of laboratory safety policy and regulations shall be reported
through normal reporting lines. The employee shall first report the issue to their supervisor. If
the issue cannot be resolved, the supervisor shall report the issue to CHO for resolution.
4.3. The CHO has authority to enforce corrective actions for violations of policy and regulations. If
violations cannot be resolved, a discrepancy notice shall be issued and sent to the area Chair,
then Dean, then Provost or Division Administrator, and then Chancellor as needed for action.
4.4. The CHO and laboratory supervisors have the authority to suspend laboratory operations in part
or in whole if deficiencies in laboratory procedures or equipment pose a significant safety threat.
4.5. The UW-Stout Physical Plant project liaison has the authority to stop work being completed by
an outside contractor if the work poses a danger to UW-Stout staff, students or facilities. This
authority is limited to projects under the direction of the UW-Stout Physical Plant project liaison.
A UW-Stout employee who observes outside contractor actions that potentially pose a danger to
UW-Stout staff, students or facilities shall immediately report the condition to their supervisor or
the UW-Stout Physical Plant project liaison.
4.6. UW-Stout staff do not have the authority to stop work being completed by outside contractors
working on a Division of State Facilities (DSF) project. A UW-Stout employee who observes DSF
contractor actions that potentially pose a danger to UW-Stout staff, students or facilities shall
immediately report the condition to their supervisor or the UW-Stout Physical Plant project
liaison. The UW-Stout Physical Plant project liaison will report the situation to the DSF project
representative for resolution.
5. Responsibilities
5.1. The Chancellor, Vice Chancellors, Deans, and Department Chairs are responsible for ensuring
that individuals under their management have the training, authority and resources needed to
implement policies and procedures outlined in this Chemical Hygiene Plan.
5.2. See Appendix A for a list of key UW-Stout personnel.
5.3. UW-Stout Chemical Hygiene Officer will:
5.3.1. Be familiar with all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and the Laboratory Standard.
5.3.2. Coordinate implementation of all requirements of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, hazardous
waste program and federal and state regulatory requirements in UW-Stout laboratories
covered by the Laboratory Standard.
5.3.3. Annually review and update the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
5.3.4. Provide services that lead to continual improvement in the area of laboratory safety and
legal compliance for all UW-Stout laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard.
5.3.5. Chair the UW-Stout Research Safety Committee.
5.3.6. Monitor procurement, use and disposal of chemicals used in laboratories. Coordinate
hazardous waste disposal for laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard.
5.3.7. Have overall responsibility for ensuring proper container labeling.
5.3.8. Conduct annual safety audits for all UW-Stout laboratories, preparation rooms and
chemical storage rooms covered by the Laboratory Standard. Issue reports, assist in
facilitation of action items and implement controls.
5.3.9. Enforce corrective actions for violations of policy or regulations.
5.3.10. Coordinate lab safety training for UW-Stout employees covered under the Laboratory
Standard. Develop training programs as needed. Assist laboratory instructors in providing
required student training upon request. Maintain safety training records for employees.
5.3.11. Review and approve use of particularly hazardous substances (PHS) and operations that
require prior approval. Facilitate PHS process and completion of necessary compliance
steps. Be familiar with regulatory requirements for work with PHSs.
5.3.12. Review new experiments and provide recommendations for engineering controls,
administrative controls and personal protective equipment (PPE).
5.3.13. Maintain a master inventory file and master SDS file for hazardous substances stored or
used in UW-Stout laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard (as of summer 2011,
these master files are kept in CISPro). Maintain records specified in the Chemical Hygiene
5.3.14. Conduct annual fume hood face velocity testing and coordinate annual certification of
biosafety cabinets. Issue reports and retain records.
5.3.15. Coordinate maintenance of safety equipment including regular inspections of first aid kits
and spill kits.
5.3.16. Provide technical assistance on all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Conduct
exposure assessments and evaluate exposure control measures as necessary. Complete
hazard assessments and provide PPE training as needed.
5.3.17. Investigate laboratory accidents reported on Incident Report forms.
5.3.18. Participate in planning stages for all work projects that will impact safe use of chemicals
in laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard.
5.4. The UW-Stout Research Safety Committee will:
5.4.1. Oversee biosafety, chemical hygiene and radiation safety at UW-Stout.
5.4.2. Establish and educate faculty, staff and students on universal guidelines for general
safety, biosafety, chemical hygiene and radiation safety on campus.
5.4.3. Develop oversight processes and procedures to assure safety compliance with UW-Stout,
state and federal guidelines, including proposal review for extramural grant applications.
5.4.4. Implement periodic compliance review.
5.5. Director of Safety and Risk Management will:
5.5.1. Be familiar with all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and the Laboratory Standard.
5.5.2. Provide technical support to the CHO as requested.
5.5.3. Have overall responsibility for the UW-Stout hazardous waste program.
5.6. Department Chairs will:
5.6.1. Assume responsibility for personnel engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous
5.6.2. Be familiar with all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and the Laboratory Standard.
5.6.3. Provide the CHO with the support necessary to implement and maintain the Chemical
Hygiene Plan.
5.6.4. Coordinate maintenance of an up-to-date inventory of all hazardous substances stored
and used in their area. As of summer 2011, this inventory shall be maintained in CISPro.
5.6.5. Enforce corrective actions for violations of policy or regulations as needed.
5.6.6. Ensure that all employees in their area receive the required laboratory safety training.
5.6.7. Provide budgetary arrangements to ensure the health and safety of the departmental
personnel, visitors and students.
5.7. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for the safety and training of the people (employees,
students and volunteers) they supervise. They will:
5.7.1. Be familiar with all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and the Laboratory Standard.
5.7.2. Attend required training.
5.7.3. Ensure that all chemicals in primary (manufacturer’s) containers in their area have been
entered into CISPro and barcoded.
5.7.4. Maintain a SDS file for all hazardous substances stored and used in their area. As of
summer 2011, SDSs shall be maintained in CISPro.
5.7.5. Assess the risks associated with the use of chemicals and determine the level of
protective equipment and apparel required to adequately protect lab personnel. Ensure
the necessary and appropriate safety equipment and supplies are present in their lab area
and in good working condition and that people working in their area are trained on their
use and use them appropriately.
5.7.6. Review laboratory work practices to ensure that safety procedures are followed.
Incorporate safety in the planning of all experiments and procedures.
5.7.7. Ensure all hazardous substance containers in their area are properly labeled.
5.7.8. Maintain acceptable housekeeping in their area.
5.7.9. Ensure employees and non-employees in their area are properly trained. Notify the CHO
of new people who need laboratory safety training, and continually educate all laboratory
personnel on the potential hazards associated with tasks.
5.7.10. Promptly report any safety equipment or building maintenance issues to Physical Plant.
5.7.11. Submit accident reports immediately.
5.8. Physical Plant will:
5.8.1. Maintain safety equipment.
5.8.2. Perform monthly inspections of eyewashes.
5.8.3. Perform semi-annual flushing of body showers.
5.8.4. Perform monthly visual inspections of fire extinguishers.
5.8.5. Coordinate annual fire extinguisher pressure checks.
5.8.6. Perform required fire alarm testing.
5.8.7. Respond to safety equipment and building operation concerns.
5.8.8. Provide advance notification of pending projects that may impact laboratory operations to
the CHO. Include the CHO in the planning stages of the project.
5.9. Employees, students, volunteers and visitors. All individuals who work, study or do research in
laboratories will:
5.9.1. Be familiar with all aspects of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and comply with all safety rules
specified in this plan and by their supervisor.
5.9.2. Use safety equipment and wear PPE as directed.
5.9.3. Promptly report any equipment malfunctions.
5.9.4. Promptly report any spills or first aid incidents (including sharps incidents) to a laboratory
supervisor. Complete an incident report form if indicated.
5.9.5. Know the location of safety equipment and how and when equipment should be used.
5.9.6. Know UW-Stout emergency procedures.
5.9.7. Know the hazards of the chemicals they work with by referring to labels and SDSs. Ask a
supervisor if there are any questions or further clarification needed about the hazards of
the chemicals they are working with.
5.9.8. Only perform procedures and operate equipment that they have been authorized to do or
use and trained to perform or use safely.
5.9.9. Dispose of hazardous waste according to UW-Stout procedures.
5.9.10. Complete required safety training before working in the laboratories.
6. General Laboratory Rules and Policies
6.1. Appropriate PPE must be worn at all times. Minimum PPE is close-toed shoes and long pants or
a lab coat whenever hazardous materials are in use. Eye protection may also be required; see
paragraph 8.5.6 and Appendix L for eye protection policies.
6.2. Eating or drinking is not allowed in any research or classroom lab at any time, nor should any
food or drink be brought into the labs.
6.3. Good housekeeping practices shall be upheld in all laboratories, and all passageways, exits,
utility controls and emergency equipment must be accessible and unblocked at all times.
7. Hazard Identification and Communication
7.1. Risk Assessments. Many chemicals can cause immediate health problems as well as long-term
health effects. They can also pose inherent physical dangers, such as fire, explosion and high8
pressure hazards. The hazards will determine how these materials should be stored and handled
and what special equipment and procedures are needed to use them safely. UW-Stout is
committed to minimizing exposure to these hazards and takes a risk-based approach. Laboratory
supervisors are responsible for reviewing all operations involving use of hazardous chemicals,
assessing the risk and determining proper controls. More information on performing a risk
assessment is found in Appendix B. The CHO can also provide guidance.
7.2. Exposure Limits. OSHA has the regulatory authority to set specific exposure limits for air
contaminants, called permissible exposure limits (PELs). They are listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000
Table Z-1. The State of Wisconsin has adopted the July 1, 1992 edition of 29 CFR 1910.1000,
published in Safety and Professional Services (SPS) standard SPS 332.35. Many PELs are 8-hour
time-weighted averages, and there are also short term exposure limits (STELs) that are typically
15-minute limits, and ceiling limits that should never be exceeded. For substances that do not
have an OSHA PEL, SPS 332 states that it will accept the recommendations of the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Values (TLVs). Most
laboratory workers perform non-routine operations over a short time span, in which case STELs
are often more appropriate than 8-hour PELs or TLVs. See Appendix O for more information on
exposure limits.
7.3. Labels. Container labels provide valuable health and safety information for hazardous
substances. The CHO has the overall responsibility for ensuring that all chemical containers are
labeled in accordance with this section. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for ensuring that
all chemical containers in their work area are labeled in accordance with this section.
7.3.1. Labels on shipped containers. Chemical manufacturers, importers and distributors are
responsible for ensuring that their products are delivered with the proper labeling. At a
minimum, proper labeling means a label that meets requirements as defined in OSHA’s
Hazard Communication standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200 (f)(1). OSHA adopted the Globally
Harmonized System of Chemical Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) as part of
an updated Hazard Communication standard. As of June 1, 2015, all labels must meet the
requirements in the new Hazard Communication standard. During the transition period
labels may comply with the new standard, the old standard or both. UW-Stout shall not
accept delivery of a product that does not meet minimum labeling requirements. Container labels under the new standard must include pictograms, a signal word,
hazard and precautionary statements, the product identifier and supplier
identification. Container labels under the old standard must include the identity of hazardous
chemical(s), appropriate hazard warning, and the name and address of the chemical
manufacturer, importer or other responsible party.
7.3.2. Labels on secondary containers. Secondary containers are created when a chemical is
transferred from a manufacturer’s labeled container into a more portable container. The secondary container does not need to be labeled if it will be used immediately
(during one work shift) by the person who performed the transfer.
9 If the secondary container will be used for storage of a chemical and/or by a person
who did not perform the transfer from the manufacturer’s container it must be
labeled with a product identifier and words, pictures, symbols or combination, which
provide at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemical and
which provides specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the
7.3.3. The labels shall be maintained in a legible condition. Manufacturer’s labels shall not be
defaced or removed unless the container is immediately labeled with the required
information. Any container without a label or with an illegible label shall be reported to
the laboratory supervisor immediately.
7.3.4. See Appendix C for additional information on UW-Stout’s label policy.
7.3.5. Hazardous waste containers shall have the contents, date of generation and generator’s
name (or department) listed on the label in addition to the words “Hazardous Waste.”
Additional information that will aid in proper waste disposal should also be included on the
label if known.
7.4. Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). SDSs are prepared by manufacturers and summarize the physical
and chemical characteristics, health and safety information, handling and emergency response
recommendations for their products. SDSs should be reviewed before beginning work with a
7.4.1. The CHO is responsible for maintaining a master SDS file for all chemicals used and stored
in UW-Stout laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard. As of summer 2011 the
master SDS file shall be stored in CISPro. SDSs must be readily available to employees
and students during all work shifts.
7.4.2. The CHO will coordinate periodic audits of SDSs to ensure they are up to date. Any
missing or outdated SDSs can be obtained by contacting the manufacturer (see Appendix
D) or the CHO.
7.4.3. The SDS shall be kept on file for thirty years after the chemical was last on campus.
Outdated or discontinued paper SDSs shall be sent to Safety and Risk Management for
archiving. SDSs updated in CISPro are archived in the inventory system.
7.4.4. See Appendix D for additional information about SDSs and links to online sources.
7.5. Signage. The following signage shall be posted in each laboratory:
7.5.1. A summary of hazards. The CHO shall be responsible for creating, updating and posting
these signs outside the doors to each lab.
7.5.2. Emergency procedures and telephone numbers.
7.5.3. Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment
if not readily visible from all parts of the laboratory.
7.5.4. Signage on refrigerators where food storage is not allowed, and on refrigerators/freezers
not designed for storage of flammable materials.
7.5.5. Labeling on food stuff that is not intended for human consumption.
7.5.6. Caution signs indicating special or unusual hazards shall be posted as necessary and
deemed appropriate by the laboratory supervisor, CHO or Safety and Risk Management.
Appendix H discusses special signage for PHSs.
8. Control Measures to Reduce Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals
8.1. Controlling exposures to laboratory hazards is the fundamental method of protecting laboratory
users. A hierarchy of controls shall be used as a means of determining how to implement
feasible and effective controls. The control methods at the top of the hierarchy are more
effective and protective than those at the bottom:
8.2. Elimination and substitution are the most protective forms of control because they remove the
hazard altogether, either by eliminating the hazardous material or process altogether or by
substituting it with a less- or non-hazardous material or process. It is much easier and less
expensive to implement elimination or substitution in the planning phase than after a process is
in place; therefore it is important to plan carefully when designing new research or instruction
and know the hazards of the materials and processes involved.
8.3. Engineering Controls. Engineering controls isolate the hazard or remove contaminants through
various ventilation methods.
8.3.1. Dilution Ventilation Adequate ventilation is essential for maintaining safe levels of exposure. All
laboratories located in Jarvis Science Wing and Addition have dilution ventilation
providing 100% exhaust. It is the responsibility of the laboratory supervisor to
discontinue laboratory operations if ventilation is judged to be inadequate for any
reason. Laboratories are negative pressure to hallways to contain chemical vapors and
odors within the labs and facilitate efficient removal by the ventilation system.
8.3.2. Chemical Fume Hoods The determination that a hood is necessary for a process shall be based on a risk
assessment, which should include a review of the physical characteristics, quantity,
volatility and toxicity of the materials to be used, the number and sophistication of
manipulations, etc. The skill and expertise of the individual performing the work
should also be considered. In general, fume hoods should be used with all particularly hazardous substances
and any other chemicals that present an inhalation hazard. Lab workers must understand how to properly use chemical fume hoods. Laboratory
supervisors are responsible for ensuring that their workers are properly trained and
that training is documented. As much as possible, fume hoods shall not be used as chemical storage areas.
Storing materials in fume hoods reduces their efficiency, clutters the work space
and could lead to inadvertent mixing of incompatible chemicals. Long-term chemical
procedures and experiments are allowed in fume hoods as required and are not
considered storage. There are vented cabinets available in Jarvis Science Wing
Addition for malodorous and highly volatile chemical storage Fume hoods located in Heritage Hall and Jarvis Science Wing and Addition do not
operate continuously. They must be manually turned on. While on, air flow
velocities are on a continuous monitor alarm system (Jarvis hoods only). Fume hoods shall be checked annually by the CHO using a calibrated thermal
anemometer to confirm minimum rates. Deficiencies will be reported to UW-Stout
Physical Plant for repair. Ventilation for laboratory fume hoods shall follow the
Wisconsin Public Employee Safety and Health standard, SPS 332.24(6), which
requires a minimum average 100 feet per minute face velocity at full open sash or
sash stop position. When determining the minimum flow rate through the fume
hood, the sash stop position may not be lower than 18 inches above the work
surface. Inspection results shall be posted on each fume hood. Fume hoods with
inadequate face velocities or other serious problems shall be prominently marked
and taken out of service until repaired. See Appendix E for additional information on fume hoods including user guidelines.
8.3.3. Biosafety cabinets are located in several Jarvis Science Addition laboratories. The CHO is
responsible for coordinating testing as required, which must be done annually. Biosafety
cabinets are not chemical fume hoods and shall not be used for chemical manipulations.
8.3.4. Air quality monitoring for hazardous air contaminants will be conducted as deemed
necessary in consultation with the CHO and Safety and Risk Management. The CHO shall
coordinate and/or conduct these studies.
8.4. Administrative Controls. Administrative controls for hazardous chemical usage consist of policies
and procedures developed to improve the safety of laboratory operations. Since they require
workers to follow appropriate procedures they are generally not as reliable as engineering
8.4.1. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Some general SOPs for safe handling of hazardous materials in labs can be found in
Appendix F. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for maintaining safe SOPs in laboratories
under their supervision.
8.4.2. Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHSs) Provisions for additional employee protection for work with PHSs as defined by the
Laboratory Standard have been established. PHSs include carcinogens, reproductive
toxins, and substances with a high degree of acute toxicity. Some highly reactive
substances (e.g., pyrophorics) may also be considered PHSs. Individuals must receive pre-approval before beginning work with a PHS. The preapproval process starts with completion and submission of the PHS approval form.
The CHO and the responsible department chair are responsible for reviewing and
approving use of PHSs. Requirements for additional employee protection for work
with PHS will include: Establishment of a designated area. Use of engineering controls and PPE. Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste. Decontamination procedures. Responsibility for identifying PHSs and complying with the established approval
process ultimately rests with faculty, PI or lab instructor. Training on identifying
PHSs and the approval process will be included in required lab safety training. See
Appendix G for additional information on UW-Stout policy for work with PHSs and
for a copy of the PHS approval form.
8.4.3. Prior Approval. The laboratory supervisor, in consultation with the CHO, is responsible for
identifying lab operations that may require prior approval. In general, the following will require prior approval: When it is likely that PELs could be exceeded or that other harm is likely. Procedures using PHSs, radioactive or bio-hazardous substances of risk group
2 or higher. For bio-hazardous substances, refer to the UW-Stout Biosafety
Manual on the Laboratory Safety website (see paragraph 1.4 for instructions
for logging in).
13 First-time use of a particular piece of laboratory equipment that has a
substantial chemical, physical or biological risk associated with its use. Use of volatile substance in cold rooms, warm rooms or other rooms with
limited ventilation. When working alone in laboratories/buildings with significant hazardous
substances and operations. Procedures involving unattended operation. The PHS approval form shall be completed and submitted to the CHO for review for
all operations requiring prior approval.
8.4.4. Housekeeping. All laboratories shall be maintained at a satisfactory level of orderliness
and cleanliness. Chemicals and equipment that are not in use and may pose an imminent danger
must be stored or disposed of. Walkways and exit routes must be free of obstructions. Access to safety equipment (e.g., safety showers, eyewashes, fire extinguishers)
and electrical panels must be free of obstructions. Benches and active work spaces should be organized, leaving adequate workspace
for safe work practices. No chemicals shall be stored more than six feet above the floor or on the floor. Chemical spills must be cleaned up promptly. Laboratory supervisors are directly responsible for maintaining acceptable
housekeeping in their work area. The CHO will include an audit of housekeeping in
periodic lab audit.
8.4.5. Emergency Procedures The following are found in Appendix I: UW-Stout Emergency Guide: Includes emergency guidelines identifying
various types of emergency situations, suggested actions and who to call. UW-Stout Laboratory Medical Emergency Action Plan: Provides information for
faculty and staff on responsibilities for responding to medical emergencies in
the laboratory. UW-Stout Laboratory First Aid Guide: Guidance on responding to common
first aid emergencies encountered in laboratories. These are intended as
limited involvement measures to take until emergency personnel arrive on the
14 UW-Stout Emergency Guide will be posted near the exit doors of laboratories. The
CHO is responsible for coordinating posting of emergency procedures. UW-Stout employees covered by the Laboratory Standard will receive training on
emergency procedures. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for educating
students concerning emergency procedures as outlined in the UW-Stout Emergency
Guide. Laboratory supervisors are also responsible for informing students and visitors of an
emergency and for initiating emergency procedures when needed.
8.4.6. Incident Reports. Any event that requires a first aid response, activation of eye wash or
body shower, activation of fire alarm, use of fire extinguisher and/or spill response
requiring outside assistance must be reported using the UW-Stout incident form found in
Appendix I. The completed form shall be submitted to the CHO with a copy sent to Safety
and Risk Management. Any incident that results in illness or injury to an employee must
be reported to Human Resources through the employee’s supervisor using the workers
compensation form (http://www.uwstout.edu/hr/upload/employee_work_injury_rpt.pdf).
8.4.7. Chemical Spills The cleanup of a spill must only be performed by knowledgeable and experienced
personnel. Spill kits with instructions, absorbents, reactants and PPE are available
for cleanup of minor spills. A minor spill is one that the laboratory staff is capable of
handling safely without the assistance of safety and emergency personnel. See
Appendix J for more information on spill cleanup, and Appendix N for the location of
spill kits. All other chemical spills are considered a major spill. In the event of a major spill,
remove all persons from the area, close doors to the affected area or otherwise limit
access to the spill and call 911. Be prepared to provide the dispatcher with the
exact location of the spill, chemical name, amount spilled and the actions taken by
laboratory staff to isolate the spill.
8.4.8. Laboratory Audits. The CHO shall conduct annual audits of all UW-Stout laboratories
covered by the Laboratory Standard. Inspections shall be conducted while the laboratory
is in use so that the operating procedures will be verified as being followed by all
personnel and students. Inspection results and checklists used shall be communicated to
the laboratory supervisor of the work area inspected after completion of the inspection.
Inspection results shall also be copied to department chair and Safety and Risk
8.5. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). PPE is the hazard control mechanism of last resort.
Whenever possible, the hazard should be mitigated by elimination or substitution, or minimized
using engineering or administrative controls. If it is not possible to control the hazard in any
other way, PPE must be used.
8.5.1. At a minimum, long pants or a lab coat and close-toed shoes must be worn in laboratories
when hazardous materials are in use.
8.5.2. When working with hazardous chemicals, routine PPE may include a laboratory coat (or
equivalent) and protective eye wear. Special procedures may require special protective
equipment on a case by case basis. For example, gloves made of chemically compatible
material should be worn with strong corrosives or with PHSs as applicable. If such
procedures are routinely encountered, they should be included in the SOPs for the lab.
8.5.3. The CHO shall assess the laboratories to determine if hazards that necessitate the use of
PPE are present or are likely to be present. A written hazard assessment must be
completed and on file for each laboratory.
8.5.4. PPE should be inspected before donning, and defective or damaged PPE shall not be
8.5.5. When selecting PPE it is critical that it be compatible with and rated properly for the
specific chemical. There may be multiple sources that need to be investigated to find the
proper PPE for the given application. All PPE that has limitation and ratings disclaimers
must be reviewed. The CHO should be consulted for assistance with choosing proper PPE.
8.5.6. Eye Protection All UW-Stout employees and students shall use appropriate eye or face protection
when exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid
chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors and potentially
injurious light radiation. The employee’s supervisor is responsible for ensuring appropriate eye protection is
provided at no cost to the employee based on an assessment of exposure hazards.
The CHO can provide assistance with completing a hazard assessment and provide
training upon request. Training documentation will be retained by the laboratory
supervisor and copied to the CHO. Laboratory supervisors shall ensure that employees and students in their work area
wear appropriate eye protection for the task being performed, and shall ensure the
employees and/or students who are not wearing correct eye protection are removed
from the laboratory until eye protection is available and they are able to comply. See Appendix L, UW-Stout Eye Protection Policy, for the complete eye protection
8.5.7. Hand Protection Determination of the need for hand protection shall be made on the basis of hazard
assessment that considers the chemical, chemical concentration, potential harm to
chemical exposure and use conditions. Special procedures may require glove
protection. The review process for work with PHSs shall include a glove requirement
16 Laboratory supervisors are responsible for determining if and what type of glove
protection is required in their work area. The CHO will provide assistance with the
glove assessment process upon request. See Appendix M, Glove Use and Selection in UW-Stout Laboratories, for additional
information on the glove selection process and resources available.
8.5.8. Respirators. Respirators may only be worn when engineering controls cannot keep
chemical exposure below PELs. Consult with the CHO when considering use of a
respirator. Employees may not wear a respirator until they have completed required
elements of the UW-Stout Respiratory Protection Program administered by Safety and
Risk Management.
8.5.9. Additional PPE may be required based on a hazard assessment of the procedure.
8.5.10. Training. The CHO and laboratory supervisor are responsible for ensuring that all
employees who wear PPE in laboratories receive required training and that training is
8.6. Safety Equipment. See Appendix N for a table listing location of safety equipment available in
Heritage Hall and Jarvis Science Wing and Addition.
9. Chemical Inventory and Storage
9.1. A current inventory of all hazardous chemicals used and stored in UW-Stout laboratories will be
maintained by departments with laboratory operations. Chemicals are to be identified by the
name that appears on the label and the SDS for that substance. As of summer 2011, this
inventory shall be maintained in CISPro. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for ensuring that
all chemicals in primary (manufacturer’s) containers in their area are entered into CISPro and
barcoded. In general, if a chemical or material has a SDS, it should be in the inventory.
9.2. The CHO shall oversee maintenance of the master inventory in CISPro for all chemicals stored or
used in UW-Stout laboratories.
9.3. Chemical inventories shall be kept to a minimum in working laboratories. Chemicals shall be
stored in a safe manner utilizing, for example, appropriate storage cabinets for corrosives and
flammables. Chemicals shall be segregated by chemical characteristics to avoid incompatibilities.
Alphabetical storage may be used only if chemical characteristics are compatible. Secondary
containment or other segregation options may be necessary to address compatibility concerns
when storage is not adequate. Secondary containment is also a valuable tool to prevent spills.
9.4. Chemical containers shall be kept capped when chemicals are not being withdrawn, added or
otherwise utilized. This includes hazardous waste containers.
9.5. Adequate security for chemical storage areas is essential to minimize the possibility of theft or
unauthorized entry. Labs shall be locked when a competent individual is not present. Competent
individuals shall be those persons trained by a laboratory supervisor to perform their work
safely, recognize hazards and take appropriate action in an emergency. Laboratory supervisors
shall ensure individuals meet competent person qualifications before requesting card access
privileges (Jarvis Science Wing and Addition) or a key (Heritage Hall) to a laboratory under their
control. Card access and keys are granted by the employee’s supervisor and building manager.
9.6. The laboratory supervisor is responsible for maintaining compatible chemical storage in their
area. The CHO will provide assistance with establishing appropriate chemical storage schemes
upon request.
9.7. International Fire Code, International Building Code, the National Fire Protection Association and
OSHA place limitations on the use and storage of compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, highly
toxic and toxic materials, flammable and combustible liquids and water reactive solids. Due to
the complexities of the standards and the need to be in compliance with regulations every effort
shall be made to minimize the quantity of hazardous chemicals in laboratories.
9.7.1. Flammable liquids. In addition to regulatory requirements, the following limits have been
set: No more than 10 gallons of flammable liquids per laboratory room may be stored
outside a flammable storage cabinet, not including materials stored in approved
safety cans. The CHO may make exceptions for larger laboratory suites, although
exceptions will not exceed fire code limits. Flammable liquids that require refrigeration must be stored in laboratory-safe
9.7.2. Gas cylinders. In order to ensure safe use and storage, all gas cylinders must be: Stored within a well-ventilated area, away from damp areas, salts or corrosive
atmospheres, and away from exit routes. Stored in an upright position with full cylinders separated from empty cylinders. Secured with a chain or appropriate belt above the midpoint but below the
shoulder. Cylinders less than 18 inches tall may be secured by approved stands or
wall brackets. Capped when not in use or attached to a system. Kept at least 20 feet away from all flammable, combustible or incompatible
substances and ignition sources.
9.7.3. Cryogenic liquids. Stationary and portable containers must be stored in areas with
adequate ventilation.
9.7.4. More comprehensive guidance on safe handling can be found in Appendix F.
10. Chemical Waste Management
10.1. UW-Stout is committed to responsible management of its hazardous waste and compliance
with all applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Wisconsin Department of
Natural Resources (DNR) rules. A sound waste management program follows the waste
management hierarchy. Reducing waste production at the source, recovery, reuse, recycling
and on-site treatment are waste minimization practices that should be considered before
disposal. See Appendix K for the UW-Stout Hazardous Waste Program.
10.2. The CHO shall coordinate hazardous waste disposal for laboratories covered by the Laboratory
Standard. Safety and Risk Management is available to assist and consult with departments in
hazardous waste management and arranges all hazardous waste disposals through the UWStout hazardous waste program.
10.3. Hazardous waste training is required for employees involved in management or generation of
hazardous wastes.
11. Controlled Substances (Drug Enforcement Agency)
11.1. A controlled substance is a drug that is regulated by state and federal laws that aim to control
the danger of addiction, abuse, harm and illegal trafficking. They may be illegal for sale or use,
but can be permitted for legitimate use in research.
11.2. When planning for research that involves drugs, the PI shall identify whether the drug is a
controlled substance and act accordingly. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) publishes
schedules of controlled substances: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/
11.3. The use of controlled substances for research requires obtaining both state (Wisconsin
Controlled Substances Board Special Use Authorization) and federal (DEA) registration. The
state registration must be obtained first. Penalties for using controlled substances without
proper registration can be severe. The regulations strictly limit who can handle or administer
the drugs and imposes physical security and inventory requirements.
11.4. The permitting process is between and individual researcher and the state and DEA.
Registrants cannot share controlled substances with non-registered users who are not under
their supervision.
11.5. Possession of expired substances can bring additional scrutiny from the U.S. Department of
Agriculture since administration of expired substances is not allowed.
11.6. Disposal is strictly regulated by the DEA.
11.7. Neither the CHO nor Safety and Risk Management play a role in the permitting process,
although the CHO can provide limited guidance.
11.8. The UW-Madison Research Animal Resources Center has very good guidance on the use of
controlled substances:
12. Training
12.1. UW-Stout will provide employees, including faculty and staff working in laboratories covered by
the Laboratory Standard, with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the
hazards, including chemicals, present in their work area.
12.2. Such information will be provided at the time of initial assignment to the work area where
hazardous chemicals are present and prior to assignments involving new exposure situations.
Employees shall review the Laboratory Safety refresher training module on D2L annually.
12.3. Online training through D2L is the primary source of comprehensive laboratory safety training.
Laboratory supervisors shall provide names of employees requiring training to the CHO. The
CHO will enroll employees in the D2L training.
12.3.1. All employees must review the Chemical Hygiene Plan and complete the initial training
modules and quizzes:
Part and Module
Part 1, Module 1: Introduction, SOPs and PPE
Part 1, Module 2: Emergency Procedures and Safety
Part 1, Module 3: Bloodborne Pathogens, Glassware
Safety and Waste Management
Part 2, Module 4: Labels
Part 2, Module 5: Safety Data Sheets
Part 3, Module 6: Physical and Chemical Properties
Part 3, Module 7: Fire Hazards
Part 3, Module 8: Corrosives
Part 4, Module 9: Toxicity
Quiz 1
Quiz 2
Quiz 3
12.3.2. Persons who work with PHSs must complete the Particularly Hazardous Substances
Training Modules (Parts One and Two) and associated quiz in addition to the initial
training modules. They must also review the Particularly Hazardous Substance Approval
Form and substance-specific training for each PHS they will be working with.
12.3.3. PIs, supervisors, laboratory instructional faculty and laboratory managers must also be
more informed about laboratory safety than their subordinates and students. Therefore
they are required to complete all Additional Training Modules for Faculty/Staff:
Chemical Storage
Fire Hazards
Personal Protective Equipment (Parts 1-3)
Particularly Hazardous Substances (Parts 1-2)
Quiz 4
Quiz 5
Quiz 6
Quiz 7
Quiz 8
Quiz 9
Quiz 10
12.4. Laboratory supervisors shall ensure students enrolled in their courses or that conduct research
in their work areas receive required training. The CHO will provide assistance with student
training upon request and can enroll students in the D2L training. Laboratory supervisors shall
retain documentation of student training.
13. Medical Surveillance and Consultation
13.1. The Laboratory Standard mandates that employers provide medical attention, examinations
and follow-up examinations (at the physician’s discretion) under the following circumstances:
13.1.1. Whenever an employee develops signs and/or symptoms associated with a hazardous
chemical to which they may have been exposed.
13.1.2. Whenever exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level about the OSHA action level or
exposure above the PEL for OSHA regulated substances.
13.1.3. Whenever an event takes place in the work area such as a spill, leak, explosion, or other
occurrence that results in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure. Such an occurrence
requires an opportunity for medical consultation for the purpose of determining the need
for a medical examination.
13.2. In the event of a possible exposure, the affected individual (or other laboratory staff present)
must be prepared to provide the examining physician the following information:
13.2.1. Identity of the hazardous chemical(s) to which the employee may have been exposed.
13.2.2. A description of the conditions under which the exposure occurred including quantitative
exposure data, if available.
13.2.3. A description of the signs and symptoms of exposure, if any, that the employee is
13.2.4. A copy of the relevant SDS or other information.
13.3. The CHO shall request a written opinion from the physician including:
13.3.1. Recommendation for future medical follow-up.
13.3.2. Results of examination and associated tests.
13.3.3. Any medical condition revealed that may place the employee at increased risk as a result
of chemical exposure.
13.3.4. A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the
examination or consultation and told of any medical conditions that may require
additional examination or treatment.
13.4. The material returned by the physician shall not include specific findings and/or diagnoses that
are unrelated to occupational exposure.
13.5. Safety and Risk Management has responsibility to maintain a file concerning any events and
resultant medical examinations or consultations.
13.6. All medical examinations and consultations shall be performed by or under the direct
supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without
loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place. The employee and their supervisor must
complete a workers compensation report for any of the above incidents. Students and nonemployees must complete an incident report along with their laboratory supervisor.
14. Working Alone in the Laboratories: The following policy has been adopted for all persons using
UW-Stout laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard.
14.1. No one (including faculty/staff) may work alone if activities involve use or manipulation of
hazardous materials or if hazardous conditions exist (e.g., high pressure, high voltage, and
vacuum systems). "Working alone" means working out of sight or sound communications with
another person for more than five minutes. Overnight procedures requiring high pressure, high
voltage, or vacuum system are only to be done where there is no other reasonable way of
accomplishing this procedure and exposure to any potential hazard is minimal. Situations where
there is danger of explosion, implosion or exposure to UV, X-ray or high voltage require a notice
posted on door if left unattended. Prior approval must be given for unattended operations.
14.2. Undergraduate students in scheduled courses must be supervised at all times. Students may not
work out of hours for any scheduled course unless specific permission is granted by the faculty
person supervising the lab and students will not be doing any manipulations using hazardous
chemicals and hazardous conditions do not exist.
14.3. Student researchers (both graduate and undergraduate students) may never work alone if
working with hazardous chemicals or if hazardous conditions exist. Ultimately it is the
responsibility of the PI to ensure safe supervision of undergraduate and graduate researchers.
15. Laboratory Visitation
15.1. All visitors who are passing through or touring a laboratory must be under the direct
supervision of a UW-Stout employee who is trained and knowledgeable of the area's hazards.
15.2. Prior to allowing visitors to tour or observe in a lab, the supervising employee must conduct a
basic safety orientation, including both general safety information and any hazards particular to
the lab in question.
15.3. The visitors must be informed about proper clothing and other protective equipment prior to
the visit so they can bring it with them, or it must be provided to them. Any person not
wearing appropriate clothing shall not be allowed to enter the lab.
15.4. Minors must also have a Uniform Statement of Responsibility, Release and Authorization form
signed by their parent or guardian (Appendix G).
15.5. Laboratory supervisors shall contact the CHO for training and approval requirements of visiting
faculty/researchers who will be using laboratory facilities and equipment.
Appendix A
Key UW-Stout Personnel
Vice Chancellor of Administrative and Student
Life Services
Dean of the College of Science, Technology,
Engineering and Mathematics
Dean of the College of Education, Health and
Human Services
Chemical Hygiene Officer
Executive Director, Health and Safety
Director, Safety and Risk Management
Chief, University Police
Director, Student Health Services
Charles Sorensen
Joseph Bessie
Phillip Lyons
Phone number
Jeff Anderson
Mary Hopkins-Best
Tracy Glenz
Jim Uhlir
Dean Sankey
Lisa Walter
Janice Lawrence-Ramaeker
Appendix B
Assessing Risks in the Laboratory
The information in this appendix is summarized from the National Research Council’s Prudent Practices in
the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, updated version (2011).
A key element of planning an experiment is assessing the hazards and potential risks associated with the
chemicals and laboratory operations to be used. This appendix provides a practical guide to conducting a
risk assessment for the trained laboratory personnel involved in these activities.
The primary responsibility for proper hazard evaluations and risk assessments lies with the person
performing the experiment; responsibility is also shared by the lab supervisor. Evaluations and
assessments may be performed by trained laboratory personnel, but they should be checked and
authorized by the supervisor. The supervisor is also responsible for ensuring that everyone involved in an
experiment and those nearby understand the evaluations and assessments. The Chemical Hygiene Officer
(CHO) can be consulted for guidance.
There are seven steps involved in hazard evaluation and risk assessment:
1. Identify the chemicals to be used and circumstances of use. Identify the chemicals needed
for the proposed experiment and determine the amounts that will be used. Is the experiment to be
done once, or will the chemicals be handled repeatedly? Will the experiment be conducted in an open
laboratory, in an enclosed apparatus, or in a chemical fume hood? Is it possible that new or unknown
substances will be generated in the experiment? Are any of the trained laboratory personnel involved
in the experiment pregnant or likely to become pregnant? Do they have any known sensitivities or
allergies to specific chemicals?
2. Consult sources of information on hazards. Consult an up-to-date Safety Data Sheet (SDS),
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (http://www.safety.duke.edu/ohs/chemsummaries.htm) or
other references for the hazards of the chemicals needed for the proposed experiment. Other
International Chemical Safety Cards from the International Programme on Chemical Safety:
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/
TLVs and BEIs from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The CHO
has a copy. See Appendix O for further information on exposure limits.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/
The University of California Center for Laboratory Safety. Look under Resources for SOP
templates that contain specific chemical information and featured chemicals: http://cls.ucla.edu/
3. Evaluate the hazards. Chemicals can be divided into several different hazard classes, and many
chemicals will belong to more than one class. The hazard class will determine how these materials
should be stored and handled and what special equipment and procedures are needed to use them
safely. Therefore, it is essential that the hazards are defined and controlled prior to beginning an
experiment. Most chemicals have either physical or health hazards, or both.
Physical hazards:
Flammable: in general, a liquid chemical is considered flammable if it has a flash point of
less than 140°F. There are also flammable solids, gases and aerosols. Pyrophoric chemicals
will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of than 130°F or below and must be very
carefully handled. Oxidizers are not flammable but initiate or promote combustion in other
materials, thereby either causing fire themselves or through the release of oxygen or other
Explosive: an explosive is a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of
pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure or high temperature.
Compressed gases are under great pressure in a container that, if ruptured, can rapidly
release pressure and become a projectile danger. Some materials, such as peroxide
formers, may not have explosive tendencies themselves but may form explosive substances
over time
Reactive: reactive substances can release gases that will burn, explode or produce high
pressure that can cause injury. In some instances they can release substances that are
significantly more toxic than themselves. Unstable materials can vigorously polymerize,
decompose, condense or become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure or
temperature. Water-reactive materials react with water to release a gas that is either
flammable or presents a health hazard.
Health hazards:
Carcinogen: a carcinogen has the potential to cause cancer. Substances may be categorized
as known or suspected human carcinogens.
Toxin: OSHA defines a chemical as being acutely toxic depending on the effects occurring
following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses
given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of four hours. The criteria are defined in
Section A.1 of this link:
0100. Use the sources of information in step 2 and the criteria in the link to classify the
toxin based on its LD50. For substances that pose an inhalation hazard, take note of the
permissible exposure limit, short-term exposure limit, threshold limit value and/or other
regulatory or recommended exposure limits (see Appendix O).
Corrosive: a corrosive chemical causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in,
living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
Irritant: an irritant is not corrosive, but causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living
tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
Sensitizer: a sensitizer causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to
develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical.
Chemicals can be skin or respiratory sensitizers.
Target organ toxin: certain chemicals may cause damage to specific organs. Categories
include hepatotoxins (liver), nephrotoxins (kidney), neurotoxins (nervous system),
hemotoxins (blood/hematopoietic system) and respiratory toxins.
Reproductive toxins: reproductive toxins cause adverse effects on sexual function in adult
males and females, as well as adverse effects on development of offspring
Other hazards:
Nanomaterials: the increasing use of nanomaterials in research labs warrants consideration
of the hazards they may pose. As is the case with many new technologies, the health
effects of nanomaterials have not been thoroughly investigated. Consequently, the
uncertainty surrounding the toxicity of nanomaterials merits a cautious approach.
Nanomaterials include any materials or particles that have an external dimension in the
nanoscale (~1-100 nanometers). Nanomaterials can be categorized by the potential risk of
exposure they pose based on the physical state of the materials and the conditions in which
they are used. In general, the risk of exposure is lowest when the materials are bound in a
solid matrix with little potential to create airborne dust or when in a non-volatile liquid
suspension. The risk of exposure increases when the nanomaterials are used as fine
powders or are suspended in volatile solvents or gases. The parent compound should also
be taken into consideration when evaluating the potential hazards (e.g., a highly toxic
compound such as cadmium should be anticipated to be at least as toxic and possibly more
toxic when used as a nanomaterial).
Biohazards: biological hazards are a concern in labs in which microorganisms, or material
contaminated with them, are handled. Anyone who is likely to come in contact with blood
or other potentially infectious material is covered under OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen
Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). Consult the UW-Stout Biosafety Manual (on the Laboratory
Safety website) for more information on controlling biological hazards.
Radiation: radiation hazards include those from ionizing radiation (alpha and beta particles,
gamma and x-rays) and non-ionizing radiation (UV, IR, lasers). Any experiments involving
exposure to radiation must be coordinated with the CHO to ensure all federal and state
regulations are met.
4. Consider possible routes of exposure. Determine the potential routes of exposure for each
chemical: there may be more than one. Common routes are inhalation, ingestion, skin contact and
absorption, but injection may also need to be considered. Are the chemicals gases, or are they
volatile enough to present a significant risk of exposure through inhalation? If liquid, can the
substance be absorbed through the skin? Is it possible that dusts or aerosols will be formed in the
experiment? Does the experiment involve a significant risk of inadvertent ingestion or injection of
chemicals? The sources of information listed in step 2 can help.
5. Evaluate the hazards posed by the required equipment. Review procedures for correct use of
all equipment. Identify heat and ignition sources and consider appropriate placement form them in
the laboratory. Are any pieces of equipment going to be under high or low pressure (e.g., a vacuum
line)? Is all glassware free of cracks and chips?
6. Select appropriate procedures to minimize exposure. Use the basic prudent practices for
handling chemicals, as discussed in this Chemical Hygiene Plan and other references such as Prudent
Practices in the Laboratory (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4911#toc) for the 1995
version; the CHO has the updated 2011 version). Use the hierarchy of controls covered in Section 8
of this document to minimize the risk posed by the chemicals and equipment to be used in the
experiment. Consult with the CHO for assistance with this step.
7. Prepare for contingencies. Be aware of UW-Stout policies and procedures in the event of
emergencies and accidents. Note the signs and symptoms of exposure to the chemicals to be used in
the experiment. Some questions to consider are: What are appropriate measures to take in the event
of fire, explosion, injury, spill or exposure to potentially dangerous quantities of a chemical? What are
the appropriate first aid procedures in the event of heat, cold or chemical burns?
Appendix C
On March 26, 2012 OSHA published the Hazard Communication Final Rule in the Federal Register, in
which it modified the Hazard Communication standard to conform to GHS. The effective date of the final
rule is 60 days after the date of publication. As of June 1, 2015, all labels will be required to meet the
requirements in the new Hazard Communication standard. During the transition period labels may comply
with the new standard, the old standard, or both. UW-Stout shall not accept delivery of a product that
does not meet minimum labeling requirements.
Under the new standard, labels on shipped containers must include:
Product identifier used on the Safety Data Sheet (SDS).
Name, address and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer or responsible
Signal word: a word used to indicate the relative severity of hazard and alert the reader to a
potential hazard. The signal word is either “Danger” for more severe hazards, or “Warning” for
less severe hazards.
Hazard statement(s): a statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the
nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard.
Pictogram(s): a symbol with a specific border and color that is intended to convey visual
information about the hazards. Eight pictograms are designated in the new Hazard
Communication standard, as shown in Figure C-1.
Figure C-1: GHS Pictograms and Associated Hazard Classes
Self Reactives
Emits Flammable Gas
Organic Peroxides
Self Reactives
Organic Peroxides
Acute Toxicity (Severe)
Gases Under Pressure
Respiratory Sensitizer
Reproductive Toxicity
Target Organ Toxicity
Aspiration Toxicity
Environmental Toxicity
Dermal Sensitizer
Acute Toxicity (Harmful)
Narcotic Effects
Respiratory Tract
Precautionary statement(s): a phrase that describes recommended measures that should be
taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical,
or improper storage or handling.
Figure C-2: Sample GHS-Compliant Label
Under the old standard, labels on shipped containers must include:
Identity of the hazardous substance.
Appropriate hazard warning.
Name and address of the manufacturer.
Labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals shall remain on the container and protected. UWStout staff shall appropriately re-label the original container if the label becomes defaced, removed or
otherwise illegible.
Labels on secondary containers. Secondary containers are created when a chemical is transferred from a
manufacturer’s labeled container into another container. This may happen if a portion of the hazardous
substance is transferred from the original container to a smaller container for use at the laboratory
bench, or to prepare a reagent for use in the laboratory (this could be a dilution or it could involve
preparation of a mixture).
If the secondary container will be under the immediate control of the person who performs the
transfer it does not require a label.
If the secondary container will be used for storage of a chemical and/or by a person who did not
perform the transfer from the manufacturer’s container it must be labeled in accordance with
either the new standards in paragraph 2 above, or:
Identity of the hazardous chemical(s), matching the SDS name.
Appropriate hazard warning(s). Hazard warning means any words, pictures, symbols, or
combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning that
convey the specific physical and health hazards, including any target organ effects, of the
chemical(s) in the container. Use of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or
Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) symbols may not be sufficient to
convey appropriate warning about the physical and health hazards, and in particular
information about target organs. Therefore, the hazard warning may require a brief
statement about the physical and health hazard effects of the chemical (e.g. “causes lung
cancer”). Information provided on the manufacturer’s label and the SDS should be
helpful in appropriately labeling secondary containers. The Chemical Hygiene Officer will
also provide assistance in determining required label elements.
Appropriate secondary container labeling is the primary responsibility of the person who has direct control
of the container. Laboratory supervisors are responsible for ensuring that all containers of hazardous
substances in their work area are meet Hazard Communication Standard labeling requirements.
Other labeling systems are still allowed by OSHA, including the NFPA 704 diamond and HMIS, as long as
they are consistent with the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard and employees have
immediate access to specific hazard information. All doors to Jarvis Science Wing and Addition and
Heritage Hall labs have a hazard sign that uses both GHS pictograms and the NFPA diamond to give an
overview of the chemical hazards contained within that room. Figure C-3 illustrates the NFPA system.
Figure C-3: NFPA 704 Diamond
Appendix D
Safety Data Sheets and Resource Material
UW-Stout requires that a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) be on file for each hazardous chemical used in the
laboratories covered by the Laboratory Standard. The SDS must be manufacturer- and product numberspecific (i.e., containers of acetic acid manufactured by Fisher Scientific and Sigma-Aldrich must each
have their own SDS on file. If a product/catalog number is known, the SDS should be specific to that
product/catalog number).
SDSs provide comprehensive safety information on a substance or mixture for use in the workplace.
Copies of SDSs for chemicals stored and used in UW-Stout laboratories are readily available from several
CISPro, the web-based chemical inventory system implemented in summer 2011 for the
chemical and biological inventories of the Chemistry, Biology, Physics and Food & Nutrition
departments. SDSs stored in CISPro are accessible either by logging into the database itself
(requires a user name and password) or by utilizing the MSDS Search website:
Many SDSs may also be accessed on-line. Table D-1 lists several on-line databases available at
no cost. For the most current SDS, always refer first to the product manufacturer’s or vendor’s
website, the largest of which are included in the table.
Table D-1: On-line SDS Links
Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
Sigma-Aldrich provides on-line SDS access for their
products and for some chemicals that are not Sigma-Aldrich
products. Sigma-Aldrich uses the GHS SDS format; SDSs
created or revised beginning in 2010 also include GHS
pictograms and hazard and precautionary statements.
Fisher Scientific provides on-line SDS access for their
products and for some chemicals (e.g., Acros) that are not
theirs. To access a SDS, enter the product number,
chemical name or CAS registry number in the search field.
Fisher Scientific uses a 16-section SDS format very similar
to the GHS SDS format.
BD provides on-line SDS access for their products. BD uses
a 16-section SDS format very similar to the GHS SDS
Avantor provides on-line SDS access for their products as
well as those for J.T. Baker and Mallinckrodt. To access an
SDS, enter the product number, chemical name or CAS
registry number in the search field. Avantor uses a 16section SDS format very similar to the GHS SDS format.
Fisher Scientific
BD (Becton Dickinson)
Avantor Performance Materials
Vermont SIRI MSDS Database
The University of Vermont maintains a relatively large
database of SDSs for chemicals and products. The
database can be searched by manufacturer or chemical
On March 26, 2012 OSHA published its updated Hazard Communication standard in the Federal Register,
which mandates use of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)
16-section format by June 1, 2015. Certain sections that do not fall under the jurisdiction of OSHA are
regulated by their specific agency (e.g., transport information will be covered by the U.S. Department of
Transportation and ecological information will be covered by the Environmental Protection Agency).
A summary of the 16-section GHS SDS format with main components of each section is found in Table D2 below. It is important that all employees are familiar with the format and terminology used on SDSs
since this are considered a primary source of chemical safety information.
Table D-2: Summary of GHS SDS Sections
GHS SDS section
1. Product and company identification
2. Hazards identification
3. Composition/information on ingredients
4. First-aid measures
5. Firefighting measures
6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling and storage
8. Exposure controls/personal protection
9. Physical and chemical properties
10. Stability and reactivity
11. Toxicological information
 Product identifier
 Manufacturer or distributor name, address, phone
 Emergency phone number
 Recommended use
 Restrictions on use
 All hazards regarding the chemical
 Required label elements
 Information on chemical ingredients
 Trade secret claims
 Important symptoms/effects, acute, delayed
 Required treatment
 Suitable extinguishing techniques, equipment
 Chemical hazards from fire
 Emergency procedures
 Protective equipment
 Proper methods of containment and cleanup
 Precautions for safe handling
 Conditions for safe storage, including any
 OSHA’s Permissible Exposure Limits
 Threshold Limit Values
 Appropriate engineering controls
 Personal protective equipment
 Chemical characteristics
 Chemical stability
 Possibility of hazardous reactions
 Routes of exposure
 Related symptoms, acute and chronic effects
 Numerical measures of toxicity
GHS SDS section
12. Ecological information
13. Disposal considerations
14. Transport information
15. Regulatory information
16. Other information
 Exotoxicity
 Persistence and degradability
 Bioaccumulative potential
 Mobility in soil
 Other adverse effects
 Description of waste residues and information on their
safe handling and methods of disposal, including any
contaminated packaging
 UN number
 UN proper shipping name.
 Transport hazard class(es)
 Packing group, if applicable
 Marine pollutant (Y/N)
 Special precautions which a user needs to be aware of
or needs to comply with in connection with transport
or conveyance either within or outside their premises
 Safety, health and environmental regulations specific
for the product in question
 Including date of preparation or last revision
Table D-3 contains a list of additional resources on chemical safety. This list includes links to several
reputable chemical safety resources (primarily governmental agencies) that are available at no cost.
Table D-3: Additional Chemical Safety Resources
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
International Chemical Safety Cards
The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) is
intended as a source of general industrial hygiene
information on several hundred chemicals/classes for
workers, employers and occupational health professionals.
It presents key information and data in abbreviated or
tabular form for chemicals or substance groupings that are
found in the workplace. It includes chemical names,
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
information, exposure limits, physical description,
measurement methods, PPE recommendations, and
respirator recommendations.
International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs) summarize
essential health and safety information on chemicals for
their use at the “shop floor” level by workers and
employers in factories, agriculture, construction and other
work places. Information provided in user friendly format in
several languages. Good supplement to SDSs. Limitations:
ICSCs have been developed for a limited number of
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries
OSHA Occupational Chemical Database
NIOSH chemical page
NIOSH databases
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (LCSSs) were
prepared by the National Research Council, Committee on
Prudent Practices for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of
Chemicals in Laboratories. They provide concise critical
discussions of the toxicity, flammability, reactivity, and
explosivity of a limited number of chemicals commonly
used in scientific research laboratories. Directions for
handling, storage and disposal and special instructions for
first aid and emergency response are given. Since many of
these chemicals are representative of a class of potentially
hazardous compounds, the LCSSs can also be used as
guides to handling many other compounds with related
chemical structures. LCSSs are designed especially for
laboratory workers. They are an excellent complement to
the substance SDS.
OSHA maintains this database as a convenient reference
for the occupational safety and health community. This
database compiles information from several government
agencies and organizations.
Links to information on many specific chemicals is found on
this page.
Links to a number of useful databases in addition to the
NPG and ICSCs links referenced above.
Appendix E
Fume Hoods
Use of appropriate ventilation is an important way of protecting laboratory workers from exposure to
hazardous airborne substances generated in a lab procedure. There are two types of ventilation used in
the science laboratories: dilution ventilation and local ventilation.
With dilution ventilation no air is re-circulated back in to the building; all air from the lab and
building is exhausted directly to the outside. Airborne contaminants created at the lab bench mix
with room air, which reduces the concentration of contaminants. This diluted mixture is
exhausted from the laboratory. Dilution ventilation is limited to control of vapors and gases of
low toxicity or very small amounts of moderately toxic vapors or gases. Dilution ventilation is
not sufficient when working with acutely hazardous substances or moderate to large quantities
of moderately toxic vapors or gases.
Local ventilation works on the principle of capturing toxic materials at their source before they
reach the breathing zone of the lab worker and before they contaminate the general air in the
room. The most common type of local ventilation in the laboratory is the chemical fume hood.
There are 62 chemical hoods located throughout the laboratories in Jarvis Science Wing and
Addition, and two in Heritage Hall. All of these hoods are designed to provide a face velocity of
100 feet per minute (fpm) (optimal contaminant capture) when the sash opening is at 18 inches.
The UW-Stout Chemical Hygiene Officer performs annual certification to verify face velocity is a
minimum 100 fpm with a sash opening at 18 inches. A label verifying hood certification is affixed
to the front of the hood.
Two other types of local ventilation are in use in Jarvis: snorkel hoods, which are used to control
contaminants emitted from some lab equipment, and biological safety cabinets (BSCs), which
are designed to contain aerosols generated during work with infectious agents. Check with the
laboratory supervisor before using a BSC. All BSCs in Jarvis are vented into the lab after
contaminants pass through a HEPA filter. Therefore, none of the BSCs are suited for work with
toxic or flammable materials.
Chemical Fume Hood Components
The hood body is the visible part of the hood that serves to contain hazardous gases and
Hood baffles are the moveable partitions used to create slotted openings along the back wall
of the hood. They keep air flow uniform across the hood opening, eliminate dead spots and
optimize capture efficiency.
The sash is the sliding door(s) that improve containment of contaminants and provide some
protection to the user in case of an incident in the hood. Sashes can be designed to move
vertically and/or horizontally. Many of the chemical hoods located in Jarvis have a combined
vertical/horizontal sash. The hoods in Heritage Hall have horizontal sashes.
The sash stop located on the frame of the hood is designed so that face velocity will be
maintained at 100 fpm if the sash opening is kept below the sash stop level. The sash stop can
be overridden, but this should only be done when setting up or taking down equipment. The
hood alarm (Jarvis hoods only) will sound if the sash stop is overridden, signaling that face
velocity has gone below the 100 fpm capture rate.
The airfoil is the bent metal piece at the front edge of the hood. It prevents creation of eddy
currents that can carry vapors out of the hood.
Spill control – a raised lip surrounds the work surface providing some spill containment in case
of a spill. Keep in mind that this is limited spill containment. A spill kit should be readily available
and additional secondary containment should be considered when working with some hazardous
Lab sinks in hoods are connected to the sanitary sewer system. Do not pour substances down
the hood sinks unless you have permission from the laboratory supervisor.
Mechanical controls are located on the frame of the hood. Depending on the hood these may
include: natural gas, compressed air, vacuum, light switch and electrical outlets.
Hood monitors are located on the front frame of the hood. They serve as an alarm system to
alert you when face velocity falls below 100 fpm. Only hoods in Jarvis are equipped with
Safe Operating Procedures
Confirm the hood is running properly. Chemical hoods located in Jarvis Science Wing and
Addition and Heritage Hall do not run continuously. They must be manually turned on. The
switch is located on the front of the hood. Check for current (within one year) hood certification.
Check the hood monitor (if applicable) to ensure face velocity is 100 fpm at a minimum at a
sash opening of 18 inches. If not, immediately notify the laboratory supervisor. Do not proceed
with experiment until hood face velocity is a minimum 100 fpm at a sash opening of 18 inches.
If possible, position the sash so that work is performed by extending the arms under or around
the sash, placing the head in front of the sash and keeping the glass between the head and the
chemical source. The worker views the procedure through the glass, which acts as a primary
barrier if a spill, splash or explosion should occur. The sash is not a substitute for required eye
protection, however: wear appropriate or required eye protection.
Never work with the sash raised higher than 18 inches (the sash stop level).
Keep your head out of the hood except when installing and dismantling equipment.
Work at least six inches into the hood to optimize contaminant capture. Fume hood containment
tests have shown that the concentration of a contaminant in the worker’s breathing zone can be
300 times higher from a source located at the front of the hood than from one placed at least
six inches back.
Raise large lab equipment one to two inches from the work surface to minimize air flow
Keep the hood free of clutter. Avoid blocking off baffle exhaust slots in any manner. Objects in
the hood tend to increase turbulence and increase the possibility of accidental fire and/or spill.
Minimize movement in front of the hood. People walking in front of the hood create competing
currents at the hood face, potentially causing hazardous gases or vapors to flow out of the
Keep materials stored in hoods to a minimum and do not allow them to block vents or air flow.
Hoods shall not be used for long-term storage of chemicals.
Appendix F
Laboratory Safety Procedures
This appendix gives general guidance for working safely with chemicals and equipment in laboratories. It
is not meant to be a complete safety manual, but using this section in conjunction with other safety
references (such as Prudent Practices in the Laboratory) will help maintain a safe laboratory and maintain
compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for laboratories.
General Laboratory Safety
No food or drink in any lab at any time, even if the class is lecture only. Do not use ice from a
laboratory ice machine for human consumption. Laboratory microwaves and refrigerators are not
to be used for food intended for human consumption.
No horseplay is allowed in any lab at any time.
Know about the chemicals and hazards in the lab. Know their potential flammability, reactivity,
corrosivity and toxicity. Know how to read and interpret labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs).
Know what to do in different emergency situations (see Appendix I).
Avoid working alone in the lab (see section 14 in the main content for the UW-Stout policy on
working alone in laboratories).
Do not underestimate risks: assume any mixture will be more hazardous than its most
hazardous component and that all substances of unknown toxicity are toxic.
Minimize all chemical exposures. Few lab chemicals are without hazards, so use precautions
when handling all chemicals. Wear personal protective equipment appropriate to the work.
Use extreme care when working with needles, blades and glass.
Provide adequate ventilation by using fume hoods: this is the best way to prevent exposure to
airborne hazards.
Protect unattended operations from utility failures and other potential problems that could lead
to overheating or other hazardous events.
Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear long pants or a lab coat to protect legs. Wear shoes at
all times in the laboratory but do not wear sandals or perforated shoes.
Be alert to unsafe conditions and see that they are corrected when detected. Immediately report
unsafe conditions to the laboratory supervisor and Chemical Hygiene Officer.
Laboratory Housekeeping: Generally speaking, a clean, orderly lab is a safer lab. Good housekeeping
can lower the number of lab accidents and reduce the risk and consequences of a fire. It can also
increase working space. For a safe and efficient laboratory:
Keep passageways to exits clear.
Do not block areas around safety showers and eyewashes, fire extinguishers, fire blankets and
electrical panels and controls.
Do not store chemicals on the floor, where they may be broken or become a trip hazard.
Return chemical containers to their proper storage location after use.
Do not use floors, stairways or hallways as storage areas for equipment, supplies or chemicals.
Clean contaminated equipment and spills immediately.
Keep balances, hoods, centrifuges, incubators, refrigerators, ovens and other common-use items
clean and neat for the next user.
Personal Hygiene in the Laboratory: Good personal hygiene will help minimize exposure to
hazardous substances. Even small exposures from some compounds may result in harmful effects. In
general, the goal should be to avoid skin contact with all laboratory chemicals and biological materials. In
the event of a spill, a careless person can quickly spread contamination throughout a laboratory. To keep
yourself and others safe from contamination:
Do not eat, drink or apply makeup or lip balm while in the lab.
Do not touch things that are used by non-gloved hands (e.g., telephone, door knobs, etc.) if you
are wearing gloves that have touched chemicals or biological materials. Gloves can be washed
with soap and water if removal is not convenient.
Wash hands thoroughly and frequently, especially after lab work and before eating, drinking,
applying cosmetics (including lip balm) and leaving the lab.
Routinely wash door knobs, telephones, keyboards and work surfaces.
Never use mouth suction to fill a pipette. Use a bulb or other pipette filling device.
Never allow a laboratory chemical or biological material to touch your skin; use gloves and wear
a lab coat. Remove contaminated clothing immediately and do not use the clothing again until it
has been properly decontaminated.
Do not immerse fingers or hands in liquids; use tongs or a tool.
Do not sniff or taste chemicals.
Moving Chemicals: Whenever a chemical is moved the risk of a spill increases. Take precautions whenever
moving chemicals, whether it is across the lab or across campus.
Use secondary containment: No matter how careful you are, containers can drop and bottles can
break. Use a tray, bucket or carrier specifically designed for transporting containers whenever you
move chemicals from one room or building to another.
Use carts and secondary containment for moving large amounts of chemicals. It is a safer practice
to take several trips with fewer chemicals than to try to overload a cart and raise the risk of an
Extra precautions for vehicles: Chemicals should never be transported in the passenger
compartment of a vehicle. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation and Department of Natural
Resources regulate the transport of hazardous materials on the road. Depending on the type and
quantity of material transported, the driver may be required by law to have a commercial driver’s
license, carry proper shipping manifests and use specified packaging.
Shipping hazardous materials: Many government agencies regulate the shipment of hazardous
materials (including chemicals and biological materials). Anyone who prepares hazardous material
packages for shipment via ground transportation (e.g., FedEx or UPS) or air must attend a training
class and become certified. Contact the CHO for information on how to find a class.
Chemical Storage and Management: Proper chemical storage is as important as proper chemical
handling. Chemical inventories must be actively managed.
Read chemical labels and SDSs for specific storage instructions.
Store chemicals in a safe place. Fume hoods should not be used for long-term storage of chemicals;
use a ventilated cabinet to store volatile and odiferous chemicals (there are several in Jarvis Science
Wing Addition).
Use sturdy shelves (ideally with a lip to prevent chemicals from being knocked off shelves) with
ample space for every chemical. Use secondary containment to contain liquid spills.
Keep large, heavy items on lower shelves.
Do not store chemicals on the floor or above eye level (approximately six feet off the floor).
Keep incompatible chemicals separate to prevent chemical reactions. General guidelines include:
Separate acids from bases.
Separate oxidizers and acids from flammables.
Separate highly toxic chemicals and carcinogens from all other chemicals.
Do not keep peroxide-forming chemicals longer than 12 months.
Dispose of expired chemicals.
Inspect storage areas at least annually. Remove unwanted or expired chemicals and update
CISPro. Replace defaced or missing labels. Visually inspect stored chemicals to determine
viability and safety. Chemicals showing any of these indications should be evaluated for
Slightly cloudy liquids
Darkening or change in color
Spotting on solids
Caking of anhydrous materials
Existence of solids in liquids or liquids in solids
Pressure buildup in containers
Evidence of reaction with water
Corrosion or other damage to container
Storage and Use of Reactive Chemicals: The hazards of reactive chemicals are specific to each
chemical’s properties, so it is important to understand their dangers before working with them. Read the
label, SDS and other published information on their safe use.
With all reactives, use as small a quantity as possible. Use proper eye protection, possibly
including a face shield. Segregate reactive chemicals and store them away from heat and
Oxidizers. Oxidation reactions are a frequent cause of chemical accidents. Store oxidizers away
from flammable and combustible materials, organic material and other reducers.
Pyrophoric chemicals. Pyrophorics (e.g., boranes, n-butyl lithium, white phosphorus) ignite
spontaneously on contact with air. Avoid a spill by storing breakable glass bottles inside a rubber
or plastic bottle carrier. Use and store all pyrophorics in an inert atmosphere (e.g., stored under
nitrogen or argon). Always wear a lab coat and proper eye protection when working with
Shock sensitive, self-reactive, explosive and endothermic substances. Atoms of these
substances are bonded to each other in an arrangement that has high potential energy. They
can then spontaneously release large amounts of energy when struck, vibrated, dropped or
agitated. Some can explode with only slight increase of temperature, light vibration, grinding or
a chemical initiation.
Some chemicals become increasingly shock sensitive with age. Inspect reactive chemicals
regularly and dispose of any that appear degraded.
Lab accidents can occur from the inadvertent formation of explosive or shock sensitive
materials such as peroxides from oxygen exposure, perchlorates from perchloric acid
procedures performed in fume hoods and azides from azide salt solutions acting on lead in
Silver oxide and ammonia solution can produce a fulminating silver which is very sensitive to
movement and energetic in decomposition to its elements.
Nitro organics such as nitromethane, nitrophenol and picric acid form salts with a strong
base that are both thermal and shock sensitive, producing quick, energetic decomposition.
Storage and Use of Peroxide-Forming Chemicals: Certain chemicals can turn into potentially
dangerous, shock sensitive organic peroxides with prolonged storage and/or concentration. One step to
reduce the risk is to avoid the prolonged storage of all peroxide-forming chemicals.
The Class A chemicals shown in Table F-1 can form polyperoxide chains or cyclic oligoperoxides
that are difficult to detect and eliminate. They can come out of solution and form crystals or a
gel in the bottom of the container and are extremely unstable and can violently decompose with
the smallest disturbance or even spontaneously.
Do not store these chemicals longer than suggested. Good practice requires they be
discarded within three months of receipt.
If a container of Class A peroxidizable is past its expiration date, or if the presence of
peroxides is suspected or proven, do not attempt to open the container. The act of
unscrewing a cap or dropping a bottle can be enough to trigger an explosion.
The Class B chemicals listed in Table F-1 as hazardous due to peroxide initiation of autopolymerization can undergo explosive polymerization initiated by dissolved oxygen. Do not store
these chemicals longer than suggested, unless tests show that they contain less than 80 parts
per million (ppm) of peroxides.
Class B chemicals are often sold with autoxidation inhibitors. If the inhibitor is removed,
particular care must be taken in their long-term storage because of the enhanced probability
of peroxide formation. Purging the container headspace with nitrogen is recommended.
If a container of Class B peroxidizable is past its expiration date, open it with caution.
Mark the container with the opening date and inspect it every six months. Test for peroxides
annually, or discard one year after opening.
The Class C chemicals listed in Table F-1 as peroxide hazard on concentration can form
hydroperoxides and ketone peroxides. They are soluble and can be detected with peroxide test
strips or a KI-starch test.
In most cases, commercial samples of Class C materials are provided with polymerization
inhibitors that require the presence of oxygen to function and therefore are not to be stored
under inert atmosphere. Inhibitor-free Class C compounds (i.e., the compound has been
synthesized in the laboratory or the inhibitor has been removed from the commercial
product) should be kept in the smallest quantities possible and under inert atmosphere.
Unused inhibitor-free material should be disposed of immediately.
If a container of Class C peroxidizable is past its expiration date, open it with caution.
Mark the container with the opening date and inspect it every six months. Discard one year
after opening.
It is common to distill these peroxidizable solvents before use and this concentrates the
dissolved peroxides and subjects them to heat and mechanical shock. To safely distill
peroxidizable solvents:
Eliminate the peroxides with a chemical reducing agent or pass the solvent through
activated alumina.
Add mineral oil to the distillation pot. This has the combined effect of cushioning any
bumping, maintaining dilution and serving as a viscous reaction moderator in case the
peroxides begin to decompose.
Carefully monitor the distillation process to ensure that it does not dry out completely
and overheat.
Testing peroxide-forming chemicals. With some exceptions, these procedures will work only with
Class B peroxidizables.
Peroxide test strips, which turn to an indicative color in the presence of peroxides, are
available commercially. Note that these strips must be air dried until the solvent evaporates
and exposed to moisture for proper indication and quantification. Follow the manufacturer’s
instructions closely.
Add 1 to 3 mL of the liquid to be tested to an equal volume of acetic acid, add a few drops
of 5% aqueous potassium iodide solution, and shake. The appearance of a yellow to brown
color indicates the presence of peroxides. Alternatively, addition of 1 mL of a freshly
prepared 10% solution of potassium iodide to 10 mL of an organic liquid in a 25-mL glass
cylinder produces a yellow color if peroxides are present.
Add 0.5 mL of the liquid to be tested to a mixture of 1 mL of 10% aqueous potassium iodide
solution and 0.5 mL of dilute hydrochloric acid to which has been added a few drops of
starch solution just before the test. The appearance of a blue or blue-black color within one
minute indicates the presence of peroxides.
Table F-1: Peroxide-Forming Chemicals
Class A: High risk peroxide forming materials. Oxidation products are easily
formed that are sensitive and energetic. Discard within three months of
receipt. The usual peroxide test will only work for isopropyl ether.
Butadiene (106-99-0)
Isopropyl ether (108-20-3)
Sodium amide (7782-92-5)
Divinyl ether (109-93-3)
Potassium amide
Vinylidene chloride
Divinyl acetylene (821-08-9) Potassium metal
Chloroprene (126-99-8)
Class B: Common solvents that can accumulate peroxide products that are a
risk on heating and concentration. Mark container with opening date and
inspect every six months; test for peroxides yearly or discard after 1 year.
Acetal (105-57-7)
2-Butanol (78-92-2)
Cellusolves (e.g., 2Ethoxyethanol, 110-80-5)
Cumene (isopropylbenzene)
Cyclohexene (110-83-8)
Decalin (91-17-8)
Cyclopentene (142-29-0)
Dicyclopentadiene (77-73-6)
Diglyme (111-96-6)
Diethyl ether (ethyl ether)
1,4-Dioxane (123-91-1)
(monoglyme) (110-71-4)
Diacetylene (460-12-8)
Furan (110-00-9)
Isopropanol (67-63-0)
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Tetrahydrofuran (109-99-9)
Cyclooctene (931-87-3)
Methyl acetylene (74-99-7)
2-Phenylethanol (60-12-8)
Isoamyl alcohol (123-51-3)
Cyclohexanol (108-93-0)
2-Hexanol (626-93-7)
2-Pentanol (6032-29-7)
4-Heptanol (589-55-9)
4-Penten-1-ol (821-09-0)
1-Phenylethanol (98-85-1)
Class C: Liquids and liquefied compressed gases that can be initiated by oxygen
to polymerize. Mark container with opening date and inspect every six months,
discard after 1 year. The usual peroxide test may not show peroxides, but there
are indicators of polymerization: look for an increase in viscosity of liquids or
residue after evaporation of a sample of gases. Both of these may indicate a
Acrolein (107-02-8)
Styrene (100-42-5)
Acrylonitrile (107-13-1)
Ethyl acrylate (140-88-5)
Acrylic acid (79-10-7)
Ethyl vinyl ether (109-92-2)
Vinyl acetate (108-05-4)
Vinyl acetylene (689-97-4)
Chloroprene (126-99-8)
Methyl methacrylate
Vinyl chloride (75-01-4)
2-Vinyl pyridine (100-69-6)
4-Vinyl pyridine (100-43-6)
Storage of and Use of Flammables and Combustibles: Use labels and SDSs to identify flammable and
combustible chemicals. Improperly stored and used flammable and combustible chemicals can provide the
fuel that can lead to a catastrophic laboratory fire.
Minimize the amount of flammables and combustibles. Buy only what will be used in the immediate
future. Excess flammable solvents risk a fire, a dangerous spill and health risks.
Store flammables in an approved flammable storage cabinet.
Store flammables, combustibles and other fuels away from strong oxidizers.
Limit flammable liquids stored outside of flammable cabinets to less than 10 gallons per room.
Limit the storage of flammable liquids on benchtops to those only in immediate use.
Handle flammables in areas free from ignition sources. Exercise caution when using flammables in
confined spaces with hot plates and other electrical equipment that is not intrinsically safe; a hot
plate thermostat cycling on can be an ignition source if flammable vapors have built up in a small
Always bond metal containers to metal receivers when transferring large volumes of flammable
liquids or gases.
If static electricity is a problem (especially in the winter), use nonconductive materials (floor mats,
etc.) and grounding straps on instruments and machines, especially when transferring flammable
chemicals between metal containers.
Never heat flammable chemicals with an open flame. Use a water bath, oil bath, heating mantle,
hot air bath, etc.
Use a fume hood when there is a chance of dangerous vapors.
If flammables need to be refrigerated, keep them in an explosion-proof or flammable refrigerator,
not a standard refrigerator.
Storage and Use of Compressed Gas Cylinders: Compressed gas cylinders in the lab present both
chemical and physical hazards: if handled incorrectly, they can be extremely dangerous. A broken
cylinder valve can cause a cylinder to act like a rocket, and exposure to some gases leaking from a
cylinder can be lethal.
Only use regulators approved for the type of gas in the cylinder. Do not use adapters to
interchange regulators and never use improvised adapters.
Always wear safety glasses or goggles when working with compressed gases.
Never refill cylinders.
Before using, check all connections under pressure for leaks. Swab connections with a soap
solution and look for bubbles.
Turn off both the main valve and regulator when not using the cylinder.
Do not leave regulators and valves on cylinders except when they are in frequent use. When not
in use, remove regulators and valves and screw on the safety cap. Use spark-proof tools on
cylinders that contain flammable gases.
Do not force valve stems, which can easily snap off.
Clearly mark empty cylinders as “empty.” Do not store empty and full containers together: move
empty containers to a designated storage area.
All cylinders (empty and full, in use and in storage) must be chained, strapped or otherwise
securely attached to a wall or other sturdy surface to prevent the cylinder from falling and
potentially becoming a missile. If attached to a wall, the attachment points should be driven into
studs or other structural members.
To safely move cylinders:
Wear safety glasses, leather gloves and appropriate footwear.
Ensure that valves are fully closed and the safety cap is secured in place.
Only use carts or hand trucks designed for moving cylinders.
Do not allow cylinders to drop or strike each other violently.
Never lift cylinders by the cap.
A best practice for moving cylinders between floors is to secure the cylinders on a cart and
put them on an elevator by themselves. An elevator is a confined space that would be
difficult to escape from if there was an accidental release.
Storage and Use of Cryogenic Liquids: Cryogenic liquids are hazardous because of the physical and
chemical characteristics of their super-cooled state. They can cause explosions, fires, asphyxiation, tissue
destruction or embrittlement of structural materials.
Avoid skin and eye contact by always wearing chemical splash goggles and a face shield and
appropriate cold-resistant gloves.
Keep cryogenic liquids away from all sources of ignition.
Store in a well-ventilated area to avoid buildup of flammable gases or displacement of breathing
Store in double-walled, insulated containers (e.g., Dewar flasks). Handle all containers carefully.
Tap Dewar flasks thoroughly to prevent the release of a large number of tiny glass slivers in the
event the flask shatters.
Pre-cool receiving vessels to avoid thermal shock and splashing.
Select work materials wisely. Cryogenic liquids alter the physical characteristics of some
materials; accidents have been reported where Pyrex tubes have failed and caused injury.
Use tongs to place and remove items in cryogenic liquids. Rubber and plastic may become very
brittle; handle these items carefully when removing them.
Use extreme care in transporting. Use a cart for large cryogenic containers.
When moving between floors, secure carts and containers and put them on the elevator by
themselves. An elevator is a confined space that would be difficult to escape from if there was
an accidental release.
Safe Use of Centrifuges: Centrifuges present the possibility of two serious hazards: mechanical failure
and aerosols. The most common hazard associated with centrifuges is broken tubes; given the high
speeds and the necessity to maintain balance it is important to properly load the unit, operate it only at
speeds recommended by the manufacturer, wait until it has completely stopped before removing all
samples and properly cleaning the unit.
Always wear safety glasses (at a minimum) when working with centrifuges to protect the eyes in
the event of an accident.
When loading the rotor, examine the tubes for signs of stress and discard any tubes that are
Inspect the inside of each tube cavity or bucket. Remove any glass or other debris from the
rubber cushion.
Ensure that the centrifuge has adequate shielding to guard against accidental flyaways.
Use a centrifuge only if it has an interlock that deactivates the rotor when the lid is opened.
Do not overfill a centrifuge tube to the point where the rim, cap or cotton plug becomes wet.
Always keep the lid closed during operation and shutdown. Do not open the lid until the rotor is
completely stopped.
Do not brake the head rotation by hand.
Do not use aluminum foil to cap a centrifuge tube: it can rupture or detach.
When balancing the rotors, consider the tubes, buckets, adapters, inserts and any added
Stop the rotor and discontinue operation if you notice anything abnormal such as noise or
Rotor heads, buckets, adapters, tubes and plastic inserts must match.
Some low-speed and small portable centrifuges may not have aerosol-tight chambers that can
allow aerosols to escape. In these cases use a safety bucket to prevent escape of aerosols.
High-speed centrifuges present additional aerosol hazards due to the higher stress and force
applied to their rotors and tubes.
Filter the air exhausted from the vacuum lines.
Keep a record of rotor usage to reduce the hazard of metal fatigue.
Frequently inspect, clean and dry rotors to prevent corrosion or other damage.
Proper inspection, care and cleaning of centrifuge rotors are important.
Clean any spills immediately.
Review the manufacturer’s safety instructions.
Visually inspect the rotor for mechanical or chemical damage prior to each use. Look at the
underside of the rotor, the web area and the outer rim. Ensure the top and bottom pieces of
the rotor are tightly connected.
Certain chemicals (e.g., phenol) attack plastic rotors and some nucleic acid extraction kits
can damage the rotor. Look for discoloration, peeling or other deterioration of the rotor
Mechanical damage such as cracks, scratches or gouges can often be seen or detected as
an increase in noise or vibration during a spin. Do not ignore excessive vibration that does
not resolve after rebalancing and checking the fit of the rotor cover. Do not use the rotor if
any damage or change is evident.
Safe Use of Glassware: Broken glass is one of the most common causes of laboratory injuries. To reduce
the chance that something will happen, use common sense when working with glassware.
Always wear safety glasses when conducting operations that have a high risk of breaking glass
(e.g., operating centrifuges or vacuums).
Inspect all glassware for chips and cracks before use. Do not use glassware that has any defects.
Never use laboratory glassware to serve food or drinks.
Use care in handling to avoid damaging it.
Leave at least 10% air space in containers with positive closures.
When possible, substitute plastic or metal connectors for glass connectors.
Thoroughly clean and decontaminate glassware after each use.
When inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers, corks or tubing:
Use adequate hand protection (e.g., gloves or a hand towel).
Lubricate the tubing using glycine or similar material.
Hold hands close together to minimize movement if the glass breaks.
Rotate the tube back and forth while gently pushing it into the stopper. Never attempt to
push tubing directly through a stopper.
Use thick-walled, round-bottomed glassware for vacuum operations. Flat-bottomed glassware is not
as strong. Carefully handle vacuum-jacketed glassware to prevent implosions. Dewar flasks,
vacuum desiccators and other evacuated equipment should be taped or shielded. Use only
glassware designed for use with vacuums.
Large glass containers are highly susceptible to thermal shock: heat or cool them slowly. Use
Pyrex or heat-treated glass for heating operations.
Do not pick up broken glass with bare or unprotected hands: use a brush and dustpan. Remove
glass in sinks by using tongs for large pieces and cotton held by tongs for small pieces and
slivers. Dispose of uncontaminated broken glass in designated cardboard boxes. Glass
contaminated with a biological material must be disposed of in a sharps container.
Electrical Safety: Many laboratory fires start with the careless handling of electrical equipment. Un-safe
practices and worn or defective equipment can also cause electrical shocks.
Before use, check all electrical apparatus for worn or defective insulation and loose or broken
connections. Power cords should be checked closely and replaced if defective.
Connect all ground wires to clean metal (avoid painted surfaces). Use three-prong grounded plugs
wherever possible. Never remove the ground plug or use an adapter to make a three-prong plug fit
a two-prong receptacle.
Keep electrical wires away from hot surfaces.
Do not allow water and other potentially destructive liquids to leak on electrical wires, switches and
outlets. Never touch a switch, outlet or other electrical power source with wet hands.
Avoid the use of extension cords for other than temporary situations. The only exception is surge
protectors. The cord must be grounded.
Do not use homemade or makeshift wiring; call an electrician for all wiring.
Safe Use of Electrophoresis Equipment: Electrophoresis equipment can be a major electrical hazard; it
uses both high voltage and conductive fluid, which can present a potentially lethal combination. A standard
electrophoresis operating at 100 volts can deliver a lethal shock, and even a slight leak in the device tank can
result in serious shock.
Follow the equipment operating instructions.
Use physical barriers to prevent inadvertent contact with the apparatus.
Use electrical interlocks.
Do not disable safety devices.
Use warning signs to alert others of the potential electrical hazard.
Frequently check the physical integrity of the electrophoresis equipment.
Turn the power off before connecting the electrical leads, opening the lid or reaching into the
Use only insulated lead connectors and connect one lead at a time using one hand only. Ensure
that hands are dry when connecting the leads.
Keep the apparatus away from water and water sources.
Safe Use of Heating Systems: Next to glass failure, the most common source of laboratory injury is the
improper manipulation of heating apparatus, particularly gas burners. Common hazards associated with
lab heating devices include open flame/fire hazards, electrical hazards and hot surfaces.
When temperatures of 100°C (212°F) or less are required, it is safer to use a steam-heated
device than an electrically-heated device because steam-heated devices do not present a shock
or spark hazard and they can be left unattended with the assurance that their temperature will
never exceed 100°C.
Before using any electrical heating device, ensure that the heating unit has an automatic shutoff
to protect against overheating and that all connecting components are in good working
Heated chemicals can cause more damage more quickly than would the same chemical at a
lower temperature. Always wear chemical splash goggles and appropriate gloves when heating
Heating baths should be equipped with timers so they turn on and off at appropriate times.
Use a chemical fume hood when heating flammable or combustible solvents. Arrange the
equipment so that escaping vapors do not contact heated or sparking surfaces.
Use non-asbestos thermal-resistant gloves to handle heated materials and equipment.
Place oil baths in plastic or metal trays to contain spills, and do not leave them unattended.
Minimize the use of open flames.
Safe Use of Pressurized Systems: Processes requiring high pressures present a physical hazard
(explosion) should the equipment fail. High pressure operations should only be conducted in specificallydesigned equipment and only by trained operators. Do not conduct a reaction in, or apply heat to, a
closed system apparatus unless the equipment is designed and tested to withstand pressure (such
systems may be stamped with safe operating pressures). Pressure systems should also have an
appropriate relief valve, be fully shielded and should not be operated in an occupied space until safe
operation has been assured.
Always wear safety glasses (at a minimum) when working with pressurized systems to protect
the eyes in the event of an accident.
Minimize risk and exposure by planning. Identify and assess all hazards and consequences
before beginning work. Consider how failures could occur. Do not assume that the apparatus
will have an “inherent safety factor.”
Use remote manipulations whenever possible. Conduct the procedure in areas that are not
occupied by other people.
Minimize pressure, volume and temperature. The stored energy available for release is
proportional to the total volume and pressure.
Use material with a predictably safe failure mode, preferably ductile failure. Do not use a brittle
material unless it is properly shielded or barricaded.
Demonstrate structural integrity by a proof test. Ensure that the components of the pressurized
system will maintain structural integrity at the maximum allowable working pressure.
Operate within the original design parameters. Do not exceed maximum allowable working
pressure. Do not change working fluids or service environments without re-considering all
hazards and consequences.
Provide backup protection. Suitable pressure relief valves should be installed to ensure that the
pressure level will stay within safe limits if the equipment malfunctions or is improperly
Use quality hardware. Use tie-downs to secure hoses, tubing and piping: a line under pressure
that fails can whip unless it is restrained.
Do not leave a pressure system unattended.
Safe Use of Vacuum Systems: Vacuum systems have similar hazards as high pressure systems, except
that the danger is from implosion rather than explosion. Dangers include flying glass, spill/spray of toxic
chemicals and fire.
Always wear safety glasses (at a minimum) when working with vacuum systems to protect the
eyes in the event of an accident.
Ensure that pumps have belt guards in place during operation.
Ensure that service cords and switches are free from defects.
Always use a trap on vacuum lines to prevent liquids from being drawn into the pump, house
vacuum line or water drain.
Replace and properly dispose of vacuum pump oil that is contaminated with condensate. It
should be disposed of as a non-halogenated hazardous waste.
Place a pan under pumps to catch oil drips.
Do not operate pumps near containers of flammable chemicals or in an enclosed, unventilated
Glassware in vacuum operations presents a particularly dangerous hazard if it breaks.
Only heavy-walled round-bottomed glassware should be used. The only exception is
glassware specifically designed for vacuum operations (e.g., Erlenmeyer filtration flask).
Wrap exposed glass with tape to prevent flying glass if an implosion occurs.
Carefully inspect vacuum glassware before and after each use. Discard any glass that is
chipped, scratched, broken or otherwise stressed.
Glass desiccators may develop a slight vacuum due to cooling of contents. When possible, use
molded plastic desiccators with high tensile strength. For glass desiccators, use a perforated
metal desiccator guard.
Vacuum pumps often have a cold trap to prevent volatile compounds from getting into hot
pump oil and vaporizing into the atmosphere, and to prevent moisture contamination in a
vacuum line.
Locate the cold trap between the system and vacuum pump.
Ensure the cold trap is big enough and cold enough to condense vapors in the system.
Check frequently for blockages in the cold trap.
Use isopropanol/dry ice or ethanol/dry ice instead of acetone/dry ice to create a cold trap.
Isopropanol and ethanol are cheaper, less toxic and less prone to foam.
Do not use dry ice or liquefied gas refrigerant bath as a closed system, as these can create
uncontrolled and dangerously high pressures.
Safe Distillation of Organic Solvents: Potential hazards from distillations arise from pressure buildup,
flammable materials and the use of heat to vaporize chemicals. Care must be taken during construction
of the system to ensure effective separation and to avoid leaks that can lead to fires or contamination.
Take precautions with distillations and reactions, especially when they run overnight.
Prevent overheating by ensuring that all hoses and connections are securely tightened.
Use boiling chips or stir bars to prevent bumping during distillations, refluxing and similar
Be aware when distilling chemicals that certain types may auto-oxidize and accumulate
peroxides, which can explode when heated and concentrated during a distillation.
Use only round-bottomed flasks for vacuum distillations. Erlenmeyer flasks are more likely to
implode. Vacuum distillations or evaporations should always be shielded in case of implosion.
Do not leave a distillation unattended if possible. Post a phone number on the door of the lab if
you must leave.
Safe Use of Autoclaves: Autoclaves are used to sterilize materials by high heat and pressure. Burns
can result from physical contact with the autoclave itself, with the hot pressurized steam that it generates
and with hot items as they are removed from the autoclave. Explosive breakage of glass vessels due to
temperature stresses can produce mechanical injury and cuts during opening and unloading. Additionally,
because of the extreme conditions created inside steam autoclaves they can easily malfunction if not
carefully maintained.
Load the autoclave properly. Be sure to clean the drain strainer before loading. Do not load
plastic materials that are not compatible with the autoclave. Individual glassware pieces should
be within a heat-resistant plastic tray on a shelf or rack; never place them directly on the
autoclave bottom or floor.
Be sure the autoclave is OFF and the steam pressure is down before opening the door.
Open the door slowly, keeping head, face and hands away from the opening.
Wait at least 30 seconds after opening the door before reaching or looking into the autoclave.
Before removing autoclaved items, wait five minutes for loads containing only dry glassware and
10 minutes for liquid loads.
When removing items wear heat-resistant, long-sleeved gloves and safety glasses or goggles
treated with anti-fog solution. Remove solutions from the autoclave slowly and gently; some
solutions can boil over when moved or when exposed to room temperature.
Let glassware cool for at least 15 minutes before touching it with ungloved hands. Be alert for
autoclaved liquid bottles still bubbling. Let liquid loads stand in an out-of-the-way location for a
full hour before touching them with ungloved hands.
Clean up any spills immediately.
The following form shall be used as part of the laboratory safety introduction for all students enrolled in a
UW-Stout instructional laboratory covered by the Laboratory Standard. Laboratory instructors shall ensure all
students enrolled in their class sign this form. Laboratory instructors shall retain signed forms with class
1. No eating or drinking is permitted in any laboratory at any time.
2. Eye protection must be worn when required by the lab instructor.
3. Wear sensible clothing. Loose fitting clothing and open sandals or open footwear shall not be worn.
4. Long hair must be confined.
5. No unauthorized experimentation is allowed. Do not change written laboratory procedures without
permission of the instructor.
6. Students may not work in the laboratory without an instructor present. (Exceptions may be made
depending on the course.)
7. Students are not allowed to work in instructional laboratories outside of regularly scheduled hours
without written permission from instructor.
8. Students should know locations of all available safety equipment. This includes eye wash stations, safety
showers, fire extinguishers, fire blanket and first aid supplies.
9. Pipetting by mouth is not allowed. Never place anything in the mouth except as directed by instructor
while in the laboratory. Smell chemicals only by wafting a small amount of vapor toward the nose with
the hand.
10. Personal protective equipment in addition to eye protection should be used at the direction of the
laboratory instructor. This equipment includes gloves when working with certain corrosives and organic
solvents and laboratory aprons.
11. Keep lab bench clear of book bags and outer clothing. These should be placed in provided areas.
Students are responsible for maintaining a safe and clean work area.
12. Chemical fume hoods should be used for all operations that have the potential to release fumes, gases or
volatile solvent vapors in excess of recommended exposure levels. Follow written laboratory procedures
and the laboratory instructor's directions. Notify the instructor if you think the fume hood is not
functioning properly.
13. Read lab procedures before entering the laboratory. Do not proceed with an experiment if you do not
understand the procedure. All chemical names and identities should be carefully double-checked prior to
any use. Check labeling before using a chemical so that potential hazards are known.
14. Report all injuries, no matter how minor, to the laboratory instructor. The instructor will give guidance on
any appropriate treatment which may be needed or call 911 if necessary.
15. Proper disposal of laboratory waste is essential. Do not dispose of any chemical down sewer/sink without
approval from the instructor. Use appropriate waste containers when provided.
16. Clean up spills promptly. If you should break a mercury thermometer, notify the instructor so that the
mercury is promptly recovered. If you have questions on spill clean-up, ask your instructor.
17. Only students registered for the class are allowed into the laboratory.
18. Students should clean work area and wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before leaving the
I have read and I understand the above standard operating procedures. I understand that it is my
responsibility to follow the above procedures and I agree to follow these procedures.
Signature: ___________________________________________________
Appendix G
Laboratory Visitor Policy for Minors
UW-Stout adopted Policy No. 04-65 concerning the presence of children in hazardous environments.
This policy aims to prevent possible accidents or harm to children while on UW-Stout grounds, while also
minimizing disruptions to the educational environment. Because UW-Stout manages and maintains
potentially hazardous areas – including, but not limited to, scientific laboratories, industrial work spaces,
and athletic facilities – children may be prohibited from entering such areas. For safety reasons, and in
the best interest of the health and well-being of persons on UW-Stout grounds, it is therefore the policy
of UW-Stout that access to certain potentially hazardous university areas be limited only to students,
employees, and authorized guests.
Definition of Terms
“Hazardous University areas” include, but are not limited to: scientific laboratories, industrial
work spaces, athletic facilities, weight rooms, warehouses, and other work areas in which
potentially dangerous materials, machinery, or conditions may be present.
“Children” are those persons present on UW-Stout grounds who have not attained the age of
majority (eighteen years of age).
Statement of Policy
Authorized persons on UW-Stout grounds who ordinarily perform their work in a potentially
hazardous University area are expected to be appropriately trained concerning all relevant safety
and emergency procedures to adequately protect themselves and others from any such present
or potential hazards.
Children are prohibited from entering potentially hazardous University areas unless:
The individual is a UW-Stout student and such entry occurs in the context of the ordinary
duties of that individual as a student, student-employee, intern or assistant who has been
informed by the appropriate supervisor of the risks and safety procedures involved; OR
Such entry occurs in the context of a scheduled open house, tour, camp, clinic, or other
similar UW-Stout-sanctioned program or activity; OR
Such entry is accompanied or validated by written documentation indicating approval for
entry has been granted by the appropriate building supervisor.
TO PARTICIPATE IN __________________________
Whereas, I desire to have my child participate in ____________________ sponsored by the
University of Wisconsin-Stout, (University) and the University has approved my participation in
the _____________________________ during the period of
, 201 to
201_. I hereby agree as follows:
I assume full legal and financial responsibility for my child’s participation in the
I grant the University, its employees, agents and representatives the authority to act in
any attempt to safeguard and preserve my child’s health or safety during my child’s
participation including authorizing medical treatment on my behalf and at my expense
and returning my child home at my own expense for medical treatment or in case of an
Accident and health insurance are recommended for my child’s participation in this
event. I understand that the University encourages me to have appropriate insurance
coverage for the entire time of the trip;
I voluntarily indemnify and hold harmless the University, Board of Regents of the
University of Wisconsin System (Board of Regents), their respective officers,
employees, and agents from any and all liability, loss, damages, costs, or expenses
(including attorney's fees) arising out of my participation in the field trip and which do
not arise out of the negligent acts or omission of an officer, employee, and agent of the
University and/or Board of Regents while acting within the scope of their employment
or agency;
I acknowledge that I have read this document and understand and accept its terms.
(Print) name of participating minor
Signature of Parent/Guardian (if Participant
is less than 18 years of age)
Appendix H
Work with Particularly Hazardous Substances
OSHA has established a category of chemicals known as particularly hazardous substances
(PHSs). Particularly hazardous substances include select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and
substances with a high degree of acute toxicity. Some highly reactive substances (e.g., pyrophoric and
explosive chemicals) may also be considered PHSs. UW-Stout faculty and staff shall complete the
approval steps listed below before beginning work with a PHS.
OSHA has expanded regulatory standards for certain toxic substances with additional compliance
requirements. All of the expanded standard substances are identified in Table H-1 below. Other
significant health hazards must also be considered when working with expanded standard substances.
Since expanded standard substances are also PHSs, UW-Stout faculty and staff shall complete the PHS
approval process before beginning work with expanded standard substances. The Chemical Hygiene
Officer (CHO) will complete an exposure assessment as part of the approval process for work with an
expanded standard substance. Specific expanded standard requirements will be incorporated into
practices outlined in the Particularly Hazardous Substance Approval Form if the exposure assessment
indicates the action level and/or permissible exposure limit or short-term exposure limit may be
Table H-1: OSHA Regulated Toxic and Hazardous Substances
OSHA citation
Methyl chloromethyl ether
3,’-Dichlorobenzidine (and its
bis-Chloromethyl ether
Vinyl chloride
Inorganic arsenic
Chromium (VI)
Coke oven emissions
Known carcinogen
Commonly referred to as the OSHA 13
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Possible carcinogen (IARC 2B)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Bloodborne pathogens (BBP)
Cotton dust
Ethylene oxide
Methylene chloride
Ionizing radiation
Some BBPs (e.g. hepatitis B and C)
are known carcinogens
Not a suspected carcinogen
Possible carcinogen (IARC 2B)
Possible carcinogen (IARC 2B)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Known carcinogen
Possible carcinogen (IARC 2B)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Possible carcinogen (IARC 2B)
Known carcinogen (IARC 1)
Responsibility for identifying PHSs and complying with the approval process ultimately rests with faculty,
PI or lab instructor. Training on identifying PHSs and the approval process is included in required lab
safety training and is described further in this appendix.
The OSHA Laboratory Standard defines particularly hazardous substances as:
Carcinogens: A carcinogen is a substance capable of causing cancer. Carcinogens are
chronically toxic substances; that is, they cause damage after repeated or long-duration
exposure, and their effects may become evident only after a long latency period. A chemical is
considered a carcinogen, for the purpose of the Laboratory Standard, if it is included in any of
the following carcinogen lists:
OSHA-regulated carcinogens as listed in 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous
Substances, also known as the OSHA 13 carcinogens (see Table H-1).
Listed under the category "known to be carcinogens" in the most current Report on
Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Listed in Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans") of the International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC) Monographs, latest editions.
Listed in IARC Group 2A or 2B or considered "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by
NTP, and causes significant tumor incidence in experimental animals under the following
conditions (this information can be found in the IARC monographs):
After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant
portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3;
After repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week; or
After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day.
Reproductive Toxins: Reproductive toxins are substances that have adverse effects on
various aspects of reproduction, including fertility, gestation, lactation, and general reproductive
performance. When a pregnant woman is exposed to a chemical, the fetus may be exposed as
well because the placenta is an extremely poor barrier to chemicals. Reproductive toxins can
affect both men and women. Male reproductive toxins can in some cases lead to sterility. No
scientific or government agency has established a definitive method for classifying potential
human chemical reproductive toxins as they have for carcinogens. There is therefore no
comprehensive list of reproductive toxins, and very little information on exposure levels at which
the toxins are hazardous. Check the SDS for information on potential reproductive hazards.
Table H-2 lists some reproductive hazard resources.
Table H-2: Reproductive Hazard Resources
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Harvard University)
University of California – San Diego
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
NIOSH Reproductive Health website
OSHA Safety and Health Topics: Reproductive
Examples of chemicals known or suspected
to be human reproductive toxins. Not an allinclusive list.
Includes chemicals, drugs, infectious
materials, possible teratogens and physical
hazards. Not an all-inclusive list.
ATSDR publishes information on specific
chemicals. ToxFAQs and toxicological profiles
include information on potential reproductive
Links to many resources, including NIOSH
publications 99-104 and 96-132 that contain
lists of chemical, physical and infectious
reproductive hazards for women and men in
the workplace. Not all-inclusive lists.
Links to OSHA standards as well as other
resources on chemical, physical and
biological reproductive hazards.
Substances with a High Acute Toxicity: High acute toxicity includes any chemical that falls
within any of the following OSHA-defined categories (this information is usually found in the
Toxicological section of the SDS):
A chemical with a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight when
administered orally to certain test populations (rats are preferred). The adverse effects must
occur after a single dose or after multiple doses given with 24 hours.
A chemical with an LD50 of 200 mg or less per kg of body weight when administered by
continuous contact for 24 hours to certain test populations (rats or rabbits are preferred).
The adverse effects must occur after a single dose or after multiple doses given with 24
A chemical with a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 500 parts per million (ppm) by
volume or less of gas, 2 mg per liter or less of vapors, or 0.5 mg per liter or less of dusts
and mists, when administered to certain test populations (rats are preferred) by continuous
inhalation for 4 hours.
Some highly reactive chemicals may also be considered PHSs. Consult the CHO before ordering any
pyrophoric or explosive chemicals, or chemicals that under certain conditions create explosive or highly
flammable hazards (e.g., liquid chemicals that, when dried, are sensitive to shock or reactive to air or
Approval Procedure. Laboratory workers planning to use a PHS shall first receive explicit written
approval from the CHO. The following steps shall be taken:
Laboratory workers shall complete a Particularly Hazardous Substance Approval Form. The form
and a PHS Tip Sheet are available on the UW-Stout Laboratory Safety website:
Cut and paste this link into a browser:
Login to the UW-Stout Intranet to be taken to the above page.
Information required on the form includes:
Identity, physical characteristics and health hazards of the PHS.
Consideration of exposure controls such as fume hoods, glove boxes and personal protective
Designation of an area (hood, glove box, portion of lab, entire lab) specifically for
experimental procedures with the PHS.
Plans for storage and secondary containment.
Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste.
Decontamination procedures.
The laboratory worker shall submit the form first to their department chair for signature and
then to the CHO for review and approval. The CHO will complete an exposure assessment as
part of the review process for work with any OSHA expanded standard chemical. Work with the
PHS may not begin until approval has been given.
The area(s) where the PHS will be used and stored shall be posted as a designated area(s).
Additional signage may be required for work with expanded standard chemicals. Signs for this
purpose will be provided by the CHO.
The laboratory worker shall proceed with the experiment, following the practices outlined in the
Particularly Hazardous Substance Approval Form and the work practices listed in the section
titled “Working Safely with Particularly Hazardous Substances” found below. Additional
requirements may be added for work with expanded standard chemicals. All work shall be
conducted within the designated area.
The laboratory worker shall decontaminate all equipment and dispose of waste promptly, as
outlined in the Particularly Hazardous Substance Approval Form.
Working Safely with Particularly Hazardous Substances. The increased hazard risk associated
with PHSs calls for more strict operating procedures in the laboratory:
Training and Documentation. All laboratory personnel who work with or may be exposed to
PHSs must be adequately trained. Records of conducted training must be kept on file in the lab
and should include an outline of the topics covered. The CHO will provide a short training
presentation. Continuing training shall be conducted as needed to maintain a working
knowledge of hazards and these requirements for all staff members that work with particularly
hazardous chemicals. Records shall be retained for all training completed. Training shall include
at a minimum:
The hazards/ toxicological effects associated with the chemicals being used.
Methods and techniques for the safe use of the chemicals.
Decontamination practices and procedures (for both emergency and routine use).
Emergency practices and procedures.
Proper disposal procedures.
A review of the SOPs and SDSs.
Work Habits
There shall be no eating, drinking, smoking, chewing of gum or tobacco, application of
cosmetics or storage of utensils, food or food containers in laboratory areas where PHSs are
used or stored.
All personnel should wash their hands and arms with soap and water immediately after the
completion of any procedure in which a PHS has been used and when they leave the
laboratory, even if gloves were worn.
Each procedure should be conducted with the minimum amount of the substance,
consistent with the requirements of the work.
The laboratory worker should keep records of the amounts of each PHS used, the dates of
use and the names of the users.
Work surfaces, including fume hoods, should be fitted with a removable liner of absorbent
plastic-backed paper to help contain spilled materials and to simplify subsequent cleanup
and disposal.
Engineering Controls
Benchtop work with PHSs should be avoided whenever practical in favor of contained
systems (such as fume hoods or glove boxes) and is not permitted if there is a reasonable
likelihood of workers exceeding regulatory exposure limits.
Chemical fume hoods used as containment areas for PHSs must have a face velocity of 100
fpm, averaged over the face of the hood, and must be certified annually.
Laboratories and rooms where PHSs are used shall have general room ventilation that is at
negative pressure with respect to the corridors and external environment. The
laboratory/room door must be kept closed at all times.
Vacuum lines shall be protected by HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters or higher
efficiency scrubbers.
Highly toxic gases must be used and stored in a vented gas cabinet connected to a
laboratory exhaust system. Gas feed lines operating above atmospheric pressure must use
coaxial tubing.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). PHSs may require more stringent use of PPE. Refer
to the specific chemical’s SDS for information on proper gloves, lab clothing and respiratory
Proper PPE must be worn at all times when handling PHSs.
Lab clothing that protects street clothing, such as a fully fastened lab coat or a disposable
jumpsuit, should be worn when PHSs are being used. Laboratory clothing used while
manipulating PHSs shall not be worn outside the laboratory area.
When methods for decontaminating clothing are unknown or not applicable, disposable
protective clothing should be worn. Disposable gloves shall be discarded after each use and
immediately after overt contact with a PHS. If PPE has become contaminated with the PHS
it must be disposed of in accordance with applicable hazardous waste regulations.
Special Handling and Storage Requirements
Stock quantities of PHSs should be stored in a designated storage area or cabinet with
limited access. Segregate the PHSs from incompatible materials. Additional storage
precautions (i.e., refrigerator, ventilated cabinet, flammable liquid storage cabinet) may be
required for certain compounds based upon other properties.
Both manufacturer and secondary containers must be clearly labeled.
Double containment should also be considered. Double containment means that the
container will be placed inside another container that is capable of holding the contents in
the event of a leak and provides a protective outer covering in the event of contamination of
the primary container.
Containers should be stored on trays or pans made of polyethylene or other chemicallyresistant material.
Persons transporting PHSs from one location to another should use double containment to
protect against spills and breakage.
Additional requirements for the safe storage of a specific chemical may be found in the
manufacturer’s instructions or in the SDS.
Spill and Accident Procedures
Immediate measures must be available to prevent the possible spread of contamination
(e.g, spill kit).
The contaminated area shall be decontaminated and cleaned as soon as possible.
If necessary, the affected area should be evacuated as soon as an emergency is
Call 911 if unable to safely contain and clean up spill.
If skin contact is involved, the worker shall be required to shower or flush the affected areas
for a minimum of 15 minutes.
Report the spill to CHO and complete an incident report (found in Appendix I).
Decontamination Procedures
Laboratory work surfaces shall be decontaminated at the conclusion of each procedure and
at the end of each day.
Decontaminate all equipment before removing it from the designated area.
Decontamination should be carried out in a glove box or fume hood.
Contaminated PPE must not be removed from the designated area until properly
decontaminated or disposed of.
After working with these chemicals, immediately remove gloves, wash hands and arms with
soap and water.
Waste Disposal Procedures. Most PHSs are also hazardous waste. Check with the CHO or
Safety and Risk Management for guidance on appropriate hazardous waste disposal methods.
Designated Area
Working quantities of PHSs should be kept as small as practical.
Designated area(s) for use and storage of PHSs must be established. This may be a specific
work bench or chemical fume hood. When PHSs are present, access to this area shall be
limited to personnel following appropriate procedures who are knowledgeable in working
with these PHSs.
Signage is required for the designated work area and storage location. All containers must
be properly labeled in accordance with Appendix C.
Work surfaces should be stainless steel, plastic trays, dry absorbent plastic backed paper,
chemically resistant epoxy surfaces, or other chemically impervious material.
Appendix I
Emergency and Medical Response
Emergency: To report an accident, fire, serious illness injury or crime in progress that requires immediate
response call 911.
An emergency is defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as “Any unplanned event that
can cause deaths or significant injuries to employees, customers or the public; or that can shut down
your business, disrupt operations, cause physical or environmental damage, or threaten the facility’s
financial standing or public image.” Laboratory emergencies can include chemical spills/releases that have
the potential for harm to human health or the environment (see Appendix J); laboratory fires or
explosions; or severe injuries from sharps, equipment malfunctions or other accidents.
The following information is provided in this appendix:
UW-Stout Emergency Guide – includes emergency guidelines identifying various types of
emergency situations, suggested actions and who to call.
UW-Stout Laboratory Medical Emergency Action Plan – provides information for faculty and staff
on responsibilities for responding to medical emergencies in the laboratory.
UW-Stout Laboratory First Aid Guide – guidance on responding to common first aid emergencies
encountered in laboratories. These are intended as limited involvement measures to take until
emergency personnel arrive on the scene.
Each faculty and staff member has the responsibility to:
Educate their students concerning the emergency procedures as outlined in the UW-Stout
Emergency Guide.
Inform their students and visitors of an emergency and initiate emergency procedures when
The UW-Stout Incident Report Form at the end of this appendix should be used to report incidents listed
above and injuries involving non-employees (e.g., students and visitors). All incidents involving employee
injury must be reported to the University Worker Compensation Coordinator using the form found here:
UW-Stout policy requires a UW-Stout Incident Report Form be filled out for the following occurrences:
Significant personal injuries, such as those incurred because of cuts, burns, electric shock, etc.
Report any incident:
Where first aid is involved with the exception of minor cuts or burns.
That requires treatment by an emergency responder, off-campus healthcare provider or at
Student Health Services.
When the eye wash or body shower is activated for response.
Fires that require use of fire extinguisher.
Mercury spills other than breakage of standard mercury thermometer.
All chemical spills exceeding 100 mL.
Large water spills including use of safety showers and eye wash stations.
Exposure incidents involving blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Any spill where a chemical is accidently released into the sewer system or where a chemical is
spilled onto ground outside.
University of Wisconsin Stout
Emergency Guide
Emergency: To report an accident, fire, serious illness, injury
or crime in progress that requires immediate response
Non-emergency: UW Stout Campus Police
Medical Emergency
Report any serious injury or illness.
Begin first aid if qualified (use protective equipment when in contact with blood or other body
Non-emergencies injuries or illness should be reported to Campus Police.
In case of fire or smoke, activate nearest fire alarm to warn occupants of building to evacuate.
Bomb Threat
Hazardous Substance Spill
Fumes and vapors
Caution – the building fire alarm will sound in the building but it does not
automatically notify emergency personnel. Someone must call 911.
Leave lights on, close but do not lock the doors.
Evacuate building using nearest uninvolved exit.
Assist the disabled to the nearest stairwell in the building. Have them wait on landing.
Immediately notify police or fire department if a disabled person is waiting on a stairwell
Do not re-enter until instructed to do so by emergency personnel.
Report immediately by calling 911.
If necessary, or directed to do so, activate building fire alarm system to evacuate building (see
evacuation procedures under Fire above).
Caution – the building fire alarm will sound in the building but it does not
automatically notify emergency personnel. Someone must call 911.
If you receive:
Keep caller on the line – do NOT hang up phone.
Gather and pay close attention to certain information.
Keep a copy of bomb threat card near phone and record information the card contains.
Hazardous substance spill which you cannot safely clean or control:
Contact the fire department first by calling 911.
If the spill occurred during business hours, contact Safety and Risk Management. During
non-business hours call Campus Police.
Evacuate affected area.
Seal off the contaminated area to prevent further contamination.
Seek medical treatment immediately if contaminated or injured.
Suspected toxic fumes or vapors – emergency:
Evacuate area.
Ventilate area if appropriate.
Non-emergency toxic fumes or vapors.
Violent or Criminal Behavior
Report all violent/criminal behavior immediately.
Threat and other crime reports
Severe Weather/Tornado Watch
Severe weather/ tornado conditions are present and could occur
Monitor local radio or TV for weather conditions
Severe weather/tornado sighting occurs. Warning will be signaled by a continuous sounding of
emergency sirens.
Seek shelter in the nearest strong building. Go to basement or interior walls of lower
floors. Stay away from windows and exterior doors. Avoid auditoriums, gymnasiums and
similar large rooms with wide roofs.
For an all-clear check local TV station via computer or use radio to listen to local radio
Severe Weather/Tornado
911 and
Safety and Risk
(X2258 or
X1793) during
business hours
or X2222 after
Physical Plant
Campus Police
Student Crisis
Emergencies involving student crisis issues including
Alcohol and other drug use emergency
Disruptive behavior
Death of student, friend or family member
Discipline issues
Mental health/behavioral incidents or concerns
Physical injury
Sexual assault
Threats to public welfare
Non-emergency student crisis issues
Report the following to Physical Plant:
Utility failures
Building or facility problems
Equipment failure or erratic operation
Note: if there is a potential danger to building and/or occupants call 911 immediately
Campus Police
X2222 or the
Dean of Students
X2200 during
business hours
Campus Police
X2222 after
UW-Stout Laboratory Medical Emergency Action Plan
Report any serious injury or illness by calling 911 immediately.
Non-emergency injuries or illness should be reported to University Police at X2222.
UW-Stout faculty and laboratory staff are not responsible for providing first aid. Their primary
responsibility is to ensure emergency personnel are summoned when needed. Limit first aid
to provision of band aids only. Any injury requiring a greater degree of care requires
emergency personnel to be summoned to the scene.
Notify the Chemical Hygiene Officer of any injury or illness that has occurred.
Chemical burns and accidents that involve chemicals in the eyes or on skin should be flooded
with cool water for at least 15 minutes by using the eyewash or emergency shower until the
arrival of medical personnel.
Personal safety is your first priority. Use protective equipment when in contact with the
victim’s blood or body fluids. If victim’s blood or body fluids come in contact with skin, wash
area immediately and report to Safety and Risk Management for Bloodborne Pathogen
exposure follow-up.
There will be no cost to the student to summon 911. If transport by ambulance is required,
the student is responsible for the cost incurred. The student has the right to refuse additional
medical treatment.
A UW-Stout Incident Report Form must be completed for any injury sustained by a student
(non-employee) in your laboratory. A copy of this form is in Appendix I of the Chemical
Hygiene Plan or can be obtained from the Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) or online
(http://www.uwstout.edu/healthandsafety/safety/accidentform.cfm). The original should be
returned to the CHO with a copy to Safety and Risk Management. A copy shall be provided to
the student for their personal record. It is important that each incident is reported. This
protects the student as well as the University should additional medical attention be needed
at a later date due to this incident. This also helps to identify trends of injurious activities
whereby methods could be modified to prevent further injury.
Also use the UW-Stout Incident Report Form to report incidents involving employees. Injuries
sustained by employees must be reported to Human Resources for workers compensation
consideration. The Employee’s Work Injury and Illness Report form must be completed and
submitted to the employee’s supervisor within 24 hours of the incident. A copy can be
obtained from the CHO or online
UW-Stout Laboratory First Aid Guide
UW-Stout faculty and staff are not responsible for providing first aid. Their primary responsibility is to summon emergency
personnel when needed. The following information is provides guidance on how to manage first aid incidents in the few
minutes before emergency personnel arrive. Faculty and staff should consider personal safety first when responding to a first
aid incident in the lab.
If a person has received a minor cut, have them rinse the wound with clean water. All
laboratories in Jarvis Science Wing and Addition and Heritage Hall are equipped with first aid kits
stocked with bandages. Advise the injured to watch for signs of infection. If there is a possibility
of contamination of the wound by chemicals or glassware fragments, the injured should be urged
to seek additional medical attention.
A cut that is deep, severe, or bleeding profusely may require stitches. Instruct the victim to lie
down and elevate the injured area to a position higher than their heart. Call 911. Provide a copy
of the Safety Data Sheet for each chemical involved (if applicable) to the emergency personnel
when they arrive.
For minor burns, including second-degree burns limited to an area no larger than 2 to 3
inches in diameter with no open blisters, cool the burn by holding it under running water for 15
minutes. Do not put ice on the burn. Advise the victim to see a physician to prevent infection and
to assure that the victim’s tetanus vaccination records are up-to-date.
For second-degree burns with open blisters and third-degree burns, do not use water.
Call 911 immediately.
1. Immediately flush the affected area with water for at least 15 minutes. If the burning chemical
is a powder-like substance such as lime, brush it off the skin before flushing.
2. Remove clothing or jewelry that has been contaminated by the chemical.
3. Advise the victim to seek further medical attention.
4. Seek emergency medical assistance by calling 911 if:
The victim has signs of shock,
The chemical burned through the first layer of skin and the resulting second-degree burn covers
an area more than 2-3 inches in diameter,
The chemical burn occurred on the eye, hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks or over a major joint.
5. Provide a copy of the Safety Data Sheet to the Emergency Medical Technician upon arrival.
Call 911 immediately.
An electrical burn may appear minor, but the damage can extend deep into the tissues beneath skin. If a
strong electrical current passes through the body, internal damage such as a heart rhythm disturbance or
cardiac arrest can occur. While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help, do
the following:
Look first. Do not touch. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source.
Touching the person may pass the current through you.
Turn off the source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from you and the
affected person using a non-conducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood.
Check for breathing. Once the person is free of the source of electricity, ensure the person is
breathing. If breathing has stopped or you suspect the person’s airway is blocked, begin
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained to do so.
1. Call 911 immediately.
2. If you do not suspect a back or neck injury, position the person on his or her back. If you
are not sure if there is a back or neck injury, do not move the victim.
3. Watch the airway carefully. People who lose consciousness may vomit. If vomiting occurs, turn
the victim on their side so that the stomach contents are not aspirated into the lungs.
4. Check for breathing. Position your ear over the person’s mouth to listen for breathing sounds.
Begin CPR if you are trained to do so.
5. Provide a copy of the Safety Data Sheet for each chemical involved to the Emergency Medical
1. Call 911 immediately.
2. Loosen clothing around person’s neck.
3. Remove anything nearby that might cause harm to the victim such as glasses, furniture or other
4. If the victim begins to vomit, turn the head so that the contents will not be aspirated into the lungs.
5. Remain with the victim until the ambulance arrives. Give the victim reassurance to remain calm.
6. Provide a copy of the Safety Data Sheet for each chemical involved to the Emergency Medical
Call 911 immediately.
Do not induce vomiting except under the advice of a physician.
Remain with the victim until the ambulance arrives.
Save all chemical containers.
Provide a copy of the Safety Data Sheet for each chemical involved to the Emergency Medical
UW- Stout Incident Report Form
Name (Last, First, Initial):
Birth Date: ____________________________
Telephone #: ______________________
Date of Accident:
Date: ________________________________
Time: _______________________________
Location of Accident:_________________
Building: __________________________
Room: ____________________________
Were you an employee at the time of accident?
Yes _______ No _______
If so, who was your supervisor?
Witnesses: (names, addresses, phone #s)
Describe Injury in Detail: (use back of this page if needed)
Severity: Non-disabling _______ Disabling _______ Fatal ________
First Aid only _____ Treatment at University Health Center _____
Treatment at Local Hospital _____ Confinement at Hospital _____
Other _____
DETAILS OF ACCIDENT: (describe event, conditions including environmental, physical and
emotional/personal factors which contributed to the injury. Use reverse side if necessary.) Be very
SIGNATURE ___________________________________
ADDRESS _____________________________________
Please complete this report in full. Return to the Chemical Hygiene Officer (314 Heritage Hall) and Safety
& Risk Management (130 University Services) as soon as possible. Any questions, please call X1793.
Appendix J
Chemical Spills
For the purpose of chemical spill response planning at UW-Stout, spills will be classified as either:
A simple spill:
Is a spill you can safely clean up yourself.
Does not spread rapidly.
Does not endanger people or property except by direct contact.
Does not endanger the environment.
A complex spill is a spill that requires outside assistance for cleanup.
If you say “yes” to any of the following when evaluating a chemical spill, you are dealing with a complex
spill that requires outside assistance. Call 911 to report the spill and request outside assistance.
Also call the Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO), x5371, or Safety and Risk Management, x2258
or x1793, for assistance in managing the situation.
Has a person been injured?
Is there fire present or has an explosion occurred?
Is the spill spreading beyond the immediate area?
Is the identity of the spilled chemical unknown?
Is there a risk of the spilled chemical entering the sewer or contaminating soil?
Is the spill located in a confined space or poorly ventilated area?
Are flammable vapors and ignition sources present?
Are toxic vapors or dusts present?
Is the spilled chemical a strong oxidizer?
Is the spilled chemical air-, water- or otherwise highly reactive?
Is the spill in a high occupancy/frequently traveled area and is evacuation required to secure the
The following section explains how to handle a simple spill.
A spill containment/clean-up plan should be established to handle chemicals you use in the
laboratory. Consideration must be given to the maximum amount used and concentrations
of chemicals.
Familiarize yourself with spill clean-up equipment available. If necessary obtain sufficient
supplies to handle potential spills.
The person causing a spill or release is responsible for cleanup to the extent of his/her
ability. Laboratory technicians may be available for assistance but they are not responsible
for cleanup. Persons who work with chemicals are expected to know how to safely clean up
spills of these chemicals.
Simple Spill Cleanup
Don the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). At a minimum, chemical splash
goggles, a lab coat and gloves that are resistant to the spilled chemical should be worn.
Prevent the spread of dusts and vapors. If the substance is volatile or can produce airborne
dusts, close the laboratory door and increase ventilation (through fume hoods, for example)
to prevent the spread of dusts and vapors to other areas.
Neutralize acids and bases if possible. Once neutralized, most liquid acids or bases can be
mopped up and rinsed down the drain (to the sanitary sewer). However, be careful because
the neutralization process is often vigorous, causing splashes and yielding large amounts of
heat (chemical splash goggles, a face shield, appropriate gloves, and an apron or other skin
protection should be worn). Neutralize acids with soda ash or sodium bicarbonate. Bases
can be neutralized with citric acid or ascorbic acid. Use pH paper to determine when acid or
base spills have been neutralized.
Control the spread of the liquid by making a dike around the outside edges of the spill. Use
absorbent materials from spill kits.
Absorb the liquid by adding absorbents, working from the spill’s outer edges toward the
center. Note that special absorbents are required for chemicals such as hydrofluoric and
concentrated sulfuric acids.
Collect and contain the cleanup residues. The neutralized spill residue or absorbent should
be scooped, swept or otherwise placed into a plastic bucket or other container: do not use
hands to directly pick up the waste. For dry powders or liquids absorbed to dryness, double
bag the residue using plastic bags. Additional packaging may be required before the wastes
can be transported from your laboratory. Be sure to label containers.
Dispose of the wastes. Keep cleanup materials separate from normal trash. Contact the CHO
for guidance in packaging and labeling cleanup residues. Promptly place cleanup wastes in
an appropriate hazardous waste receptacle.
Decontaminate the area and affected equipment. See the chemical’s Safety Data Sheet for
decontamination procedures. Ventilating the spill area may be necessary. Open windows or
use a fan unless the area is under negative pressure. In some instances, the CHO may be
able to test the air to ensure that hazardous vapors are gone. For most spills, conventional
cleaning products, applied with a mop or sponge, will provide adequate decontamination.
Special Precautions
Flammable liquids: remove all potential sources of ignition. Vapors are what actually burn,
and they tend to accumulate near the ground. Flammable liquids are best removed though
the use of spill pillows or pads. Because flammable liquids will probably be incinerated,
avoid using inert absorbents such as cat litter. All used absorbent materials should be placed
in heavy-duty poly bags, which are then sealed, labeled, and disposed through Safety and
Risk Management as hazardous waste. Before resuming work, make sure the room has
been adequately ventilated to remove flammable vapors.
Volatile toxic compounds: use appropriate absorbent material to control the extent of the
spill. Spill pillows or similar absorbent material usually work best because they do not have
the dust associated with cat litter, vermiculite, or corn cobs. Place all used absorbent
materials in heavy-duty poly bags. Seal the bags, label them dispose of them through Safety
and Risk Management as hazardous waste. Before resuming work, make sure the room has
been adequately ventilated to remove flammable vapors.
Direct contact hazards: carefully select suitable PPE. Make sure all skin surfaces are covered
and that the gloves you use protect against the hazards posed by the spilled chemical.
Often it is a good idea to wear two sets of gloves: one as the primary barrier, the second as
an inner liner in the event the primary barrier fails. When the cleanup is complete, be sure
to wash hands and other potentially affected skin surfaces and dispose of the PPE with the
absorbent materials.
Mercury spills: mercury spills rarely present an imminent hazard unless the spill occurs in an
area with extremely poor ventilation. The main exposure route of mercury is via vapor
inhalation. Consequently, if metallic mercury is not cleaned up adequately, the tiny droplets
remaining in surface cracks and crevices may yield toxic vapors for years.
Appendix K
Hazardous Waste Management
UW-Stout is committed to responsible management of its hazardous waste and compliance with all
applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
(DNR) rules. This appendix provides the basic tools hazardous waste generators need to properly manage
these waste streams. Questions concerning hazardous waste disposal should be directed to the Chemical
Hygiene Officer (CHO).
How should hazardous waste be managed? A sound waste management program follows the waste
management hierarchy. Reducing waste production at the source, recovery, reuse, recycling and on-site
treatment are waste minimization practices that should be considered before disposal.
The Waste Management Hierarchy
Reduce waste production at the source.
Recover and reuse wastes on-site (i.e.,
Recycle off-site.
Dispose of wastes in a manner that protects
the air, water quality, land quality, and
human health and safety.
UW-Stout relies on the generators of hazardous waste to properly manage the waste. The CHO will
provide assistance to laboratory supervisors in identifying whether a waste is a hazardous waste and the
best way to manage the waste, and can move hazardous waste containers from science laboratories to
the hazardous waste storage site within required time frames upon request. The Director of Safety and
Risk Management is responsible for overall management of hazardous waste generated at UW-Stout.
What is hazardous waste? Wisconsin statutes define waste as any liquid, solid or gaseous material
that can no longer be used for its originally intended purpose because it has become contaminated or has
been used in some process or is an item that is no longer wanted. This waste is considered hazardous if
it exhibits the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity and/or toxicity or if it is specifically
named in one of four lists found in Wisconsin statutes.
A liquid with a flash point <140oF. For example, spent paint thinner, rags (cloth or paper)
soaked with a solvent with a flash point <140oF, oil-based paint products, ethanols, organic
solvents, etc.
Not a liquid and capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of causing fire through
friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes and, when ignited, burns
so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard
An ignitable compressed gas
An oxidizer
Corrosive: a water-containing liquid with a pH<2 or pH>12.5 or a chemical that corrodes plain
carbon steel at a rate greater than 6.35 mm per year. Products labeled acid, base, caustics and
alkalis fall in this category.
Reactive: a waste that will readily release energy or toxic gases or fumes through reaction with
air, water or other stimuli. For example: sodium metal, phosphorus or dry picric acid.
Toxic: a waste is considered a hazardous waste because of toxicity if it is one of 39 listed
substances (eight metals, six pesticides and 25 organic chemicals) and fails the toxic
characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The TCLP is a test that determines whether the
substance will leach from the waste (a concern if waste is placed in a landfill). Table K-1 lists the
toxicity characteristic chemicals.
Table K-1: Toxicity Characteristic Chemicals
Carbon tetrachloride
Cresol, total
Methyl ethyl ketone
2,4,5-TP Silvex
Vinyl chloride
Listed wastes: Wisconsin has adopted the EPA lists of hazardous waste that include wastes from
non-specific sources and discarded chemical products that are listed as acute hazardous wastes
and toxic wastes.
F-listed (non-specific sources) and K-listed (specific sources) wastes are typically created in
manufacturing and industrial processes.
P-listed and U-listed wastes are discarded commercial chemical products, some of which are
used in UW-Stout labs. These wastes have been identified in CISPro, on the chemical’s
Identity tab.
Waste minimization: It is important that all persons and departments generating hazardous waste
consider how they can contribute to a waste minimization effort. The goal at UW-Stout is to either
prevent the formation or production of pollutants at the source or reduce the amount of hazardous waste
that is generated. Before seeking a disposal method for chemical waste and when planning work,
consider pollution prevention and waste minimization methods:
Modify laboratory processes to use fewer chemicals. Can chemical use be eliminated altogether
using computer modeling and simulations?
Take care when weighing or transferring chemicals to minimize spills and waste.
Buy less, store less, use less and dispose of less. Approximately 25% of waste collected is
unused chemicals. Less reduces the risk of an accident or fire, saves space and money and
reduces pollution. Buy only what you need in the immediate future. A bulk quantity may seem
economical, but the cost of disposing excess will negate (and often exceed) the savings.
Redistribute surplus lab chemicals. CISPro makes it easy to look for other users of the same
chemical who may be able to use your surplus. Contact a lab manager or the CHO.
Use surplus lab chemicals, especially if you need a very small quantity. CISPro can be used to
find an owner of the chemical you need who may be willing to share their excess.
Control your laboratory chemical inventory. All primary chemical containers are in CISPro, so if
you are unsure if you already own a chemical check there first.
Substitute with less hazardous chemicals if possible. This is beneficial for not only minimizing
waste but also minimizing risk to human health.
In-lab chemical management: In-lab management includes simple disposal and treatment methods
that can be done in your lab, such as solvent commingling, flushing down the sanitary sewer and
Solvent commingling: Most labs in Jarvis Science Wing Addition and Heritage Hall that have the
potential to create hazardous waste, and all prep areas in Jarvis Science Wing Addition, have
containers for separating halogenated and non-halogenated wastes.
Halogenated waste includes solvents such as chloroform, methylene chloride and 1,2dichloromethane. Halogenated wastes must be incinerated in a special facility and therefore
are quite expensive to dispose of: a 5-gallon carboy can cost as much as $207 to treat.
Wastes that include both halogenated and non-halogenated solvents must be disposed of in
the halogenated carboy.
Non-halogenated waste includes solvents such as acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane,
toluene, methane, alcohols, acetone, non-PCB oils and tetrahydrofuran. They can be
blended for fuel for energy creation and are therefore much cheaper to dispose of than
halogenated wastes: a 5-gallon carboy will cost about $22 for disposal.
Heavy metal wastes, such as cadmium, chromium, and lead, can also be commingled; a
container has been provided where there are also halogenated and non-halogenated carboys.
Mercury and mercury compounds should be kept separate.
Sanitary sewer disposal: Some chemicals can be disposed of down the sanitary sewer. This
should not be done without first consulting with the CHO.
Neutralization: Corrosive solutions with a pH of less than 2 or greater than 10 should not be sent
directly down the sanitary sewer, but they can be neutralized first. Do not attempt to neutralize
the following acids (dispose of them as hazardous wastes instead): acid anhydrides and
chlorides; chlorosulfonic acid; fuming nitric acid; fuming sulfuric acid; liquid halides of boron,
silicon, tin, titanium and vanadium; and liquid halides and oxyhalides of phosphorus, selenium,
chromium, vanadium and sulfur.
Only conduct neutralization if you are trained and comfortable with the procedures.
Neutralization can create significant vapors and heat.
Carry out neutralizations in a well-ventilated fume hood. Use the sash along with
appropriate eye protection to protect against vigorous reactions.
Wear an apron, splash-proof goggles and face shield, and long/gauntlet nitrile gloves.
A five-gallon polyethylene bucket is recommended for neutralizing 1 to 10 liters. A large
container is needed for addition of cold water/ice and base, and to safely stir the reaction.
Contact the CHO for procedures for specific acids and bases.
Comply with the following guidelines if you generate hazardous waste:
Never place waste in the normal trash or pour down the drain unless you are sure it is safe and
legal to do so and it is not hazardous.
Hazardous waste containers shall have the contents, date of generation and generator’s name
listed on its label in addition to the words “Hazardous Waste.” Additional information that will aid
in proper waste disposal should also be included on the label if known.
Only use containers that are in good condition and compatible with the waste being stored.
Plastic soda bottles are not acceptable for containing hazardous waste.
Wear chemical splash goggles, appropriate gloves and a lab coat/apron when transferring waste
to a hazardous waste container. Use a funnel to prevent spills, and be sure to remove the funnel
and re-cap the container when finished.
Do not fill waste containers completely; leave 5% for volume for expansion.
Keep waste containers closed at all times, except when adding or removing waste. The
container must be closed with a tight fitting lid or cap. Parafilm or foil is not an acceptable cover.
Handle and store waste container properly to prevent rupture or leakage. Use secondary
containment. Maintain good housekeeping.
Do not mix hazardous waste with nonhazardous waste. Do not mix incompatible wastes.
Be prepared to handle spills. Call 911 if you are not able to safely cleanup a spill of a hazardous
Once a container is full, date the container and contact the CHO to ensure waste is transferred
to the hazardous waste storage site within three days. Contact the Director of Safety and Risk
Management for pickup of hazardous waste generated in other areas of campus.
The laboratory supervisor should contact the CHO for a review of anticipated waste streams.
The CHO will provide guidance on appropriate waste disposal.
Separate waste containers will be provided for mercury or other solid or liquid toxic waste as
Specialty Waste
Batteries: Alkaline batteries are the only batteries that can be placed in the normal trash for
disposal. There are two disposal options for all other batteries:
Return to dealer where battery was purchased.
Contact the CHO for management as a hazardous waste. Recycling is the preferred option
for battery disposal.
Lamps/bulbs: Fluorescent lamps and light bulbs contain small quantities of mercury and other
metals harmful to the environment and human health. The DNR bans landfill disposal of spent
fluorescent, mercury vapor, metal halide and sodium vapor lamps and bulbs from businesses.
All University-generated spent lamps and bulbs are sent out for recycling. Contact a custodian or
the CHO if you have a bulb that should be recycled.
Infectious and Medical Waste: Management varies depending on the source of the waste.
See the UW-Stout Biosafety Manual for detailed information on disposal of infectious waste.
Sharps such as scalpels, needles, razors and other items capable of breaking the skin,
whether contaminated or not, should be placed in a sharps container. Contaminated glass,
vials, slides, etc. should also be placed in a sharps container. When the container is full,
contact the CHO for proper management.
All other infectious waste is autoclaved before being placed in the normal trash for disposal.
This includes items contaminated with blood or body fluids (but not sharps), animal bedding
and microbiological laboratory waste.
Photographic Waste may contain silver. UW-Stout reclaims silver from photo waste before
Oily Rags: Rags (cloth or paper) that have been contaminated with a solvent with a flash point
<140oF are considered hazardous waste. Therefore, rags used to wipe off excess product with a
flash point <140o F are hazardous waste. This waste stream should be managed as follows:
Switch to a higher flash point (>140o F) solvent. This eliminates the generation of
hazardous waste.
Use a laundering service that specializes in oil-contaminated rags to clean all contaminated
cloth rags.
If the above two are not an option, contact the Director of Safety and Risk Management for
specific procedures for managing this waste stream.
Electronic Scrap: The following have been banned from Wisconsin landfills: televisions,
computers and monitors, desktop printers, other computer accessories (including mice,
keyboards and speakers), DVD players, VCRs, DVRs, fax machines, cell phones and major
appliances (including clothes washers and dryers, dishwashers, refrigerators, freezers, stoves,
ovens and microwave ovens). Many of these items can be recycled through Surplus.
The University can only accept and manage hazardous waste generated on the UW-Stout
campus. Contact your local county household hazardous waste program for management of
hazardous waste generated in the home.
Hazardous Waste Resources
UW-Madison Laboratory Safety Guide (contact the CHO prior to disposing of wastes in
accordance with these guides, as they were written specifically for UW-Madison)
Chapter 7, “Chemical Disposal Procedures”: http://www.ehs.wisc.edu/documents/chemlsgchapter07.pdf
Appendix A, “Disposal Procedures by Chemical”:
Wisconsin DNR
Hazardous waste website: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Waste/Hazardous.html
Chapter NR 661, “Hazardous Waste Identification and Listing”:
Appendix L
UW-Stout Laboratory Eye Protection Policy
Safety glasses (at a minimum) are required to be worn by students, faculty, employees, and visitors in all
research laboratories and laboratory prep areas (except office areas) at all times whenever anyone
in the area is working with a chemical or biological agent. They are also the minimum protection required
when working with processes that could potentially involve shattering or other flying glass (e.g., vacuum
operations and centrifuging).
Eye protection is not required in classroom laboratories as long as all chemicals and biological agents
are stored and/or securely capped (e.g., protective eyewear is not required if chemicals in a fume hood
are securely capped and are not opened during the class). If anyone in a classroom lab is working with a
chemical or biological agent, all people in the lab must don appropriate eye protection. Safety glasses at
a minimum must also be worn when working with processes that could potentially involve shattering or
other flying glass.
See Table L-1 for laboratory designations in Jarvis Science Wing and Addition and Heritage Hall.
Researchers, lab technicians and instructors should assess the risk associated with the work they will be
performing and use the appropriate level of eye protection (refer to guidance below):
Safety glasses with side shields provide minimal chemical protection and protection to the eyes
from glass or other impact hazards but do not prevent chemicals from bypassing the protection
or protect the face.
Chemical splash goggles with indirect or no ventilation are required when splash is a possibility,
or when working with materials that have special hazards. Splash goggles must be worn when:
Working with explosives (including peroxides)
Performing pressurized reactions
Working with liquid pyrophorics
Working with chemicals that react violently with water
Working with highly reactive or corrosive liquids (e.g., sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid
greater than 0.01M, solutions of bromine or iodine, acid chlorides, hydrogen peroxide)
Transferring liquid nitrogen or helium in quantities greater than 100 milliliters
Pouring solvents or waste solutions in quantities greater than 4 liters
Working with chemicals heated to more than 60°C
Experiments that pose a severe risk of eye damage or risk of damage to the face (e.g., work
with explosives or pressurized reactions) may require extra precautions such as a full face shield
in addition to chemical splash goggles, and the potential hazards may also require that the
experiment be conducted in a fume hood or biosafety cabinet with the sash lowered as far as
possible. Face shields are not designed for eye protection in and of themselves and must always
be worn with safety glasses or chemical splash goggles.
The use of laser or ultraviolet light sources requires special glasses or goggles with filter lenses
that have a shade number appropriate for the work being performed. Consult the Chemical
Hygiene Officer for assistance in choosing the correct eyewear.
Anyone within 10 feet of someone performing work that requires more protective eyewear than safety
glasses must also don the more protective eyewear.
Use of a fume hood or biosafety cabinet is not a substitute for eye protection.
All protective eyewear must meet the ANSI Z87.1 design standard. Check for a ‘Z87’ marking somewhere
on the eye protection to ensure compliance. Ordinary prescription glasses generally do not meet ANSI
Z87.1 standards and therefore do not provide adequate protection against injury. University employees
can obtain prescription safety glasses and goggles through the Department of Safety and Risk
Management using the requestor’s departmental funds.
Contact lenses may be worn under other appropriate eye protection. If chemicals or biological agents do
get in the eyes of someone wearing contact lenses, the lenses should be removed while flushing with
water from an eyewash station. There are situations when contact lens use should be avoided including
exposure to intense heat, molten metals, highly particulate environment and certain chemicals.
Safety and Risk Management can assist with ordering prescription safety glasses and goggles.
The employee’s supervisor is responsible for ensuring appropriate eye protection is provided at
no cost to employee based on an assessment of exposure hazards. Eye protection should be
personally assigned for individual employee use whenever possible. If eye protection is shared,
the supervisor shall ensure eye protective devices are cleaned and disinfected prior to being
used by a different individual.
University departments with instructional and/or research laboratories shall determine what type
of eye protection is required for students enrolled in each instructional lab and for students
conducting research in University laboratories. Eye protection requirements will be
communicated to students no later than the first class period or first day of research. Only
Department-approved eye protection is allowed.
Departments may require students to purchase appropriate eye protection. Departments that
elect to provide students with appropriate eye protection for select experiments are responsible
for ensuring eye protective devices are cleaned and disinfected prior to being used by a different
Laboratory supervisors shall ensure that employees and students working within his/her
laboratory wear appropriate eye protection for the task being performed and shall ensure that
employees and/or students who are not wearing the correct eye protection are removed from
the laboratory until eye protection is available and they are able to comply.
Students enrolled in laboratory courses and/or conducting research in University laboratories
shall purchase appropriate eye protection as directed by the laboratory instructor or research
supervisor, shall wear appropriate eye protection when working in the laboratory as required
and shall comply with supervisor/laboratory instructor instructions.
Types of Eye Protection
Safety glasses (referred to as spectacles in ANSI Z87.1) look very much like normal glasses
but have lenses that are impact resistant and frames that are much stronger than standard
prescription glasses. Safety glasses must have side shields or a wrap-around design and
shall be worn whenever there is a possibility of objects striking the eye, such as particles, glass
or metal shards. Safety glasses may not provide adequate protection from chemical splashes
because they do not seal to the face.
Goggles are protective devices designed to fit snugly but not necessarily seal completely to
wearer’s face. Goggles are commonly available in two styles:
Eyecup goggles that cover eye sockets completely
Cover goggles, which may be designed to be worn over spectacles
Three types of ventilation are available
Direct ventilation (“impact”) goggles permit the direct passage of air from the work
environment into the goggle. Direct ventilation goggles should not be used for protection
against liquid splash hazards.
Indirect ventilated goggles permit the passage of air and may prevent the direct passage of
liquid and/or optical radiation.
Goggles with no ventilation minimize passage of dusts, mists, liquid splash and vapor.
Face shields are protective devices designed to shield the wearer’s face, or portions thereof, in
addition to the eyes, from various hazards. Face shields are in order when working with large
volumes of hazardous materials, either for protection from splash to the face or flying particles.
Face shields must be used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles. Face shields
are not a substitute for safety glasses or goggles.
Prescription eyewear is not a substitute for appropriate eye protection. Wearers of prescription
eyewear shall wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design or that can be
worn over prescription lenses without disrupting either the prescription eyewear or the
protective eyewear.
Table L-1: Jarvis Science Wing and Addition and Heritage Hall Laboratory Designations
Research Laboratories
030 (except office area)
Classroom Laboratories
Laboratory Prep Areas
143 (except 143D)
349 (except 349B)
Eye protection is NOT required in the following areas:
030 (office area)
Appendix M
Glove Use and Selection in UW-Stout Laboratories
Determination of the need for glove protection shall be made on the basis of a hazard assessment that
considers the chemical, chemical concentration, potential of harm to chemical exposure and use
conditions (including an assessment of the potential for exposure; e.g., splash or immersion). Special
procedures may require glove protection. For example, gloves made of chemically compatible material
should be worn for work with strong corrosives or with particularly hazardous substances. The review
process for work with particularly hazardous substances shall include a glove requirement assessment.
Lab instructors and research supervisors are responsible for determining if and what type of glove
protection is required in their labs.
General rules for glove use:
Select gloves that are resistant to the chemicals you may be exposed to. Consult relevant Safety
Data Sheets (SDSs), which may recommend a particular glove material. Consult chemical
resistance guides and manufacturer’s sites for brand specific glove recommendations. The
Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) can also assist with glove selection.
Select gloves of the correct size and fitting.
Before use, check gloves (even new ones) for physical damage such as tears or pin holes and
for previous chemical damage. This is especially important when dealing with dangerous
When removing gloves, do so in a way that avoids the contaminated exterior contacting the
skin. Watch this video for a demonstration: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEnn-Ng-NNs.
Disposable gloves must be discarded once removed. Do not save for future use.
Dispose of contaminated gloves properly.
Wash hands with soap and water once gloves have been removed.
Never wear gloves outside of the laboratory or to handle telephones, computer keyboards, etc.
Non-disposable/reusable gloves must be washed and dried, as needed, and then inspected for
tears and holes prior to reuse.
If for any reason a glove fails, and chemicals come into contact with skin, consider it an
exposure and seek medical attention.
Glove Selection
No glove will protect from all chemical hazards. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully select
gloves based on several considerations:
Chemical contact time
Chemical concentration
Incidental splash or immersion protection
Temperature of chemical
Glove thickness
Glove re-use
Other glove requirements will also affect glove selection decision:
Length of glove
Dexterity requirements
Cut and abrasion resistance
Puncture and snag resistance
Glove grip
Table M-1 lists appropriate gloves for common laboratory chemicals. Consult glove manufacturers’
compatibility charts or other sources for chemicals that are not in the table. Also note that only the most
common glove materials are included. Additional glove materials include latex, poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA),
poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), natural rubber, Viton, Teflon, Silver Shield and more.
Table M-1: Glove Chemical Resistance
Amyl alcohol
Boron trifluoride
Butyl alcohol
Diethyl ether
Ethyl acetate
Ethylene glycol
Methylene chloride
Propyl alcohol
Sodium azide
Common Acids
Acetic acid, glacial
Formic acid
Hydrochloric acid
Nitric acid
Sulfuric acid
Common Bases
Ammonium hydroxide E
Calcium hydroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Isopropyl alcohol
Sodium hydroxide
Key: E = Excellent; G = Good; F = Fair; P = Poor; NR = Not Recommended; NT = Not Tested
Neo. = Neoprene
Nitrile = Thin disposable nitrile gloves. Thicker nitrile gloves may work where disposable gloves do not.
It is important to be familiar with the following terminology when making a glove selection:
Permeation is a process by which a chemical can pass through a protective film without
going through pinholes, pores, or other visible openings. Chemical permeation can be
described in simple terms by comparing it to what happens to the air in a balloon after
several hours. Although there are no holes or defects, and the balloon is tightly sealed, the
air gradually passes through its walls and escapes. Permeation data are reported in two
Breakthrough times (most commonly used) are the times observed from the start of
the test to first detection of the chemical on the other side of the sample.
Breakthrough rates are the highest flow rates recorded for the permeating
chemicals through the glove samples during a six-hour or eight-hour test.
Degradation is the physical change in glove after chemical exposure. Typical effects may
be swelling, wrinkling, deterioration or delamination. There are no accepted standards for
measuring degradation.
Cut Resistance. There are no consistent standards for measuring cut resistance.
Several glove selection resources are listed in Table M-2. This is not an all-inclusive list of glove
selection guides; safety supply companies and other glove manufacturer sites may also prove
helpful. Recommendations vary, since for the most part, each site recommends brand-specific
gloves. Available on each site are the glove compatibility or chemical resistance charts for those
gloves supplied by those companies. Not all chemicals will be listed on these charts. Also note
that two similar gloves supplied by two separate manufacturers may not provide the same level
of protection to a specific chemical. Therefore, it will be necessary to consult the manufacturer’s
specific compatibility chart for the brand of gloves being used. A few more things to consider
when using these resources:
There are two basic components to consider when making glove selection: glove
material and glove thickness. Common glove materials are latex, nitrile, neoprene,
butyl, PVC and PVA. There are other specialty glove materials available. Glove thickness
is typically measured in millimeters. Most resources below will make a brand specific
glove recommendation which will consider both basic components. Additional research
must be done if a recommendation does not consider both basic components.
Glove protection requirements differ on whether protection is needed from splash (and
incidental contact) or immersion (significant contact over time). Some resources make
distinctions in their recommendation based on whether one anticipates splash or
immersion exposure.
Most of these sites are considering industrial applications when making glove
recommendations. Industrial and lab applications often differ. This emphasizes the
importance of considering conditions of use and potential for chemical exposure when
making the hazard assessment.
Concentration of chemical used is a variable that should be considered when making a
glove selection. Not all sites specify chemical concentration. Additional research must be
done if guidance does not allow consideration of chemical concentration.
Not all chemicals will be listed.
Each guide and site uses slightly different rating keys. It is important to understand the
rating system used for the site you are using.
There are limits to the ability of these guides and on-line selection tools for making
glove recommendations considering the number of variables that should be considered
when making glove selection. Other resources should also be considered when making
glove selections. Consult the chemical’s SDS and/or the CHO. Most glove companies and
safety supply companies have technical phone support.
Table M-2: Glove Selection References
All Safety Chemical Resistance Chart:
Not specific to manufacturer. Uses color scheme and ratings for the compatibility of four
common glove materials with a variety of chemicals. Does not specify glove thickness.
Ansell Chemical Resistance Guide:
Recommendations are limited to Ansell products. Lists degradation rating and permeation
breakthrough times, and provides an overall rating using color codes with green being wellsuited.
Ansell SpecWare: http://www.ansellpro.com/specware/
Recommendations are limited to Ansell products. Can choose for splash or immersion
protection. Can also search for gloves for mixtures by choosing more than one chemical. Uses
the same overall rating color code as the Ansell Chemical Resistance Guide.
Ansell “Ask the Experts:”
Email the Ansell technical support team for recommendations.
Showa Best Glove ChemRest: http://www.showabestglove.com/site/chemrest/default.aspx
Recommendations are limited to Showa Best Glove products. Lists degradation rating, permeation
breakthrough times for two ASTM tests, and cut/puncture/abrasion/tear resistance.
Cole-Parmer Glove Chemical Compatibility Database:
Includes several manufacturers with overall, degradation and permeation ratings and
breakthrough times.
MAPA Glove Chemical Resistance Guide: http://www.mapa-pro.com/hand-protectionselection-guide/protections/chemical-protection.html
Recommendations are limited to MAPA glove products. Gives chemical concentration used in
making the recommendation. Lists breakthrough time, permeation level and degradation rating,
and provides overall protection rating using symbols and colors with ++/dark green being the
North ezGuide: www.northsafety.com
Registration is required. Gives glove thickness used for testing. Lists breakthrough time,
permeation rate and a color-coded degradation rate with “Excellent”/green representing no
NIOSH Recommendations for Chemical Protective Clothing:
Provides overall recommendations for 8-hour and/or 4-hour use, but no other details such as
glove thickness, breakthrough, etc. It is no longer being updated but is available as an
archived reference.
Appendix N
Safety Equipment
Table N-1 provides a list of safety equipment located in UW-Stout laboratories covered by the Laboratory
Standard, regular maintenance requirements and the person or department responsible for coordinating
completion of maintenance requirement(s).
Table N-2 is a spreadsheet listing location of safety equipment in Jarvis Science Wing and Addition and
Heritage Hall by room location. The UW-Stout Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) shall complete an annual
update of the Table N-2 list.
Table N-1: Safety Equipment in UW-Stout Laboratories
Safety Equipment
Required Maintenance
Person/Area Responsible
Biosafety cabinets
Annual certification
Labeling cabinet with certification
Maintaining certification records
Weekly flushing
Document flushing on affixed
Fire extinguisher
Monthly visual inspections
CHO – flushing and
Building and Grounds –
Building and Grounds
Inspections documented on
affixed tag
Annual pressure checks
First aid kits
Regular check and re-stocking as
Fume hoods
Annual face velocity
Labeling cabinet with certification
Maintain testing records
CHO – annual face velocity tests,
hood labeling, testing record
Building and Grounds maintenance
Goggle cabinets
Body shower
Laboratory supervisor
Regular flushing
Building and Grounds
Documentation on affixed tag
Spill kit
Regular check and re-stocking as
Rm #
Jarvis Science Wing and Addition
Rm #
Jarvis Science Wing and Addition
Rm #
Jarvis Science Wing and Addition
Rm #
Jarvis Science Wing and Addition
Rm #
Heritage Hall
1 (not
Appendix O
Exposure Limits
Occupational exposure limits for exposure to hazards have been set by various organizations. Some of
the limits are enforceable by law while others are recommendations only, with no legal basis. All
exposure limits, whether regulatory or recommended, can be used to inform the risk assessment process.
1. Permissible Exposure Limits. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets
enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs) to protect workers against the health effects of
exposure to hazardous substances. PELs are regulatory limits on the amount or concentration of a
substance in the air. They may also contain a skin designation that serves as a warning of potential
cutaneous absorption that should be prevented in order to avoid exceeding the inhalational PEL.
There are three different types of PELs:
Most OSHA PELs are based on an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure. An employee
may be exposed below the PEL for 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week, for a working lifetime
without adverse effects.
Some PELs are ceiling values – concentrations above which a worker should never be exposed.
There are also short-term exposure limits (STELs) that denote a concentration that should not be
exceeded over a 15-minute period.
The Wisconsin legislature adopted the PELs that OSHA updated and published (and that an appeals
court later vacated) in 1989. There are PELs for only about 425 chemicals. A table of those PELs can
be found here: http://www.wisconsin.edu/oslp/safety/uwsres/z_ref.htm.
2. Threshold Limit Values. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) are occupational exposure limits set by the
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). TLVs are regulatory limits in
the State of Wisconsin if there is not a PEL for a chemical or particulate, but they are also more
appropriate limits to follow regardless of the existence of a PEL because they are more frequently
updated (ACGIH publishes new and updated TLVs annually). Like PELs, TLVs are airborne
concentrations of a gas or particle to which most workers can be exposed on a daily basis for a
working lifetime without adverse effects (assuming an 8-hour per day, 40-hour per week work
schedule). There are TLV-TWAs as well as ceiling limits (TLV-C) and STELs (TLV-STEL) that meet the
same definition in the OSHA regulations. ACGIH assigns a skin notation to chemicals for which
significant contributions to overall exposure can occur through the skin, mucous membranes or eyes,
either by vapor or direct skin contact. The sensitizer notation indicates a chemical that can produce
significant sensitization (i.e., allergic reaction) via skin contact or inhalation. ACGIH also identifies
known and suspected human carcinogens. The “TLVs & BEIs” book must be purchased from ACGIH;
the CHO has a current copy.
3. Recommended Exposure Limits. Recommended exposure limits (RELs) are published by the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and as the name suggests they are
recommended rather than legally enforceable limits. NIOSH is a branch of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) and is the principal federal agency engaged in research, education and
training related to occupational safety and health. The REL is a level that NIOSH believes would be
protective of worker safety and health over a working lifetime if used in combination with engineering
and work practice controls, exposure and medical monitoring, posting and labeling of hazards, worker
training and personal protective equipment. NIOSH TWAs are a time-weighted average concentration
for up to a 10-hour work day during a 40-hour work week; ceiling (C) and STEL (ST) values have the
same definition as the OSHA PELs unless otherwise noted. NIOSH also identifies potential
occupational carcinogens with “Ca.” RELs can be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical
Hazards (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/default.html), which is also an excellent reference for
chemical and physical properties, incompatibilities, effects of exposure, personal protection and first
4. Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. NIOSH also provides immediately dangerous to life or
health (IDLH) concentrations for some chemicals, which are defined as the airborne concentration
from which a worker could escape without injury or irreversible health effects in the event of the
failure of respiratory protection equipment. In determining IDLH values, NIOSH considered the ability
of a worker to escape without loss of life or irreversible health effects along with certain transient
effects, such as severe eye or respiratory irritation, disorientation and incoordination, which could
prevent escape. IDLH values can also be found in the NIOSH Pocket Guide.
5. Workplace Environmental Exposure Levels. The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
originally developed the WEELs, which are transitioning to Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment
(TERA), a non-profit organization. They are non-enforceable occupational exposure limits for
chemicals that are not addressed by OSHA or ACGIH. They will eventually be published on the TERA
website: http://www.tera.org/OARS/index.html.
Exposure limits are typically reported in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3).
Appendix P
Program Review and Update Log
Changes Made to Program
Added 4.2.17 and 3.4 as requested by
Department of Commerce.
Added Table of Contents as suggested by
Department of Commerce.
Revisions requested by Department of
Formatted document to UW-Stout standard
template for safety programs and plans.
Updated to align with OSHA Hazard
Communication Standard revision.
Revised eye protection policy with updated
policy approved by Research Safety
Added verbiage to reflect implementation of
CISPro, online chemical inventory database
Significantly updated several sections to reflect
updates to Laboratory Safety program since
hiring of full-time Chemical Hygiene Officer.
Added Sustainability Sciences Institute to
departments and organizations covered by the
Laboratory Standard
Added UW-Stout Research Safety Committee
Added hierarchy of controls.
Significantly enhanced sections on chemical
inventory and storage, chemical waste
management, training.
Added Risk Assessment appendix.
Updated and enhanced SOP appendix (now
Laboratory Safety Procedures)
Significantly changed and enhanced Hazardous
Waste Management appendix.
Added exposure limit appendix.
Reviewed By
Tracy Glenz, CHO
Tracy Glenz, CHO