IN VICTORIA ANAL YSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES

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ANAL YSIS OF TRENDS IN
MOTORCYCLE CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
by
Kathy Diamantopoulou
Irene Brumen
David Dyte
MaxCameron
Monash University
Accident Research Centre
October 1995
Report No. 84
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
Date
ISBN
Report No.
Pages
84
October 1995
0732600847
vi + 26 (Stage 1)
vi + 84 (Stage 2)
Title and sub-title
Analysis of Trends in Motorcycle Crashes in Victoria
Author(s)
Kathy Diamantopoulou
Irene Brumen
Type of Report & Period Covered
GE]\JERJ\L, 1984-1993
David Dyte
Max Cameron
Sponsoring Organisation
VICROADS
60 Denmark St
KEW 3101 AUSTRJ\LIA
Steering Group
Prof. P. Vu1can (MUARC)
Mr T. Vincent (VICROADS)
Ms P. Rogerson (VICROADS)
Abstract
This study has analysed trends in motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria for the
period 1984-1993 in two stages.
Stage 1 examined the trends in Police-reported motorcycle crashes resulting in death
or injury in Victoria during 1984-1993. It was found that the trend in motorcycle
casualty crashes was different from that for all reported casualty crashes in Victoria
since 1989, with the proportion of motorcycle crashes generally increasing since that
year.
Stage 2 compared the Victorian trends found in Stage 1 with trends in motorcyclist
casualties and casualty crashes obtained from other data sources and jurisdictions.
This included a comparison of Victorian motorcyclist fatalities with those in Australia
as a whole; a comparison of motorcycle casualty crash trends found in Stage 1 for
Victoria with trends in Police-reported casualty crashes in ]\Jew South Wales during
1984-93; an analysis of the trends in numbers of motorcyclists recorded as admitted to
public hospitals in Victoria during the financial years 1987/88 to 1992/93 and a
comparison of the numbers of and trends in seriously injured motorcyclists on Police
reports with those admitted to Victorian public hospitals during the years 1987/88 to
1992/93.
The two stages of this study are bound together in this publication.
Key Words: (IRRD except when marked*)
Motorcycle, Motorcycle Rider, Pillion Passenger, Road Trauma, Crash, Injury, Fatality,
Hospitalisation
Reproduction of this page is authorised
ANALYSIS
Monash University Accident Research Centre,
Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia.
Telephone: +61399054371,
Fax: +61399054363
OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES IN VICTORIA
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
ANALYSIS()F~·MD8:IN
MOTORCYCLE CRASBESIN VICTORIA
STAGE 1
Analysis of TreDdsiDPollee~•••
Motorcycle CrasheS in
"cto~,
1'''·199'
by
KaQly·.·.Di ••
_u.potaIoo
Da~d··J)yte
Max~"erQD
MODasn Uruversity
Accident R~searcb Centre
11
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
1
2. G EN ERAL TR EN OS •...•...•..•.............•..•..•...•......•...•....•...••...•••...•..•••••.•....•.••
3
2.1 NUMBER OF POLICE-REPORTED
FATAL CRASHES •........................... 3
2.2 NUMBER OF POLICE-REPORTED
CASUALTY CRASHES .......•...........• 4
2.3 INJURY SE VERITY
5
3. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTORCYCLE RIDERS AND PilLION
PASSENGERS IN CRASHES ......••...............•.........•.......................................
7
3.1 GENERAL CHARA CTERISTI CS
3.1.1 Sex of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
3.1.2 Age of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
3.1.3 Licence Type of Motorcycle Rider
7
7
9
10
3.2 RIDER BEHA VI 0 UR
3.2.1 Helmet Usage
3.2.2 BAC Level of Motorcycle Riders
11
11
12
4. CRASH CHARACTERISTICS
17
4.1 SPEED ZONE
17
4.2 SINGLE/MUL TI VEmCLE
CRASHES
4.3 SPEED ZONE BY SINGLE/MULTI
18
VEHICLE CRASHES ........•.............. 20
5. CON ClUSION
23
REFERENCES ..........•.......................................•..........•...••...••.....••.......•.......
23
APPENDIX A. LOCATION OF CRASHES ...•...•.........•..................................
25
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1:
Figure 2.2:
Figure 2.3:
Figure 2.4:
Figure 2.5:
Figure 2.6:
Figure 3.1:
Figure 3.2:
Figure 3.3:
Figure 3.4:
Figure 3.5:
Figure 3.6:
Figure 3.7:
Figure 3.8:
Figure 3.9:
Figure 3.10:
Figure 3.11:
IV
Number of Police Reported Motorcycle and All FATAL Crashes (including
motorcycle crashes) in Victoria, 1984-1993
3
Motorcycle Police-Reported FATAL Crashes - Total Numbers and as a
Proportion of all Fatal Crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993
4
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle and All CASUALTY Crashes
(including motorcycle crashes) in Victoria, 1984-1993
4
Police-Reported Motorcycle CASUALTY Crashes - Total Numbers and as
a Proportion of all CASUALTY Crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993
5
Percentage of Police-Reported Motorcycle Rider and Pillion Passenger
Casualties (excluding non-injured persons) in Victoria by SEVERITY,
1984-1993
6
Percentage of Police-Reported Road Casualties (excluding non-injured
persons) in Victoria by SEVERITY, 1984-1993
6
FEMALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY Crashes
(including non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as Proportion of All
Victorian Motorcycle Rider Casualties of Known SEX, 1984-1993
7
MALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY Crashes
(including non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as Proportion of All
Victorian Motorcycle Rider Casualties of Known SEX, 1984-1993
8
Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported Motorcycle CASUALTY Crashes
(including non-injured passengers) by SEX in Victoria, 1984-1993
9
Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported Casualty
Crashes (including non-injured persons) by AGE GROUP in Victoria,
1984-1993
10
Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including noninjured persons) by LICENCE TYPE in Victoria, 1984-1993
10
Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in PoliceReported Crashes with NO HELMET WORN in Victoria - Total Numbers
and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of KNOWN Helmet Status,
1984-1993
11
Proportion of Victorian Motorcycle Riders and All Other Drivers Killed
with UNKNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
13
Victorian Motorcycle Riders Killed with ILLEGAL BAC as a Proportion
of those with Known BAC, 1984-1993
14
Victorian Drivers Killed (excluding motorcycle riders) with ILLEGAL
BAC as a Proportion of those with Known BAC, 1984-1993
14
Proportion of Victorian Motorcycle Riders and All Other Drivers
Seriously Injured with UNKNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
15
Victorian Motorcycle Riders Seriously Injured with ILLEGAL BAC as a
Proportion of those with Known BAC, 1984-1993
16
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.12:
Victorian Drivers (excluding motorcycle riders) Seriously Injured with
ILLEGAL BAC as a Proportion of those with Known BAC, 1984-1993 ..... 16
Figure 4.1:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in Victoria by
SPEED ZONE, 1984-1993
17
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle
crashes) in Victoria by SPEED ZONE, 1984-1993
18
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in Victoria by
SINGLEIMUL TI Vehicle, 1984-1993
19
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle
crashes) in Victoria by SINGLElMULTI Vehicle, 1984-1993
19
SINGLE VEHICLE Motorcycle Crashes - Total Numbers and as a
Proportion of All Single-Vehicle Crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993
20
MULTI VEHICLE Motorcycle Crashes- Total Numbers and as a
Proportion of All Multi-Vehicle Crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993
20
Police-Reported MOTORCYCLE Casualty Crashes in LOW SPEED
Zones by SINGLEIMULTI Vehicle in Victoria, 1984-1993
21
Figure 4.2:
Figure 4.3:
Figure 4.4:
Figure 4.5:
Figure 4.6:
Figure 4.7:
Figure 4.8:
Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle Crashes) in
LOW SPEED Zones by SINGLElMULTI Vehicle for Victoria, 1984-1993.21
Figure 4.9:
Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in HIGH SPEED Zones by
SINGLEIMULTI Vehicle in Victoria, 1984-1993
22
Figure 4.10:
Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle crashes) in
HIGH SPEED Zones by SINGLEIMULTI Vehicle in Victoria, 1984-1993 .. 22
Figure AI:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in Victoria by
LOCATION, 1984-1993
App. A
Figure A2:
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle
crashes) in Victoria by LOCATION, 1984-1993
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
App. A
IN VICTORIA
v
VI
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1.
INTRODUCTION
The total number of persons killed in road crashes in Victoria annually has declined
dramatically over recent years. However, in the three year period from 1990 to 1992,
the number of motorcyclists killed in crashes was constant at about 50 per year, and
motorcycle fatalities were accounting for an increasing proportion of all road users
killed, except in 1993. During 1987 and 1991, motorcycle riders and pillion
passengers comprised 10% of road users killed in Victoria, but this increased to 14%
in 1992 (Fabre et al., 1994).
These figures prompted this Motorcycle Research Project which involves analysing
trends in motorcycle crashes over recent years and investigating why road safety
measures have not been as successful in reducing motorcycle crashes as crashes of
other road users. A review of countermeasures related to improving motorcycle safety
will also be examined.
Stage 1 of this project includes an analysis of trends in Police-reported motorcycle
crashes in Victoria over the period 1984 to 1993. Police-reported Victorian
motorcycle crash data was obtained from the State Traffic Accident Record (STAR)
database. This database generally deals with casualty crashes (ie: any Police-reported
crash in which at least one person sustained some level of injury) only. Hence
exposure information has not been incorporated, so the results should be treated with
caution.
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and Helmet Usage data from the STAR database
have particular problems, with a high proportion of unknowns for both of these fields.
The coding for Helmet Usage is of doubtful accuracy, as it is not known whether the
helmet is dislodged from the motorcyclist's head during the accident.
Stage 2 of this project will examine trends in motorcycle crashes reported in other
data collections, to allow comparison with the trends observed in Stage 1.
Comparison will be made with Australia-wide fatal motorcycle crashes, Policereported motorcycle crashes in NSW, and hospital admissions of motorcyclists in
Victoria.
The years of the study, 1984 to 1993, refer to calendar years, not financial years.
However for the comparison between Police-reported motorcycle injuries and hospital
admitted motorcycle injuries in Stage 2, the time period will be redefined in terms of
financial years and hence direct comparison with this report may not be possible.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
1
2
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
GENERAL TRENDS
2.
The crash frequency trends for all Police-reported motorcycle casualty crashes as well
as for Police-reported fatal motorcycle crashes in the ten year period, 1984 to 1993
were examined. As a comparison, the general trends for all Police-reported casualty
crashes and all Police-reported fatal crashes were also analysed. The trends in the
severity of the injury sustained by the motorcycle rider or pillion passenger were
further examined.
2.1
NUMBER OF POLICE-REPORTED FATAL CRASHES
Police-reported motorcycle crashes and all Police-reported crashes involving at least
one fatality for Victoria during 1984-1993 are depicted in figure 2.1. Generally the
changes in fatal motorcycle crashes have followed the same overall trend as all fatal
crashes during 1984-1993, with a decline occurring after 1989 in both motorcycle and
all fatal crashes.
Figure 2.1:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle and All FATAL Crashes
(including motorcycle crashes) in Victoria, 1984-1993
80
QI
.s::.
1992
300
1U
iV
200
400 ;;;:
~
70
1993
700
u..
I/)
(J
0
100
500
600
I/)
QI
-;;
III
.. 60
(J
~ 50
>-
u
l5
'0
40
-
::E
-
iV 30
III
-
u..
Motorcycle
Crashes
111- - All Crashes
'0 20
zci
10
o
1984
Note:
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
A motorcycle crash is defined as any Police-reported crash in which at least one
motorcycle was involved.
Figure 2.2 displays fatal motorcycle crashes, as well as the proportion of fatal
motorcycle crashes to all fatal crashes during 1984-1993.
The ratio of fatal motorcycle crashes to all fatal crashes steadily decreased during
1984-1988 then increased, peaking in 1992 and declined again in 1993. However, the
upward trend that occurred in 1991/1992 was not statistically significant, as indicated
by the 95% confidence limits plotted in figure 2.2. Hence the peak in 1992 was likely
to have been due to chance.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
3
Figure 2.2:
70
tt~)r
.........
Motorcycle Police-Reported FATAL Crashes - Total
Numbers and as a Proportion of all Fatal Crashes in Victoria,
1984-1993
l
30"00
:;
'0
..•
Cl.
Gl
.........
tttt:[18%
.;.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.
:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:
1:::::::::::::::;:1
'"
r-:·:·:-:·:·:·,
r:·:·:·:·:·:-:]
--
16% ~
T 20%
14%
10%
4%
6% 8%
12%
I
a.
c..
~0
iii
(5
:E
0
'la
tr..······
..····,
10
2%
o
0%
1984
2.2
1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
1993
NUMBER OF POLICE-REPORTED CASUALTY CRASHES
The patterns depicted in figures 2.3 and 2.4 include only Police-reported crashes in
which at least one person sustained some type of injury. These crashes will be
referred to as Police-reported casualty crashes.
Figure 2.3:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle and All CASUALTY
Crashes (including motorcycle crashes) in Victoria, 1984-1993
- 26000
2600
In
In
-
\
./
III
o
I
..J- - ,
1! 2400
2200
>-
r 24000
\
-~ 22000
120000 ~
~ 2000
In
<; 1800
'" ~_'
U
>-
•
o
'0
-o
11- Motorcycle
:: 1400
4
llIIm
..
i!I-- _
Crashes
~ 16000
- 14000
I
All Crashes
t 12000
I
I
I
"
I
I
I
I
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
UNIVERSITY
:J
I
1200
MONASH
18000 ~
'" --------------.
~ 1600
1000 I
1984
0
I
III
zo
In
QI
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1- 10000
1993
5
=
er:
casualties were fatalities or serious injuries, whereas only between 30% and 35% of
all casualties resulted in the same injury severity. For both motorcycle casualties and
all casualties a marginal downward trend in injury severity occurred between 1984
and 1993. This may, however, have been the result of changes in reporting criteria for
a serious injury or changes in practice regarding hospital admissions.
Figure 2.5:
-
..
0.
oc
III
Q,
0~
_Cl
0U IIIc
:20
'C
u 0:0 •••. 0:e
0c
GI
:5 ii:c
Percentage of Police-Reported Motorcycle Rider and Pillion
Passenger Casualties (excluding non-injured persons) in Victoria
bv SEVERITY, 1984-1993
...........
, ............
,
......
' ' ...............
:::::::::;::::::.
30%
100%
•:-:-:-:
Fatal
80%o ........
70%
10%
20%
Other
Serious
50o/c
:-:-:-::.:-:-:
:.:::.
:-:-:-:.
-:.:-:-:.. El
40o/c
........................................................................
90%
jiiiiiiiii!1\1\\\
:iiii1\ji\\\iiiii
i!{ttm
~;!i:;~i~;~~~i~i'
0%o
><... ><
>< :-:.:-:<> .:-:-:-:.
:>< .:-:-:-:
:<:.::
60%
;:;:;:;::::::=:::
:)r »
:::::::::::::::::
::;:;:;:::::;:;:;
;:::::;:;:::::;:'
;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:
:;:;:i:;:;;;:;:;
:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:
».
~.;.~.;.;.;.;.;.;
:;:;:;:;:;:::;:;:
;:i:;:;:;:;):;
:;:;:;:;:;:::::::
:::::::::
o
»
:;:;:;:;:;:;:;::
;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:
1.11.~11111
i!i~11\1j)jiiiii1
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Figure 2.6:
:l
Q,
GI
0
Percentage of Police-Reported Road Casualties (excluding noniniured Dersons) in Victoria bv SEVERITY. 1984-1993
80%
100%
70%
20%
30%
..
0.
Iiii
:;:::
0
c00II
:e
D
•[J Fatal
Other
Serious
C(
90%
10%
0%
6
MONASH
1984 1985
1986
1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1993
3.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTORCYCLE RIDERS AND
PilLION PASSENGERS IN CRASHES
3.1
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
The trends in motorcycle casualties for both riders and pillion passengers were
analysed by sex, age and the type of licence held by the rider for 1984-1993. For this
section, a motorcycle casualty refers to any person involved in a Police-reported crash
whether they were injured or not. However, it should be noted that the crash must
have included at least one injured person (not necessarily a motorcyclist).
3.1.1
Sex of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
Figures 3.1 and 3.2 depict the trends in female and male motorcycle rider casualties
respectively, between 1984-1993 in Victoria. Pillion-passenger casualties are not
included in these charts.
Figure 3.1:
FEMALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY
Crashes (including non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as
Proportion of All Victorian Motorcycle Rider Casualties of Known
SEX. 1984-1993
06%I}
tTI{{:{J+
!':':
I:'{{{:::I
L::::::::{"1
::{{"1
:'{:J [{{'::::::I
1%
40
60
80
z••a:E 100
f!
LL
l~I
o
I
I ········;·;.:·;·1
1984
STAGE
I
I';';
·········;·;1
1985
r
eQ.
'tl
••
4%
uc~
0~
5% r;
2%
'0
:E~ :!i
3%
rnL
!:,,':::::::::::::I
(':':{{:::::I
::::::::::!
?
I
I: 0";';';':';"'1
1986
1: ANALYSIS
I
to:
·····;·;·;·;·;1
1987
It·;·;·"
"';';':'1
1988
It:.;
·····;·;·;·:1
1989
I
1;.;.; ,;,;,",;,'01
1990
I •.:.;.;·····;·;·;1
1991
OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE
It.;.;.;.;.
·····1
I
1'.•.•.•.• ;.;.-.;.;,
1992
CRASHES
I 00/0
1993
IN VICTORIA
7
Figure 3.2:
MALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY
Crashes (including non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as
Proportion of All Victorian Motorcycle Rider Casualties of Known
SEX. 1984-1993
T 100%
2500T
ili
1500
1000
fu
"i:
0.. 2000
92%
94%
96%
98%
GI
:::E
o I
1';';';';';';';';'1
1984
I
I:'; ·-·····;·;·:1
I
1985
1';';';';';';';';'1
1986
I
I;';' ;.;.;.;.;.:.•
1987
I
I';'; ;.;.;.;.;.)
I
I ;.;.;,",;.;.;.:
.•
1988 1989
I
1';', •.•.•••
;.;.J
\
1990
I: ';';';';';';':1
I
I';';
.;.;.;.;.;.J
1991 1992
I
I;'; ,'.;.;.;.;.:.• \
-0
'C
if:::E-00uCoGI0GI
li.
C
>-
9OD/o
1993
As expected, motorcycle riders in casualty crashes are predominantly male. However,
the ten year trend indicates a slight increase in the female to male ratio. Referring to
figure 3.1, the number of female motorcycle rider casualties was somewhat larger in
1989 than in the other years. However, the 95% confidence limits placed on the
proportion of female motorcycle riders showed no significant difference between 1989
and the rest of the ten-year period. Thus the increase in the female to male ratio that
appeared to occur after 1989 was not statistically significant, and was probably due to
chance.
The trends in male and female pillion passenger casualties (including non-injured
persons) for 1984-1993 are presented in figure 3.3.
The frequency of pillion passengers in casualty crashes in Victoria has decreased
steadily for both male and female passengers throughout the ten year period. However
the decline in male passengers is greater than for females - particularly in 1990-1991.
After 1991 the number of female pillion passenger casualties exceeded that of males.
8
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.3:
Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported Motorcycle
CASUALTY Crashes (including non-injured passengers) by SEX
in Victoria. 1984-1993
160
140
f!
120
Gl
Cl
c::
: 100
III
III
0.
c::
80
~
ii:
o
-
60
~
40
tI---
Male
~ D- - Female
20
o
1984
3.1.2
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Age of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
Figure 3.4 represents the trends in motorcycle rider and pillion-passenger casualties
(including non-injured persons) in Victoria, 1984-1993 for the following age-groups:
•
1 year
to to
1620
years
21
26
25
37
38
17
years
and
above.
years
•
A consistent decline in motorcycle casualties occurred in the younger age-groups, 17
years to 20 years, and 21 years to 25 years (figure 3.4). However this decrease was
not matched by riders and pillion passengers aged between 26 and 37 years. For this
age group, motorcycle casualties steadily increased until 1989, then declined
thereafter.
The frequency of young (aged 16 years and under) motorcycle casualties peaked in
1989, then declined steadily. By 1993 there were approximately four times fewer
young motorcycle casualties than in 1989. However, casualties amongst motorcycle
riders and pillion passengers aged 38 years and above steadily increased during 19841993. The decrease in the number of motorcycle casualties aged under 26 years
during 1984-1993 may partly be due to new licensing procedures introduced in
1984/1985. However, other factors may also have contributed to the decline in the
younger age-groups and in the slight increase in the oldest age-group. Identification
and further investigation of these factors is thus warranted.
STAGE
1 : ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
9
5i
Figure 3.4:
800
c:
'"
~ 600
'0
Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported
Casualty Crashes (including non-injured persons) by
AGE GROUP in Victoria. 1984-1993
i~l ~---''''-. ~ ---~-~-~-~
!
900
••
'"
Cl
Z
700
0
U
::I 500
lI)
100
ii:
400
f! Q.
,g
~1984
E
0••
1987
1990
1992
1991
1986
1985
1989
1988
1993
--- ---- .....-0--
'0
3.1.3
11
./
-0-- -
_
_ ------0..
~
-0- -- -0--
"-.-- - ~
----..•
___
(1-16)
-111-(21-25)
-0-(38+)
-0-(17-20)
_-(26-37)
Licence Type of Motorcycle Rider
Age is one possible measure of riding experience of a motorcycle rider. The type of
licence held by the motorcycle rider is an alternative measure. Figure 3.5 gives the
motorcycle casualties by licence type, thus allowing for a comparison between the two
measures to be made.
Figure 3.5:
Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
non-iniured Dersons) bv LICENCE TYPE in Victoria. 1984-1993
1400
1200
l!!
~ 1000
----0---
~
Learner
CII
U
800
-
-o
600
-Std
ci
400
>-
u
..
o
'0
:E
z
• - - Unlic
200
o
1984
10
Prob
MONASH
-
-.
-
1985
-
-.
- -
1986
UNIVERSITY
-.
- -
1987
-.
- -
1988
-.
1989
1990
1991
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
- -
1992
-.
1993
Probationary licence casualties decreased progressively between 1984 and 1989, and
remained fairly constant thereafter.
A marginal increase in motorcycle learner
casualties occurred during the ten year period.
In 1984 the number of standard licence casualties was only slightly larger than
probationary licences, but by 1993 this ratio had increased to approximately five.
Changes in licensing rules - ages and rights for different licence types - as well as the
duration in years of the probationary phase can explain these changes in accident
numbers.
3.2
RIDER
BEHA VIOUR
Motorcycle casualties during 1984-1993 were analysed by factors relating to rider
behaviour. Helmet usage by riders and pillion passengers, and the BAC reading of a
motorcycle rider involved in a crash were considered as possible behavioural factors.
Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in PoliceReported Crashes with NO HELMET WORN in Victoria - Total
Numbers and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of KNOWN
Helmet Status. 1984-1993
Figure 3.6:
80
5%
Gl
c
~
.Cl
.s
c
70
o~
c
a:
40/0
~
60
r!
&
i ..
Gl
it.E
3%
Gl
g::
~l!
.-
.~i
~ ~
::::0
oi!
40
::J
ca ca
fW
Gl"
'g
III Gl 50
III E
ca_
Q.
-g ~
c.c
2010
-g~30
ca
I<
III
lii
0::::
'E ~
o I!!
Q,Gl
eO)
Q.
~
20
Gl
1%
U
>.u
::::
Gl
~
=
'iiQ.
.c
10
C
zo
ci
z
o
0%
1984
3.2.1
c
••
1985
1986
1987 1988
1989
1990
1991 1992
1993
Helmet Usage
The frequency of motorcycle riders and pillion passengers who were reported to not
have worn a helmet in a crash in Victoria in 1984-1993 is given in figure 3.6. Nonhelmet usage is also presented as a proportion of all motorcycle casualties with known
helmet status. The helmet usage data may be questionable as it is not known whether
the helmet is dislodged from the motorcyclist's head during the accident. Further,
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
11
only 74% of the total motorcycle casualties during 1984-1993 had known helmet
usage status. Therefore the non-helmet usage figures are likely to be unreliable. The
relatively large widths of the 95% confidence limits depicted in figure 3.6 confirm
this.
The trend in casualties for motorcycle riders and pillion passengers without helmet
usage shows some improvement after an early rise. However, this improvement was
not statistically significant due to the overlap of the 95% error bars in the ten-year
period.
3.2.2 BAC Level of Motorcycle Riders
Only motorcycle riders and other drivers who were killed in Police-reported crashes
were used for figures 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9, since a substantial proportion of the injured
casualties had unknown BAC readings. Further, the practice of taking blood samples
in hospitals to determine alcohol content changed in about 1989 (South, 1994). An
industrial campaign by medical staff in hospital Emergency Departments in October
1989 disrupted the taking of samples, making comparisons with BAC readings from
earlier years difficult. After 1991 hospitals agreed to adopt a Code of Practice to take
blood samples from all drink-drivers whereas previously many hospitals took samples
only from drivers that were suspected to have been drinking. However the degree to
which this Code of Practice has been adhered to by hospitals is unknown, and not all
hospitals adopted the Code of Practice. Because of these changes the proportion of
hospitalised drivers and motorcycle riders not tested has increased since 1990. South
(1994) gives the unknown BAC proportion since 1990 as 43%-52% compared with
20%-38% in the 1980's.
These changes made to the taking of blood samples would mainly have affected
seriously injured riders and drivers after 1989, but less so those killed. Hence fatal
and seriously injured motorcycle riders and other drivers were analysed separately.
Figure 3.7 depicts the proportion of killed motorcycle riders and other drivers with
unknown BAC readings. After 1990 the proportion of Victorian drivers killed with
unknown BAC shows a similar trend as the corresponding motorcycle proportion.
However in 1990 the motorcycle unknown BAC rate dropped to almost a third of the
1988 proportion, whereas the corresponding proportion for other drivers alternately
decreased then increased during 1988-1990.
12
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.7:
Proportion of Victorian Motorcycle Riders and All Other Drivers
Killed with UNKNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
25.0%
u
«
a:l
20.0%
c:
~
o
~
c:
15.0%
::::l
.c:
•..
'j
10.0%
c:
o
..
o
'':::
g.
..
5.0%
a..
Q~
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
The proportion of unknown BAC readings for drivers and motorcycle riders killed in
road accidents for 1984-1991 agree with the figures presented in South's (1994)
report. However the unknown BAC rate in 1992 of 21% was larger than South's
unknown rate of 2%. Similarly in 1993, 16% of drivers and motorcycle riders killed
had unknown BACs compared with South's figure of 2%. This discrepancy is due to
the preliminary nature of the 1992 and 1993 crash data files used for this report.
South apparently used more recent files containing fewer unknown BAC values.
BAC readings for persons killed in road accidents in Victoria are taken by the
Coroner's Forensic Department.
These BAC figures often take many months
(typically 6 months) to be added to the STAR database. Because of this, BAC levels
during 1992 and 1993 should be treated with caution. However, it should be noted
that the percentage of killed drivers and motorcycle riders who were over O.05g1l00ml
was found to be 23% during 1992 compared with 21% given in South's report. The
corresponding 1993 proportions were the same at 28%.
The proportions of motorcycle riders and other drivers killed with illegal* BAC
readings in Victoria during 1984-93, are given in figures 3.8 and 3.9 respectively.
• An illegal BAC reading is defmed as a BAC > O.05g/l00ml.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
13
Figure 3.8:
'j-
.
•..
>.
.2
0.r::0r::Qjo
cr::. c(
~
:2
:E
£cal
•..:i2
c..
=-::
0u
~
Gl
Ul
"'C
Victorian Motorcycle Riders Killed with ILLEGAL BAC as a
Proportion of those with Known BAC, 1984-1993
40.0%
10.0%
0.0%
15.0%
35.0%
30.0%
5.0%
25.0%
20.0%
.051 to .100
.101 to .150
•.
151 or more
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
For both motorcycle riders and all other drivers, the highest proportion of fatalities
occurred where the illegal BAC level was excessive (0.151g/100ml or above). After
1988 the proportion of all other drivers killed with illegal BAC readings steadily
declined, with 1992 being an unusually low year (figure 3.9). However, for
motorcycle riders the percentage of illegal BAC trends fluctuated somewhat
randomly, declining after 1989 to below 30%. Similarly, the percentage with
excessive illegal BAC readings declined during the same period, particularly in 1993.
Figure 3.9:
'j
Victorian Drivers Killed (excluding motorcycle riders) with
ILLEGAL BAC as a Proportion of those with Known BAC,
1984-1993
10.0%
5.0%
35.0%
40.0%
•.. 25.0%
a:0r:: '';::
0Glr::~
I •.
0.0%
al
c(
c.
15.0%~
Ul
00 .~
=-::
~
20.0%
g0
30.0%
-
151 or more
-- ----
.101 to .150
I
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
14
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
D .051 to .100
Figure 3.10 depicts the proportions of seriously injured motorcycle riders and other
drivers in Victoria with unknown BAC readings. Seriously injured Victorian drivers
and motorcycle riders show similar trends in their unknown BAC level proportions.
The unknown BAC rates decreased during 1984-1988, and then increased from 1989
to 1992 before levelling off.
Figure 3.10:
Proportion of Victorian Motorcycle Riders and All Other Drivers
Seriouslv Iniured with UNKNOWN BAC. 1984-1993
60.0%
~ 50.0%
ID
c
~
co
40.0%
.:.::
c
-
::::)
.c 30.0%
·ii
c
.2 20.0%
---
t::
oQ.
o
D:
-
Motorcycle Riders
l1li- - All Other Drivers
10.0%
0.0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
The unknown BAC rates for seriously injured drivers and motorcycle riders
throughout the ten year period exhibit different trends to the corresponding fatal
unknown BAC rates reflected in figure 3.7. The seriously injured motorcycle riders
showed a sharp increase in unknown BAC rates after 1989 (corresponding to the
change in taking of blood samples). The proportions of unknown BACs for seriously
injured drivers and motorcycle riders agree with those given by South (1994).
Figures 3.11 and 3.12 depict the proportion of seriously injured motorcycle riders and
other drivers in Victoria with illegal BAC readings.
In general the motorcycle riders had lower, illegal BAC readings than other drivers.
Victorian drivers exhibited excessive BAC readings of 0.151 gl100ml or more in
greater proportions than motorcycle riders in the ten year period. However, it should
be noted that the apparent increase in illegal BAC levels after 1988 for motorcycle
riders and other drivers may be due to the inconsistencies of the data set, as well as to
the bias that would have resulted in blood samples being more frequently taken from
intoxicated drivers rather than from sober drivers in hospitals after 1989.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
15
Figure 3.11:
Victorian Motorcycle Riders Seriously Injured with
ILLEGAL BAC as a Proportion of those with Known BAC,
1984-1993
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
0.051
15.0%
to .100
.101 to .150
•. 151
10.0%
or more
...
o
t:
.2
•..
5.0%
o
oca:
0.0%
19841985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Figure 3.12:
..c:
Victorian Drivers (excluding motorcycle riders) Seriously
Injured with ILLEGAL BAC as a Proportion of those with
Known BAC, 1984-1993
30.0%
•..
'i
"1:l
Q)
25.0%
:s
:s
~
20.0%
0.051
;:'0
.2 <C
~m
.101 to .150
~ ~ 15.0%
•.0
.-~ ~t:
C
10.0%
o
.~
..
5.0%
...
o
t:
o
•. 151
c-
o
a:
to .100
0.0%
19841985 1986 19871988198919901991
16 MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1992 1993
or more
4.
CRASH CHARACTERISTICS
Motorcycle crash trends in Victoria for 1984-1993 were analysed by the speed zone
the crash, as well as the number of vehicles involved in the crash. The speed zone
used as a proxy location variable, with lower speeds likely to reflect Victorian cities
towns, and high speeds open roads and highways. As before, a casualty crash refers
any Police-reported crash in which at least one person was injured.
4.1
of
is
or
to
SPEED ZONE
The trends presented in figures 4.1 and 4.2 reflect the overall trends of figure 2.3.
However in the higher speed zones of 80kmlh or greater, the frequency of motorcycle
crashes show no reduction. The trend is consistent over the ten year period. Most of
the decrease in motorcycle crashes has been among those occurring in low (75km1h or
lower) speed zones.
Figure 4.1:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in
Victoria bv SPEED ZONE. 1984-1993
2000
1800
In
1600
Ql
~
:3
1400
(j>-
Ql
1200
f:!
1000
o...
o
~
800
'0
600
zci
11--
-
--0-- -
[}-
75 km/h or lower
- 80 km/h or higher
--u----O----o----{}------D----D---_--o--_---O
200
4001'.
o
1984
STAGE
1985
1986
1: ANALYSIS
1987
OF TRENDS
1988
1989
IN MOTORCYCLE
1990
1991
CRASHES
1992
IN VICTORIA
1993
17
Figure 4.2:
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
Motorcvcle crashes) in Victoria bv SPEED ZONE. 1984-1993
20000
18000
16000
14000
III
i!III
---
12000
ca
-o
- 0- - 80 km/h
(; 10000
z
ci
75 km/h or lower
or higher
8000
6000
4000
-rr------o-_--o--
-
--0
2000
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
NOTE: Analogous graphs to figures 4.1 and 4.2 are attached at the end of the
document (Appendix A). These graphs give the number of motorcycle crashes and
all crashes by location (ie: Metropolitan Melbourne and Rest of Victoria). These
'location' graphs are less informative than the speed zone graphs due to the wide
range of speed limits that exist in both parts of Victoria, but may be used for
comparison purposes with the hospital admissions data in which only the location of
the victim's residence is known. However these comparisons may be questionable
because hospital 'locations' are based on residential address not the actual crash
location.
4.2
SINGLEIMUL TI VEHICLE CRASHES
A multi-vehicle crash is one in which two or more vehicles (including trams, trains,
bicycles) were involved, whereas only one vehicle is involved in a single-vehicle
crash.
The total number of casualty crashes given in figure 4.4 reflect the overall figures in
figure 2.3. The motorcycle crash data (figure 4.3), however, show a definite decrease
in multi-vehicle crashes throughout 1984-1989, compared with an increase in these
crashes for all vehicles during the same period. After 1989 both groups show
somewhat similar reductions. Thus it appears that some factor was operating on
multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes which did not apply to all vehicle crashes during the
period 1984 to 1989.
Single-vehicle motorcycle crashes peaked in 1988, and have decreased since then but
not as steeply as the reductions in all crashes.
18
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 4.3:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in
Victoria bv SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle. 1984-1993
1600
1400
III
~ 1200
III
I'CI
o
1000
CII
(j
~
•..
800
~
-o
600
zcl
400
o
- 0- - Single
---
Vehicle
Multi Vehicle
200
o
1984
1985
Figure 4.4:
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
Motorcycle crashes) in Victoria by SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle,
1984-1993
18000
16000
14000
m 12000
.c
=
•..
o
--0--
985
I
--- 0- - Single
a
Vehicle Z
cl
10000
-
-0- -
-0-
--0- -
1986
1987
1993
1991
1988
1990
1992
---0-.. 1989
8000
I
6000
------~
-
I
--G-..
I
I
-
---0- _
--{}-- _
-{]
Multi Vehicle
4000
2000
o
1984
Figures 4.5 and 4.6 depict the trends in single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes in
Victoria during 1984-1993. Note that the only vehicle involved in a single-vehicle
motorcycle crash is a motorcycle. A marginal increase in the motorcycle proportion of
single-vehicle crashes has occurred from 1989 onwards (figure 4.5). However, the
motorcycle proportion of multi-vehicle crashes (figure 4.6) dropped steadily from
1984 to 1989, increased slightly during 1990-1991, before levelling off thereafter. The
1984 to 1988 increase was statistically significant as was the increase between the
1989 and 1990-1993 multi-vehicle motorcycle to all vehicle ratio.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
19
Figure 4.5:
SINGLE VEHICLE Motorcycle Crashes - Total Numbers and as a
ProDortion of All Sim!le-Vehicle Crashes in Victoria. 1984-1993
900
14%
••
800
12~~ ~••
E
••
~
••
o
700
Gl
..•
U
Gl
U
10% U
:c
600
~
Gl
~
liE 500
8%
g»
6%
'0
Gl
U
:c 400
~
Gl
Cl
.5 300
en
4%
'0
cl
z
co
1:
o
g.
li.
200
Gl
U
2%
100
~
liE
0%
o
1984
Figure 4.6:
iii
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
MULTI VEHICLE Motorcycle Crashes- Total Numbers and as a
ProDortion of All Multi-Vehicle Crashes in Victoria. 1984-1993
Cl.
()
14% '0
'S
0e::!i
8% >
2%
U
>EGl
·f
C
liE
0cGll.
0
12%
~
••
4%
:c
10%
~
Cl:
6"10
-
1600
••
1400
••
iiE
1200
~
1000
Gl
o
>()
liE
~
:c
Gl
>
""
800
600
'S
::!i
'0
zcl
400
200
0%
o
1984
4.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
SPEED ZONE BY SINGLE/MULTI VEHICLE CRASHES
Figure 4.7 represents the trends in Police-reported motorcycle casualty crashes that
occurred in low speed zones (75kmlh or lower) for single-vehicle and multi-vehicle
crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993.
The corresponding 'all vehicle' low speed,
single/multi vehicle crashes are given in figure 4.8.
20
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
There has been a steady decrease in multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes (figure 4.7) in
low speed zones, whilst single-vehicle motorcycle crashes follow the general crash
trends of figure 4.3.
Figure 4.7:
Police-Reported MOTORCYCLE Casualty Crashes in LOW SPEED
Zones bv SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle in Victoria. 1984-1993
1400
1200
Ul
CII
~ 1000
E
o
oS! 800
g,
u
-o
z
C5
I
600
..-0--
II1990
1988
1989
1987
1986
1991
1992
1993
==
I
_-0---.....0--- ID- 0- Single Vehicle
a---
400
200
1984
0
~ -0- -I --0--D--
----0
- -0- - ---0-
Multi Vehicle
ci
Figure 4.8:
Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle Crashes)
in LOW SPEED Zones by SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle for Victoria,
1984-1993
16000
-
D- - Single Vehicle
14000
a---
Multi Vehicle
12000
Ul
~ 10000
Ul
III
o
-o
8000
z
6000
ci
4000
-
-0-
--0-- -
--0---
1985
1986
-
--u- -
---0-- -0- _ -D- _ -0- _ -[]
1988
1989
2000
o
1984
1987
1990
1991
1992
1993
In high speed zones (figure 4.9), the patterns for multi-vehicle motorcycle casualty
crashes follow the general crash trends of figure 4.3. However, the single-vehicle
high speed zone data appear to fluctuate randomly. Thus, the reduction that occurred
in multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes, depicted in figure 4.3, was primarily due to a
reduction in multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes that occurred in lower speed zones in
Victoria. This progressive reduction in low speed, multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
21
warrants further investigation. It should further be noted that there are more singlevehicle crashes in high speed zones than in low speed zones.
Figure 4.9:
Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in HIGH SPEED
Zones bv SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle in Victoria, 1984-1993
350
300
1/1
CIl
~
250
.!!!
200
o
150
o~
~
u
'0
:E
'0
o
100
- 0- - Single
Vehicle
Z
---
50
Multi Vehicle
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
For all Victorian casualty crashes in low speed zones (figure 4.8) the peak that
occurred around 1988 is less obvious for single-vehicle crashes than multi-vehicle
crashes. Single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes follow similar trends in high speed
zones for Victorian casualty crashes, peaking in 1989 and then steadily decreasing
(figure 4.10).
Figure 4.10: Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including Motorcycle crashes)
in HIGH SPEED Zones by SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle in Victoria,
1984-1993
3000
2500
,/
1/1
2000
,/
0-
--eT
CIl
.c
--0-- -
-u
1992
1993
1/1
III
o-
1500
o
o
Z
- 0- - Single
1000
----
Vehicle
Multi Vehicle
500
o
1984
22
MONASH
1985
1986
UNIVERSITY
1987
1988
1989
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENlRE
1990
1991
5.
CONCLUSION
Stage 1 of the Motorcycle Research Project aimed to analyse trends in Police-reported
motorcycle crashes in Victoria during 1984-1993. The frequency of motorcycle
casualty crashes declined regularly during 1987-1993, and a significant reduction in
the ratio of motorcycle casualty crashes to all casualty crashes occurred between 1984
and 1989. However, a significant increase occurred between 1989 and 1993 in the
motorcycle to all vehicle casualty crash ratio. The increase observed in fatal
motorcycle crashes during 1991-1992 was not statistically significant.
The decrease in motorcycle casualty crashes over the ten year period was primarily for
crashes that occurred in low speed zones. High speed zone crashes showed no such
reduction. There has been a progressive decrease in multi-vehicle motorcycle crashes
during 1984-1993, whereas only a marginal decrease occurred in single-vehicle
motorcycle crashes from 1990 onwards. The reduction that occurred in multi-vehicle
motorcycle crashes was primarily due to the crashes that occurred in low Victorian
speed zones (75km1h or lower). The progressive reduction in multi-vehicle crashes
involving motorcycles in lower speed zones warrants further investigation.
Motorcycle crashes were more severe than all crashes. Up to 50% of motorcycle
casualties were fatal or severe injuries, compared with 35% for all crashes.
Furthermore in Victoria, motorcycle riders killed or seriously injured were less likely
to have excessive BAC readings above 0.15g/100ml than other drivers during 19841993. It should be noted however, that the proportion of seriously injured riders with
unknown BAC readings increased substantially after 1989. This is likely to be due to
the changes in 1989 in the practice of taking blood samples in hospitals to determine
alcohol concentration.
Motorcycle rider casualties were predominantly male throughout the ten year period,
whereas female pillion passenger casualties exceeded those of males after 1991.
A consistent decline in motorcycle casualties occurred for persons aged 25 years and
below during 1984-1993, whereas those riders aged over 37 years showed a steady
increase. The number of motorcycle casualties for under-age riders and pillion
passengers also dropped after 1989. A sharp decrease in probationary licence holder
casualties occurred by 1989 and remained constant thereafter, whereas unlicensed
rider casualties declined steadily throughout the ten year period.
REFERENCES
Fabre, J., Griffith, J., Towers, S. and Hull, M. (1994). Motorcycle fatalities in
metropolitan Victoria, Australia: An in-depth approach. (IR 94-1). Melbourne:
VicRoads Internal Report.
South D. (1994). Alcohol in Road Accidents in Victoria 1977-1993. (GR 94-13).
Melbourne: VicRoads General Report.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
23
24
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
APPENDIX A.
Figure AI:
LOCATION OF CRASHES
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in
Victoria bv LOCATION, 1984-1993
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
•
Melbourne
400
- 0- - Rest of Vie
200
o
1984
Figure A2:
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Number of Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
Motorcvcle crashes) in Victoria bv LOCATION. 1984-1993
18000
16000
14000
----
12000
Melbourne
-- 0- - Rest of Vie
10000
8000
----
---o----_-D----o-----r::l--
6000
---0-...
4000
2000
o
1984
Note:
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
'Melbourne' refers to Local Government Areas with VicRoads codes <100.
'Rest of Victoria' refers to Local Government Areas with VicRoads codes 2::100.
STAGE
1: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
25
26 MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN
MOTORCYCLE CRASHES·IN VICTORIA
STAGe·2
Comparison of Police Reported MotorcYCleCasualty
Crashes in Victoria, 19•• 9~,witb:
(a) Motorcyclist FatllitiesiD Australia
(b) Police Reported Motorcycle casualty C~bes
iD
New SoutlWales
(c) Hospital Admission R.ecords for MotorcytUsf$ ill Victoria
by
KadlJDiaJ;uan.poqlou
Irene.l1Ullen
DatidDyte
MaxO,.eron
Mon~h University
Accident·Research Centre
Oc:tober 1995
•
ii
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENn.E
Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMAR Y
v
1. BACK GROUND AND OVERVIEW
1
2. MOTORCYCLIST
FATALITIES
IN AUSTRALIA .......................•................•.. 3
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 MOTORCYCLE RIDER AND PILLION PASSENGER FATALITIES
2.2.1 Sex of Motorcyclist
2.2.2 Age of Motorcyclist
2.3 SUMMARy
3. TRENDS IN POLICE REPORTED
MOTORCYCLE
3
3
5
6
7
CASUALTY
CRASHE-S IN NEW SOUTH W ALES
9
3.1 INTRODUCTION
9
3.2 GENERAL MOTORCYCLE TRENDS FOR VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH
WALES
9
3.2.1 Police-Reported Fatal Crashes
10
3.2.2 Police-Reported Casualty Crashes
12
3.2.3 Injury Severity
14
3.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTORCYCLE RIDERS AND PILLION
PASSENGERS IN NEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTORIA
15
15
3.3.1 Sex of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
3.3.2 Age of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
17
3.3.3 Licence Type of Motorcycle Rider
19
3.3.4 Helmet Usage
21
22
3.3.5 BA C of Motorcycle Riders
3.4 NEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTORIAN CASUALTY CRASH
CHARACTERISTICS
26
3.4.1 Speed Zone
26
27
3.4.2 Single/Multi Vehicle Casualty Crashes
3.4.3 Speed Zone by SinglelMulti Vehicle Casualty Crashes
29
3.5 SUMMARy
31
4. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS OF HOSPITAL ADMISSION
RECORDS FOR
M OTO R CV CLISTS IN VI CTO RIA
33
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 GENERAL TRENDS (VICTORIAN INPATIENT MINIMUM DATA SET)
4.2.1 Number of Persons Hospitalised
4.2.2 Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
4.2.3 On-Road Vs Off-Road
4.3 PERSON CHARACTERISTICS
4.3.1 Sex
4.3.2 Age
33
34
.34
.35
4.4 INJURY SEVERITy
42
STAGE 2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
37
38
38
41
iii
4.4.1 Length of Hospitalisation
4.4.2 Nature of 1njury and Body Part Injured
4.5 CRASH CHARACTERISTICS
4.5.1 Multi/Single Vehicle Injury Hospitalisations
4.6 LOCATION
\
4.6.1 Residential Location
42
44
.46
.46
49
49
4.6.2 Health Region
4.7 SUMMARY
49
51
5. COMPARISON OF TRENDS IN INJURED MOTORCYCLISTS AS
RECORDED IN THE POLICE REPORTED VICROADS ACCIDENT
DATABASE AND THE HOSPITAL ADMISSION DATABASE IN
VI CTO RIA
53
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 GENERAL TRENDS
5.2.1 Overall Frequency of Injuries
5.2.2 Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
5.3 PERSON CHARACTERISTICS
5.3.1 Sex
5.3.2 Age
5.4 ACCIDENT CHARACTERISTICS
5.4.1 Seriously Injured Motorcyclists in Multi/Single Vehicle Crashes
5.5 LOCATION
5.5.1 Melbourne Vs Rest of Victoria
5.6 DISCUSSION
53
55
58
.59
59
62
67
67
70
70
71
6. CON CL USI 0 NS
75
7. REeO MMEND A TI 0 NS
76
REFEREN CES
77
55
APPENDIX.
KILLED MOTORCYCLISTS BY BAC AND LICENCE TYPE
FOR VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH W ALES,1984-1993
79
IV
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CEN1RE
ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES
STAGE 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This is the second of two reports which examine trends in motorcycle crashes and
injuries reported to the Police in Victoria. This report compares these trends with
trends in motorcyclist fatalities throughout Australia, motorcycle crashes and injuries
in New South Wales, and motorcyclist hospital admission records in Victoria. A
comparison of numbers of seriously injured motorcyclists recorded in Police report
files and in hospital admission records is also made in this report.
First Report
The first report examined trends in Police-reported motorcycle crashes resulting in
death or injury in Victoria during 1984-93. It was found that the trend in motorcycle
casualty crashes was different from that for all reported casualty crashes in Victoria
since 1989, with the proportion of motorcycle crashes generally increasing since that
year. The number of motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria has decreased even since
1987, but at a slower rate than casualty crashes generally. Further details are given in
the Stage 1 Report (Diamantopoulou, Dyte and Cameron 1995) which should be read
as a companion document to this report.
Comparison with motorcyclist fatalities throughout Australia
Australia-wide, it was found that the number of motorcyclists killed during 1984-93
had decreased more rapidly than in Victoria. ID New South Wales in particular, the
proportion of fatal crashes involving motorcycles had been halved, compared with
essentially no change in Victoria.
Comparison with motorcycle crashes and injuries in New South Wales
ID Victoria, the decrease in motorcycle casualty crashes was primarily multi-vehicle
crashes occurring in low speed zones of 75 kmlh or lower, whereas in New South
Wales, the decline in motorcycle casualty crashes was in both low and high speed
zones, and in both single- and multi-vehicle crashes.
Reliable information on blood alcohol concentration (HAC) levels was available only
for motorcycle riders who were killed. ID New South Wales, the proportion of killed
riders with excessive BAC readings (above 0.15 g/lOOml) increased substantially
during 1984-93, whereas in Victoria, the proportion was more than halved during
1989-93.
Both States were consistent in showing the greatest decreases in motorcyclist
casualties among those aged under 26 years, whilst those aged over 37 years showed
an increasing trend in deaths and injuries.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA v
Trends in motorcyclist hospital admissions in Victoria
An alternative source of data on motorcyclist injuries in Victoria was public hospital
admission records, available for 1987/88 to 1992/93. This data source confirmed that
serious motorcyclist injuries did not reduce as rapidly as other road traffic injuries
resulting in hospital admission during the period. The data also showed that for
motorcyclists aged under 15 years, hospital admissions from off-road crashes were
more numerous than those from crashes on-road. In other respects, the hospital
admission records reflected the findings from Police reports, except that admissions
eventuated from a greater proportion of single motorcycle crashes.
Comparison of data from Police reports and hospital admissions in Victoria
When the two sources of data on motorcyclist serious injuries in Victoria were
compared, it was found that substantially fewer serious injuries were recorded in the
database of Police crash reports held by VicRoads than were recorded as admitted to
hospital. The reverse was true for serious road traffic injuries generally, probably
emanating from the known practice whereby the VicRoads database records as
"serious injury" many cases of injury which did not result in hospital admission. Thus
providing the hospital coding of on-road/off-road motorcycle injuries is correct, the
extent of under-reporting of motorcyclist hospital admissions in the database of Police
crash records may be even greater than has been indicated.
Recommendations
for further investigation
I. The principal area of improvement in motorcyclist trauma in Victoria during
1984-93 was from the reduction in multi-vehicle crashes in the low speed zones of
75 kmlh or lower. Factors which may explain this improvement, in contrast with
other crash types, should be investigated.
2. The creation of a linked file matching motorcyclists recorded on Police reports
with records of motorcyclist hospital admissions would be valuable for research to
understand the extent to which the admissions are reported to the Police, the
extent of miscoding on the hospital database and to gain some understanding of
the error in the injury severity levels recorded by both VicRoads and the Police.
3. For a fuller understanding of the injury recording practices used by the Police, a
file linking motorcyclists recorded on Police reports would need to be linked with
hospital admission records, Accident and Emergency Department (non-admission)
records, and records of injury treatments by General Practitioners.
VI
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1.
BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW
This report presents the results of the second stage of a project to analyse trends in
motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria. The first stage of this project was focused on
Police-reported motorcycle crashes resulting in death or injury in Victoria during the
years 1984-93. Trends in the motorcycle crashes and motorcyclist casualties were
compared with trends in all reported crashes and casualties to all road users in
Victoria. The trends were examined separately for the different injury severity levels
and by characteristics of the motorcyclists, their behaviours and the road environments
in which they crashed.
Further details are given in the Stage 1 Report
(Diamantopoulou, Dyte and Cameron 1995) which should be read as a companion
document to this report.
Stage 2 of the project was carried out in four components which are reported
separately in the following chapters:
1. A comparison of trends in Victorian motorcyclist casualties with those in
Australia as a whole. Readily available data covering all States and Territories
only covered motorcyclist fatalities, so this chapter is confined to those casualties
who were killed during the years 1984-93.
2. A comparison of trends in Police-reported motorcyclist casualties and casualty
crashes in New South Wales with those in Victoria during the same period, 198493. Motorcyclist casualties in New South Wales represent a major proportion of
national motorcyclist trauma, thus allowing the Victorian trends to be seen in a
broader context.
3. Trends in numbers of motorcyclists recorded as admitted to public hospitals in
Victoria during the financial years 1987/88 to 1992/93 (the only years for which
reliable data was' available at the time of analysis). This alternative data source
covered a larger and more comprehensive set of motorcyclist casualties, albeit
limited to hospital admissions, than the seriously injured motorcyclists recorded in
Police crash reports.
4. A comparison of numbers of and trends in seriously injured motorcyclists on
Police reports with those admitted to Victorian public hospitals during the years
1987/88 to 1992/93. This comparison allowed an examination of the reporting of
serious motorcyclist trauma to the Police, and the reliability of the recording of
injury severity from that source.
The final chapters of this report draw together the key conclusions from each of the
above four components and make a number of recommendations for further research.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
1
2
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
2.
MOTORCYCLIST FATALITIESIN AUSTRALIA
2.1
INTRODUCTION
In Victoria a decline occurred in the number of fatal motorcycle crashes after 1989,
decreasing to approximately 50 fatal crashes per year (see Stage 1 Report). However,
during 1990-1992 the proportion of fatal motorcycle out of all fatal crashes steadily
increased. Is this trend indicative of fatal motorcycle crashes across Australia or has
the proportion of fatal motorcycle crashes in Victoria increased in recent years in
comparison with Australia?
To answer the above question, the trends in motorcycle rider and pillion passenger
fatalities for Australia and Victoria during 1984-1993 were examined using data
published in FORS (1994). The FORS report did not present fatal motorcycle crash
information, only the number of motorcyclist fatalities for 1980-1994 were given.
Hence comparison of fatal motorcycle trends in Australia will have to be restricted to
fatalities instead of fatal crashes.
In addition to the comparison of Australian and Victorian motorcyclists killed, trends
in motorcycle rider and pillion passenger fatalities for Australia were examined by age
and sex.
2.2
MOTORCYCLE RIDER AND PILLION PASSENGER FATALITIES
The number of motorcycle rider and pillion passengers killed during 1984-1993 in
Victoria and Australia are displayed in figure 2.1. Motorcyclist fatalities in Victoria
declined steadily between 1984-1993. The reduction in Victoria reflected the decrease
that occurred in the number of motorcyclists killed across Australia for the same
period. By 1993, the number of motorcyclists killed was almost half the fatality
frequency of 1984 for both Victoria and Australia.
Although the number of Victorian motorcycle riders and pillion passengers killed
declined during 1984-1993, there was an increase in the Victorian proportion of
Australian motorcyclist fatalities between 1985-1992 (Figure 2.2). A statistically
significant increase in the proportion occurred between 1985-1987 (approximately
18%) and 1992 (28%). After 1992 the Victorian proportion declined to 21%. Thus
the number of motorcyclists killed across Australia must have decreased more rapidly
than those killed in Victoria, especially in 1992. It should be noted that whilst the
Victorian fatal proportion was increasing during 1985-1993, the New South Wales
proportion of all motorcyclists killed decreased considerably from 41 % in 1986 to
23% in 1993. This decrease would have contributed substantially to the Australian
motorcyclist fatality reduction. Furthermore, in 1984 the number of motorcyclists
killed in Australia, Victoria and New South Wales were 390, 80 and 153 respectively.
By 1993 the corresponding frequencies had decreased to 203, 43 and 46 fatalities.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
3
Figure 2.1:
Number of Motorcycle Rider and Pillion Passenger Fatalities in
VICTORIA and AUSTRALIA. 1984-1993
80
450
70
400
'C
C
1II
~
.-
III
60
a:Gl
CD-
"0=
~~
50
•• 11..
S
•.
o
Gl
==~40
c
or: =
Sa.
____
5530
-m
Gl
1II
III
o~
Victorian Fatalities
- Australian Fatalities
•. a.
.8
20
E
::J
Z
10
50
o
1984
o
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 2.2: Number of Motorcycle Rider and Pillion Passenger Fatalities in
VICTORIA and as a proportion of all AUSTRALIAN Motorcycle Rider and
Pillion Passenl!er Fatalities, 1984-1993
oc •. .c
80
••
..
50
Z
10
30
70
Oa.
"Oiii
U
l:!1I..
~ :!:!1Il
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>-fti
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20
a:.!!
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a:
0
c
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ca
35.0%
Gl
1II
1II
c
.2
30.0%
a:
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c
1II
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a:
III
••.!!
~=
S
20.0% ••()
1II
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o •.
==&
15.0% '0 5i
c
III
o III1II
t::a.
o
._
10.0% g.
li.
c
1II
5.0%
.~
U
;;
0.0%
1984
4
MONASH
1985
UNIVERSITY
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1991
1992
1993
2.2.1
Sex of Motorcyclist
The number of female motorcyclists killed in Australia generally decreased during the
ten-year period, with the greatest fatality frequency occurring in 1987 at 25 fatalities
and the least in 1992 at 11 (Figure 2.3). Similarly, male motorcyclist fatalities
declined steadily during 1984-1993, although the male fatality frequency always outnumbered that of females.
Figure 2.3 also gives the female proportion of motorcycle rider and pillion passenger
fatalities for Australia. A decrease occurred in the female proportion during 19841988 and increased thereafter. The proportion of female motorcyclists killed in
Australia peaked in 1987 at almost 8% and was lowest the following year at 4%.
However this drop was not statistically significant as depicted by the overlapping 95%
confidence limits. Generally the relatively large widths of the confidence intervals
show that the changes in the female ratio were not statistically significant during the
ten-year period.
Figure 2.3:
AUSTRALIA
FEMALE Motorcycle Rider and Pillion Passenger Fatalities in
- Total Numbers, and as Proportion of all Motorcyclist Fatalities,
1984-1993
12.0%
10.0% -g
ca
..
Q)
'tl
a:
8.0%
III
Q).!!
u=
:.,ca
~C;;
OIL
'0
6.0%
iD
:ECl
•.•
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4.0%
o r::
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0=
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2.0%
ca
E
If
0.0%
1984
STAGE
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA 5
2.2.2
Age of Motorcyclist
The 1984-1993 trends in the number of motorcycle riders and pillion passengers killed
in Australia were analysed by the age of the motorcyclist. The motorcyclist's age was
grouped into the following categories:
• 16 years
• 17 years
• 26 years
• 40 years
and under
to 25 years
to 39 years
and above.
The trends in the motorcyclist's age for Australia are displayed in Figure 2.4. The
number of motorcyclists killed in the oldest age group of 40 years and above steadily
increased during 1984-1993. By 1991 the number of motorcyclists killed had more
than doubled the 1984 fatality frequency. All other age groups showed declines in the
number of riders and passengers killed during the ten-year period. The greatest
reductions occurred for the two youngest age groups, [0-16] years and [17-25] years.
By 1993 the number of motorcyclists killed was approximately one third of the fatality
frequency of 1984 for both the younger age-groups.
Figure 2.4:
Number of Motorcycle Rider and Pillion Passenger Fatalities in
AUSTRALIA by AGE (where known). 1984-1993
300
______
(0-16)
-0-(17-25)
250
----B- (26-39)
"C
C
III
UI
~-(40+)
:D~ 200
"C=
.- III
a:'lij
GIll.
1i
•.
>OGl
eo g' 150
'0
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CD
UI
IQ
-11.
o C
:D.!:!
.0=
100
EO:;
:::I
Z
50
-0--- ___0- -0--0
o
1984
6
MONASH
1985
UNIVERSITY
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
1991
1992
1993
2.3
SUMMARY
During 1984-1993 the number of motorcycle riders and pillion passengers killed
decreased progressively in Victoria and across Australia. By 1993 the number of
motorcyclist fatalities was almost half the 1984 fatality frequency. However the
number of motorcyclists killed in Australia decreased more rapidly than in Victoria
because a significant increase in the Victorian proportion of Australian motorcyclists
killed occurred during 1985-1992. The proportion of Australian motorcyclists killed
in Victoria increased by 10% during this time.
Although there was a marginal increase in the female proportion of motorcyclists
killed in Australia after 1988, the ratio of female to male motorcyclists killed
remained relatively constant during the ten-year period. Changes in the age trends of
killed motorcyclists did occur however. Generally the number of older (40 years and
above) motorcyclists killed increased during 1984-1993 . Younger motorcycle riders
and pillion passengers showed the opposite trend. The number of motorcyclists killed
who were under 26 years of age had decreased substantially by 1993 across Australia.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA 7
8
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
3.
TRENDS IN POLICE REPORTED MOTORCYCLE
CASUALTY CRASHES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
3.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter of the Stage 2 Report will focus on the second component of the project
by analysing and comparing Police-reported motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria
and New South Wales during 1984-1993.
Police-reported New South Wales motorcycle crash data was extracted from the NSW
RTA Traffic Accident Information Database. The New South Wales data was
extracted to be as comparable (with regard to injury severity, age, sex, BAC and
licence type categories) to the Victorian data in the Stage 1 Report as possible.
However, some unavoidable differences between the New South Wales and Victorian
crash data should be noted.
While it is possible to obtain non-casualty crashes from the New South Wales
database (this data was not extracted for this study), persons involved in a casualty
crash only include those injured in the crash. Therefore, sex and age data excludes
non-injured persons unlike the Victorian data in the Stage 1 Report. Licence type,
however, is stored with the vehicle records, and so is available for injured and noninjured motorcycle riders, thus matching the Victorian data. The variable ACCMC
(which indicates if a motorcycle was involved in a crash) is apparently incomplete,
resulting in possible underestimation of motorcycle crash numbers. As licence data
was matched using this variable, this variable will be incomplete also.
Injury severity in the New South Wales database records if a person involved in a
crash was admitted to hospital instead of an assessment of serious injury. Since the
Victorian data includes serious injuries that are not necessarily hospital admissions,
the New South Wales numbers may tend to be lower for this injury severity category.
Difficulty in extracting the number of vehicles involved in a crash resulted in the
single/multi-vehicle breakdown being performed on motorised vehicles only for New
South Wales, hence a bicycle/motorcycle crash, for example, would be considered as a
single-vehicle crash in this study, unlike in the Stage 1 Report.
3.2
GENERAL MOTORCYCLE TRENDS FOR VICTORIA AND NEW
SOUTH WALES
The trends in Police-reported casualty and fatal motorcycle crashes for Victoria and
New South Wales were examined and compared for the ten year period 1984-1993.
Motorcycle crashes were analysed as frequencies and as proportions of all fatal or
casualty crashes occurring in Victoria or New South Wales. The trends in the severity
of the injury sustained by the motorcycle rider or pillion passenger were further
compared for each state.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA 9
3.2.1
Police-Reported
Fatal Crashes
The number of Police-reported fatal motorcycle crashes and all fatal crashes occurring
in New South Wales during 1984-1993 are displayed in Figure 3.1. A rapid decline in
the frequency of fatal motorcycle crashes occurred between 1986 and 1993, and by
1993 the motorcycle crash frequency had declined by approximately 70%.
Furthermore, the motorcycle decrease reflects the decline occurring for all fatal
crashes in New South Wales during the same time period. In comparison, fatal
motorcycle crash trends in Victoria for 1984-1993 (Stage 1 Report) showed a less
steep decline, with the crash frequency reducing by almost 40% in Victoria during the
ten year period.
It should be noted that in 1984 the number of fatal motorcycle crashes in New South
Wales (160 crashes) was relatively large compared with the Victorian frequency (74
crashes). However by 1993 the motorcycle fatal crash frequencies in both states were
similar at 46 crashes for New South Wales and 43 crashes for Victoria.
Figure 3.1:
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle and All FATAL Crashes
(including motorcycle crashes) in NSW. 1984-1993
180 T
T 1000
900
160
••
••
..c
••
800
140
700
ol'!! 120
••
600
U 100
1
••
e
~
o
'0
!
500
0
400
~
••
::E 80
iii 40
60
u..
'0 z
Oi
01984
-a-- Motorcycle
20
0
C(
Crashes
300
____ - All Crashes
200
100
o
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figures 3.2 and 3.3 depict the number of fatal motorcycle crashes, as well as the
proportion of fatal motorcycle crashes to all fatal crashes during 1984-1993 for
Victoria and New South Wales respectively. For Victoria the ratio of fatal motorcycle
crashes to all fatal crashes progressively decreased between 1984-1989 and then
increased after 1989, however this upward trend was not statistically significant.
Furthermore there was no significant change in the motorcycle proportion of fatal
crashes for 1984-1993.
Although the decline in fatal motorcycle crashes in New South Wales reflected the
overall decline occurring for all fatal crashes, there was a significant decrease of 50%
in the motorcycle proportion of all fatal crashes between 1984 and 1991-1993. This
decrease contrasts with the non-significant trend for Victoria.
10
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.2:
Motorcycle Police-Reported FATAL Crashes - Total Numbers
and as a ProDortion of all Fatal Crashes in VICTORIA. 1984-1993
20%
80
18%
70
16%
SI
.c
UI
60
SI
.c
UI
I!
50
<;
U
>-
I!
14%
0
12%
u..
S••
'0
c
I::!
o
'0
::ll!
40
10% ~
oCo
'ii
e
8%
1ii 30
0.
u..
GI
'0
~
6%
~
40/
'0
::ll!
u
~
20
/0
10
2%
o
0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.3:
Motorcycle Police-Reported FATAL Crashes - Total Numbers
and as a ProDortion of all Fatal Crashes in NSW, 1984-1993
180
25.0%
160
UI
GI
SI
20.0% .c
140
UI
••
.c
I! 120
(;
UI
'ii
o
15.0%
GI
-g,
100
1ii
u..
'0
co
I::!
o
'0
::ll!
'ii
.~
o
80
Co
10.0%
'Cii
~
o
GI
60
U
>-
o
Z
e
0.
I::!
o
40
5.0%
~
20
o
0.0%
1984
STAGE
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
11
3.2.2
Police-Reported
Casualty Crashes
The trends presented in Figures 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 include only Police-reported crashes
in which at least one person sustained some level of injury. These crashes will be
referred to as casualty crashes.
The number of motorcycle casualty crashes in New South Wales decreased steadily
during 1984-1993 (Figure 3.4), peaking at 5643 crashes in 1984 and declining
progressively thereafter to a low of 1915 in 1993. By 1993 the motorcycle crash
frequency was two-thirds of what it was in 1984. The all casualty crash frequency
remained relatively constant between 1984-1988, and then declined after 1988,
although not as rapidly as the number of motorcycle crashes.
A steady and
statistically significant decrease occurred in the ratio of motorcycle to all casualty
crashes during 1984-1993, with the ratio decreasing from 21 % in 1984 to 10% in
1993 (Figure 3.6).
For Victoria, the number of motorcycle casualty crashes peaked in 1987 and displayed
progressive reductions thereafter (Figure 3.5). Although a reduction of almost 20%
occurred in the motorcycle casualty crash frequency between 1989 and 1993, there
was a significant increase in the ratio of motorcycle casualty crashes to all casualty
crashes as depicted by the non-overlapping 95% confidence limits in figure 3.5.
Conversely, there was a marginal increase in the number of motorcycle casualty
crashes between 1984 and 1989, but a statistically significant reduction in the
motorcycle proportion of all casualty crashes. These variations in the ratio reflect the
fact that motorcycle casualty crashes did not mirror the pattern of changes in total
casualty crashes during the period.
r~
-
----
0
+ 25000
T 30000
"'- "1iI-III
III
15000 0
~
-111--~ MotorcycleofCrashes
3.4:20000______
Number
Police-Reported Motorcycle
and All
CASUALTY
o~zFigure
-a
- All Crashes
-Ilk..
3000•• -Ilk..
ci 4000
Crashes
(including motorcycle crashes) in NSW. 1984-1993
6000 T
II1992
1985
1988
1990
1989
1993
1991
1986
1987
']
12
MONASH
I
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
10000 C(
••
III
::s
..c:
E
Figure 3.5:
Police-Reported Motorcycle CASUALTY Crashes - Total
Numbers and as a Proportion of all CASUALTY Crashes in VICTORIA,
1984-1993
2500
12%
8%
6%
4%
2%
10%
0
Gl
14% 0
l'lI
III
::I
Cl.
0Ii.
'0
~
1:
0
~
(5
l'lI
~
c:
III
ls
:::E
'0
~
III
::I
0z.c0'0IIIil!'0~~>IdIIIiiII0
l'lI
Gl
Gl
:::E
500
1500
2000
1000
o
0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.6:
Police-Reported Motorcycle CASUALTY Crashes - Total
Numbers and as a ProDortion of all CASUALTY Crashes in NSW. 1984-1993
25.0%
6000
5000
~
III
No. M'cycle Crashes
20.0% III
____ Prop. of All Crashes
Gl
.c
Gl
.c
III
5~
III
l'lI
4000
iii
::I
15.0%
III
iii
::I
III
l'lI
~
o
~
o
l'lI
3000
:cc
~o
o
:::E
10.0% '0
c:
o
oCl.
o
2000
1:
'0
zd
5.0%
Ii.
1000
o
0.0%
1984
STAGE
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
13
3.2.3
Injury Severity
The injury severity level for persons killed or injured in motorcycle casualty crashes
and all casualty crashes for Victoria and New South Wales are given in Figures 3.7
and 3.8 respectively. For New South Wales, the middle grading of severity is an
'admitted injury' which has the injured person admitted to hospital. The
corresponding severity level for the Victorian data is a 'serious injury' which includes
hospital admissions as well as persons who were transported to hospital without
necessarily requiring hospitalisation. For this reason the proportion of admitted
injuries in New South Wales is likely to be smaller than the proportion of serious
injuries in Victoria.
In Victoria, a marginal downward trend occurred in the percentage of motorcycle
riders and pillion passengers killed or seriously injured during 1984-1993 (Figure
3.7). The proportion of motorcyclist fatalities decreased from 3% in 1984 to 2% in
1993, whilst the proportion of serious injuries peaked in 1987 at 48% and was lowest
in 1992 at 39%.
The proportion of motorcycle riders and pillion passengers with admitted injuries
remained relatively constant in New South Wales during 1984-1993, ranging from
29% in 1985 to 34% in 1991 (Figure 3.8). These proportions are generally smaller
than the 'serious injury' proportions in Victoria because of the inclusion of nonhospitalised admissions amongst the Victorian serious injuries. The proportion of
motorcyclist fatalities in New South Wales was similar to that of Victoria, although
no trend was apparent.
Figure 3.7: Percentage of Police-Reported Motorcycle Rider and Pillion
Passenger Casualties (excluding non-injured persons) in VICTORIA by
SEVERITY, 1984-1993
c.
011)
.•.
't:l
~
c
CIl
..
cc
CIl
0~CIlIIICl0
Q:
"f
'OD.
0
>11)11)
11
I Pl
• Serious
Fatal
100%
90%
60%
20%
70%
10%
80%
50%
30%
40%
0%
ii:
==
I
11
I1
11
lI
LJI
I
0 Other
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
14
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.8:
Percentage of Police-Reported Motorcycle Rider and Pillion
Passenger Casualties (excluding non-injured persons) in NSW by SEVERITY,
1984-1993
100%
90%
80%
'C
C
••
••
a;
'C
a:
en
.!?
as
u
70%
Cl
>- C
U III
~
..
o ••
•..
..
o Other
60%
13Admitted
50%
OD.
c
•••
0=0
40%
.12
~
o
30%
£
20%
::E
cii:
0.
10%
0%
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
3.3
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTORCYCLE RIDERS AND PILLION
PASSENGERS IN NEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTORIA
For Victoria and New South Wales, the trends in motorcyclist casualties were
analysed by the motorcycle rider's and pillion passenger's sex, age and helmet usage,
and by the rider's licence status and BAC reading. Helmet usage and BAC level were
considered as possible factors relating to a rider's behaviour.
3.3.1
Sex of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
To compare sex differences between motorcycle riders involved in casualty crashes
in Victoria and New South Wales, the female motorcycle frequency and the female
proportion of motorcycle riders were considered. Male motorcycle proportions can
be considered as complements of the female figures.
The trends in female motorcycle rider casualties during 1984-1994 for Victoria and
New South Wales are displayed in Figures 3.9 and 3.10 respectively. The New South
Wales casualties exclude non-injured riders whereas the Victorian data used here does
not. This is due to the New South Wales database only having a record of persons
injured in a casualty crash unlike the Victorian database. The subset of injured
motorcyclists in casualty accidents in Victoria was not accessed due to time
constraints. Hence the number of motorcycle riders involved in casualty crashes in
New South Wales are likely to be underestimates of the true frequency when
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
15
Figure 3.9:
FEMALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY
Crashes (including non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as a Proportion of
All VICTORIAN Motorcvcle Rider Casualties of Known SEX. 1984-1993
140
7%
120
6%
r!
Gl
'tI
r!
~ 100
5%
if
U
fi'
80
4%
'0
==
.2
o
'0
c
==
~
E
Gl
~
oe
Gl
•..
if
60
3%
Of
8-
If
'0
zo
o
lr.
40
2%
Gl
0;
E
Gl
IL
1%
20
o
0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.10: FEMALE Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported CASUALTY
Crashes (excluding non-injured riders) - Total Numbers, and as Proportion of
All NSW Motorcvcle Rider Casualties of Known SEX, 1984-1993
250
8.0%
7.0%
r!
200
Gl
r!
Gl
'tI
6.0%
Gl
if
Gl
5.0%
U
U
>-
eo
'0
~ 150
::;;
.2
o
4.0% '0
co
==
Gl
'f
~ 100
3.0%
Gl
IL
'0
zo
if
8-
o
lr.
Gl
2.0% 0;
E
50
Gl
IL
1.0%
0.0%
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
In Victoria, motorcycle riders involved in casualty crashes were predominantly male
with proportions of at least 94% during 1984-1993 (Figure 3.9). Statistically there was
no difference between the peak that occurred in the female proportion of motorcycle
riders in 1989 and the proportion for the rest of the ten-year period. Thus the ratio of
female to male riders did not change during 1984-1993 in Victoria.
16
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
For New South Wales, the number of female motorcycle riders in casualty crashes
decreased steadily during 1984-1993, reflecting the general decline that occurred for
all casualty crashes as in Figure 3.6. Similarly to Victoria, the proportion of male
riders in casualty crashes was at least 94% during the ten-year period.
Figure 3.11 gives the trends for male and female pillion passengers involved in
casualty crashes in New South Wales during 1984-1993. A steady decline occurred in
the frequency of pillion passengers involved in casualty crashes for both sexes during
the ten-year period. After 1990 there were generally more female than male pillion
passengers in casualty crashes. This is similar to the pattern occurring for pillion
passenger casualties in Victoria (see Stage 1 Report).
350
300
r!
••
Cl
;
250
Ul
Ul
III
Q.
c
~
200
S
150
Z
100
ii:
'tl
-'£o
E
:J
Z
50
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
3.3.2 Age of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
The age of motorcycle riders and pillion passengers in Police-Reported casualty
crashes for Victoria and New South Wales has been grouped into the following
categories:
•
38
16 years to
and20
above.
21
17
25
years
26
37under
••
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
17
Figure 3.12: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported
Casualty Crashes (including non-injured persons) by AGE GROUP in
VICTORIA, 1984-1993
0..
E
..
l:lJ
0 l:
-~Sl:I.
Z
.•.
~
Ul
Gl
.Q
III
lJ Ul
Gl
••
>Ul
"C
Ul III
:::J
"C
Gl ~
Cl
i:i:
l:
a::
900
700
200
800
600
400
100
300
500
_-----ilII
I
•
(1-16)
---G--
(17- 2 0)
ill
(21-25)
- --- - (26-37)
- -0- - (38+)
o
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Figure 3.13: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers in Police-Reported
Casualty Crashes (excluding non-injured persons) by AGE GROUP in NSW,
1984-1993
2500
__
-0-(17-20)
2000
III
a;
"a:
(0-16)
-0-(21-25)
.!! III
U ~
> ••
_._(26-37)
b ::
-0-(38+)
l:! 2'
o
•• 1500
==
.•
,,0..
e~=5
"
.C'::
_0..
•..
1000
o~ .•
c
••
.Q
E
::l
Z
500
---~---~-~---~---~
.. ----------
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
-
•
1992
1993
For Victoria in 1984, the greatest number of motorcycle casualties were for persons
aged 21-25 years, but by 1993 the majority of casualties were for the older age-group,
26-37 years (Figure 3.12). Generally, a decline in the number of casualties occurred
for younger motorcycle riders and pillion passengers aged under 26 years during
1984-1993. Conversely, riders and pillion passengers aged 26 years and over who
were involved in casualty crashes, showed an increasing trend for the ten-year period.
The greatest increase, approximately 60%, occurred for older motorcyclists, aged 38
years and above.
18
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
In 1984 for New South Wales, the largest number of motorcycle casualties were for
young persons aged 17-20 years (Figure 3.13). By 1993 motorcyclists aged 26-37
years made up the majority of casualties as in Victoria. A rapid decline in the casualty
frequency occurred for younger riders and passengers especially those aged 17-25
years during 1984-1993. This decreasing trend mirrored the overall motorcycle
casualty crash decline depicted in Figure 3.4. Motorcyclists aged 38 years and over,
however, showed a marginal increasing trend. Thus the decline in motorcycle
casualties during 1984-1993 was mainly for riders and pillion passengers aged under
26 years.
3.3.3
Licence Type of Motorcycle Rider
For Victoria the motorcycle licence types were 'learner', 'probationary', 'standard'
and 'unlicensed'.
New South Wales had the same licence categories, except that
'probationary' licences are known as 'provisional' licences.
Figure 3.14 shows the trends in licence type of motorcycle casualties during 19841993 for Victoria. The number of casualties for inexperienced riders, holding
probationary licences, have decreased progressively between 1984-1989 and remained
constant thereafter. Conversely motorcycle riders with standard licences had an
increasing casualty frequency until 1989 which then declined. Moreover in 1984 there
were 148 more standard licence casualties than probationary ones, but by 1993 the
difference was almost five and a half times as large, with 820 more standard than
probationary licence casualties.
A marginal increase in the number of learner
casualties occurred between 1984-1993.
The trends in motorcycle casualties by licence type differed for New South Wales
(Figure 3.15). Unlike Victoria, provisional licence casualties marginally increased
between 1984-1989 before declining thereafter. Learner casualties in New South
Wales did not display the increase that occurred in Victoria during 1984-1993. The
opposite trend occurred with learner casualties decreasing rapidly from 1,336 crashes
in 1984 to 171 crashes in 1993. The number of casualties for motorcycle riders
holding standard licences decreased steadily during the ten-year period as well.
It should be noted, however, the trends displayed in Figure 3.14 could be partially
explained by the changes that have occurred during the past ten years in motorcycle
licensing in Victoria, detailed in VicRoads (1991).
As a result of the Road Safety Act, enacted on 1 March 1987, the number of
probationary licence holders has decreased since 1986. After 1 March 1987, all third
year probationary riders became full licence holders and the consequences of most
traffic offences were relaxed. Offences which would have led to licence cancellation,
were reduced to licence suspension. Furthermore, the introduction of a dual licence
system for car and motorcycle licence holders in 1986, meant that the probationary
period of two years became licence dependent and not vehicle dependent. Thus a
person with a full car licence could be issued with a full (but restricted) motorcycle
licence on passing the probationary licence test.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
19
The increase in casualty crashes for probationary riders in Victoria after 1990 could be
explained by changes in the probationary period duration. In August 1990, the
probationary period for motorcycle riders changed from two to three years hence
increasing the time a rider held a probationary licence.
For New South Wales the licensing changes for motorcycle riders that happened in
Victoria during 1984-1993 did not occur.
Figure 3.14: Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
non-injured persons) by LICENCE TYPE in VICTORIA, 1984-1993
1400
1200
Ul
; 1000
a:
~ 800
'C
>
__
Prob
I.)
•..
o
Ill---- Std
600
'0
::E
...
- - .-
o
0400
- - Unlic
z
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
--.---
..•
1992
1993
1991
Figure 3.15: Motorcycle Riders in Police-Reported Casualty Crashes (including
non-injured persons) by LICENCE TYPE in NSW, 1984-1993
_____ Std
3500
I
---0--
~
Pray
1500- Unlic
3000~
I
---0--
Learner
"a:~
••
u••>
u
2o
::iE
'to
o
.;
z
1000
----
500
o
1984
20
MONASH
1985
-
---1986
UNIVERSITY
1987
1988
1989
ACCIDENT RESEARCH
1990
CENTRE
1991
1992
1993
3.3.4
Helmet Usage
The trends in the number of motorcycle riders and passengers killed or injured who
were not wearing a helmet in a crash are given in Figures 3.16 and 3.17 for Victoria
and New South Wales respectively.
The non-helmet usage proportion of
motorcyclists with known helmet status is also depicted in the charts.
Figure 3.16: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in
Police-Reported Crashes coded as NOT WEARING HELMET in VICTORIATotal Numbers and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of
KNOWN Helmet Status, 1984-1993
5%
e
~
~
'"
···
·
·i
·
°i
4%
e'"
:.
eo
3%
~
."
."
a:
2%
~
:.
•
eo
"f
o
~
.t
1%
E
..
'"
i:
zo
0%
1984
1985
1988
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.17: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in
Police-Reported Crashes coded as NOT WEARING HELMET in NSW - Total
Numbers and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of KNOWN Helmet
Status, 1984-1993
350
9%
8%
300
f!
.,
Ol
I: ••
7%
."
I:
la
••
::J
••
la
~ en
:l: .,
0-
."
..
= ~
a:
E
250
6%
Q.::J:
S
la
:= Q
is:.5
-
:~
i:i:
.,
4%)
.2 ~
30/0
£ I~:
.. .,
150
t: ~
8.
en
la
U."
_~ ~0
2% .§
=
"Q.
..r:::
I:
C:. .2
50
1%
~ is:
0%
o
1984
STAGE
f
., ..
100
:!EU
zci
~
5% :!E 0
••• I:
o ~
200
I: :;;••
."
~ g
••
a;
~::J:
U I:
..!!
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
21
3.3.4
Helmet Usage
The trends in the number of motorcycle riders and passengers killed or injured who
were not wearing a helmet in a crash are given in Figures 3.16 and 3.17 for Victoria
and New South Wales respectively.
The non-helmet usage proportion of
motorcyclists with known helmet status is also depicted in the charts.
Figure 3.16: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in
Police- Reported Crashes coded as NOT WEARING HELMET in VICTORIA Total Numbers and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of
KNOWN Helmet Status. 1984-1993
80
5%
'"
;;;
Cl
c:
'"
'"
70
4%
f?
'"
60
~
c: _
'"
'"
'"E
"'8:.
c:
.2
=
~
ii:
-ga
50
tU tU
tU
3%
0)
c:
~"m
lii::
f!C5
'" c:
."
ii:
",."tU
"'." '"
ii:.E
~
ID
~~
40
~c:
.,
2%
30
~~
ac:£
>.:
~o .~
g.-8
~8
o
Z
~
a.
c:
Cl
"-
o
a:
20
1%
~
0;
.c:
10
r:.
zo
0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.17: Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers Killed or Injured in
Police-Reported Crashes coded as NOT WEARING HELMET in NSW - Total
Numbers and as a Proportion of Motorcycle Casualties of KNOWN Helmet
Status. 1984-1993
350
8%
7%
300
c:
~
ii:
f!!
'"
Cl
6%
c: _
'"
'" 250
f!!cn
~~
a.
'g
~
c:
5%
200
'C:
m
tU::
4%
f!!c;
~
c.,
.a:
"'-'"
ii: E
",0;
."
a.:I:
~
.-
"C fI)
c: :J
tU
1ii
-:I:
-~i
::
g
a>.:
SE
1: ~
150
tU
",."
3%
o~
1;'0
::;;0
8. ~
e
- '"
a.
Cl
c:
Q) .,
100
o
Z
2%
E
Q)
.c:
gj
a..
r:.
zo
50
1%
0%
STAGE
1984
1985
2:
ANALYSIS
1986
1987
OF TRENDS
1988
1989
1990
IN MOTORCYCLE
1991
CRASHES
1992
1993
IN VICTORIA
21
In Victoria the number of injured motorcyclists not wearing a helmet increased
between 1984-1988 before decreasing again to its original level by 1993. However
the increase in the proportion of non-helmet wearers was not statistically significant.
In New South Wales an increase occurred in the non-helmet wearing proportion
between 1984-1987. Unlike Victoria, the increase in the proportion from 4% to 7%
was statistically significant. The increase, however, was short-lived - between 1988
and 1991-1993 there was a significant decline in the proportion of non-helmet
wearing rates.
By 1993, the non-helmet proportion of motorcycle riders and
passengers with known helmet status had returned to its original level.
3.3.5 BAC of Motorcycle Riders
The proportion of motorcycle riders with Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) known
to be above O.Olg/100ml has been analysed separately for killed riders and for those
with serious or admitted injuries. The reason for analysing the killed riders separately
is because there are fewer 'not knowns' among the killed riders and the severity of the
injury is known for certain. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in the practice of
taking blood samples to determine alcohol content in Victorian hospitals in 1989
would mainly have affected seriously injured riders and drivers, but less so those
killed. The Stage 1 Report gives a more comprehensive discussion on the changes
made to the taking of blood samples in Victoria.
Figure 3.18 depicts the proportion of killed motorcycle riders with unknown BAC
readings in New South Wales during 1984-1993. The proportion of riders killed with
unknown BAC peaked in 1989 at approximately 19%, and generally declined
thereafter to a low of 2.4% in 1993.
The New South Wales' proportion is similar to South's (1994) unknown BAC figure
of 2% for killed motorcycle riders in Victoria. Furthermore, using South's unknown
BAC proportions for killed motorcyclists for 1992/1993, the trends in unknown BACs
for New South Wales are generally similar to the Victorian trends during 1984-1993
(see Stage 1 Report). South's figures were used as a comparison rather than the
Police accident data, because of the preliminary nature of the 1992 and 1993 BAC
values in the Police accident database. South apparently used more recent data files
containing fewer unknown BAC values than the Victorian crash data files used in this
report.
22
MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENlRE
Figure 3.18:
cc0
0eID
:J
c(
;;c ~...
D.
c
~
'!it
Co
tl
Proportion of NSW Motorcycle Riders Killed with UNKNOWN
BAC,1984-1993
8.0%1990
6.0%
1987
1991
1986
20.0%
1988
1989
1985
14.0%
10.0%
12.0%
4.0%
1984
2.0%
0.0%
16.0%
18.0%
1992
1993
In Victoria during 1984-1992 the greatest proportion of motorcycle riders killed with
known BAC had excessive BAC readings of 0.151g/l00ml and above, ranging from
15% in 1984 to 28% in 1989 (Figure 3.19). However in 1993 there were less riders
killed with excessive BACs (>0.150g/l00ml) than with high BACs in the range
between 0.1OIg/l00ml and 0.150g/l00ml.
In 1988 16% of riders killed had low
positive BAC levels between 0.01Ig/l00ml and 0.050g/100ml, however by 1992
there were no riders killed with BAC readings in this range. It should be noted,
though, there were only 11 riders killers in 1992 with BAC>O.OlOg/lOOml compared
with 22 in 1988. Generally the proportion of motorcycle riders killed with BAC
levels above O.OlOg/lOOml increased between 1984-1989 (peaking in 1987 at 48%)
and then decreased to 35% by 1993.
Figure 3.20 gives the corresponding New South Wales trends to Figure 3.19 for riders
killed with BAC levels above O.OlOg/lOOml. The proportion of motorcycle riders
killed with excessive BAC readings (>0. 150g/l OOml)increased substantially between
1984 (l 0%) and 1993 (28%). This contrasts with the Victorian trends, where only
12% of riders had BACs ofO.151g/l00ml and above in 1993. For New South Wales
only 7% of killed motorcycle riders with known BAC levels in excess of
O.OlOg/lOOmlhad readings below 0.151g/l00ml in 1993.
The greatest proportion of motorcycle riders killed with low positive BAC levels
(0.01Ig/100ml to 0.050g/l00ml) occurred in 1987 in New South Wales at 13%,
whereas in Victoria the peak occurred a year later in 1988. However as for Victoria,
the smallest proportion of riders killed with low positive BACs occurred in 1992 at
2%, although only 19 riders with BAC >0.010g/100ml were killed in New South
Wales in 1992 compared with 48 in 1987.
STAGE2: ANALYSISOFTRENDSIN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHESIN VICTORIA 23
Overall the proportion of riders with BAC levels above O.OlOg/lOOml decreased
between 1987-1989 from 47% to 32%, then marginally increased to 35% in 1993 in
New South Wales.
Figure 3.19:
i "!
DiE
Si!
oc
(;
=c0 1:
'0
~
=:
'j0ml:!..:0.0••In..
'0
()
20%
50%
25%
15%
40%
35%
10%
30%
VICTORIAN Motorcycle Riders Killed with BAC >0.010g/100mI
as a ProDortion of those with Known BAC.1984-1993
,...
'987
1985
'906(23)
1990
1988
1992
'99'
"""
(51)
(49)
(46)
(47)
(48)
(88)
(39)
(23)
(39)
(59)
(58)
(23)
(50)
(22)
(28)
(11)
(15)
(34)
(58)
(84)
(12)
(84)
(57)
'984
5%
0%
45%
o .01110 .050
ID.05110 .100
-.101 to .150
-.151 or more
Figure 3.20:
i "j~
50%
25%
40%
15%
0c
35%
10%
m
(;
..:
'o
~
c0 1:
30%
=:
00In0•• 20%
'0
() e 5%
D.t:.
iE
Si!
NSW Motorcycle Riders Killed with BAC >0.010g/100mI as a
ProDortion of those with Known BAC.1984-1993
,...
'906
1988
1987
1985
(126)
(25)
(36)
(48)
(44)
(79)
(111)
(119)
(103)
(146)
(98)
(W)((122)
(109)
33)
'984
0%
45%
o .011 to .050
111.051to .100
-.10110.150
-.151 or more
'990
'99'
'992
"""
(32)
(20)
(19)
(14)
(78)
(84)
(47)
(50)
(40)
(54)
(55)
(41)
• Number of motorcycle riders killed with BAC > O.OlOgllOOml for a particular year.
of motorcycle riders killed with known BAC for a particular year.
**. Number of motorcycle riders killed for a particular year.
** Number
24
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
The proportion of motorcycle riders admitted to hospital with unknown BAC in New
South Wales during 1984-1993 is depicted in Figure 3.21. The unknown BAC
proportion decreased considerably from 22% in 1984 to 4% in 1987, then gradually
increased to 10% by 1993. This trend differs from the Victorian unknown BAC
proportions for seriously injured riders which displayed a sharp increase after 1989
(Stage 1 Report).
Figure 3.21: Proportion of NSW Motorcycle Riders Admitted to Hospital with
UNKNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
25.0%
0
cc
0 ll.
:J
~
efi8-c"
0 '~~
...•
Of
10.0%
20.0%
15.0%
5.0%
~~
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.22: NSW Motorcycle Riders Admitted to Hospital with
BAC >O.OI0g/100mlas a Proportion ofthose with Known BAC, 1984-1993
25%
•••..!.",:
.."
'.-."
0
0's>. =0:
••
c0.c
Q.
0::
'E
e0'i
:l!
lE
c
0 B.
'0
ia
""
i
I
fu1:'H
m'?p,n
200A, •. 151
0.05110.100
or more
0.011 to.05O
15%
.X
100A,
5%
~-~::;'''::'''A
"'~;,<,<~>"
jj';""
~~:
)::/f:~:~:~:':~:~:':'?;>
).,=
0%
it jY,'
"cc"',,,
w:
~,m'-",,,
}~&#
U
';'W&m
•. 101
to.15O
''''
...~
..•
.'"
(''''''"
,-,""
('030)
(90')
(1231)
(1263)
('000)
(181)(1215)
.<5)
(1281)
(1370)
~OO)
(97~
• Number of motorcycle riders admitted to hospital with BAC > O.OIOg/IOOml for a particular year .
•.• Number of motorcycle riders admitted to hospital with known BAC for a particular year .
••• Number of motorcycle ridem admitted to hospital for a particular year.
STAGE2: ANALYSISOFTRENDSIN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHESIN VICTORIA 25
Of those motorcycle riders with known BAC who sustained a hospital admitted injury
in New South Wales, the proportion of riders with BAC levels above 0.01 Ogll OOml
marginally increased between 1984-1988 to 24% and declined to 15% by 1993
(Figure 3.22). In contrast, in Victoria almost 30% of seriously injured motorcycle
riders had BACs above 0.050g/100ml in 1993 - this, however, may be a consequence
of the changes made to blood sampling laws in 1989 in Victoria (Stage 1 Report) and
cannot be considered a reliable figure. For this reason, the Victorian distribution of
BAC readings of seriously injured motorcyclists is not re-analysed here.
It should be noted that changes in the past ten years in BAC restrictions and
motorcycle licensing within Victoria and New South Wales, could explain many of
the trends shown in fatal crashes by BAC levels (Figures 3.19 and 3.20) and in
casualty crash trends by licence type (Figures 3.14 and 3.15). For this reason, the
proportion of motorcycle riders killed in Victoria and New South Wales are presented
for each of the four licence types (learner, probationary/provisional, standard and
unlicensed), by BAC level in the Appendix.
3.4
NEW SOUTH WALES AND VICTORIAN CASUALTY CRASH
CHARACTERISTICS
This section investigates trends in Police-reported motorcycle casualty crashes by
speed zone and by the number of vehicles involved in the crash. Two speed zones
were used:
• low speed zone (75 kmlh or lower) and
• high speed zone (80 kmlh or higher).
It should be noted that speed zoning policies differ between the two states and so
characteristics of locations with similar zoning may differ.
Casualty crashes are further categorised into crash type, in which a single-vehicle
crash involves only one vehicle, whilst a multi-vehicle crash has more than one
vehicle. However, New South Wales crashes involving a motorcycle and a bicycle are
classed as single-vehicle crashes, since the NSW database extracted motorised
vehicles only, thereby omitting bicycles from the count of the number of vehicles in
the crash.
3.4.1 Speed Zone
In Victoria, most of the decrease that occurred in the motorcycle casualty crash
frequency depicted in Figure 3.5 has been amongst casualty crashes occurring in low
speed zones, with a decline occurring between 1987-1993 (Figure 3.23). The number
of motorcycle casualty crashes in high speed zones remained relatively constant
during the ten-year period.
In contrast, the decreasing trends that occurred in all motorcycle casualty crashes in
New South Wales, occurred in both low and high speed zones (Figure 3.24).
However there was a considerably steeper reduction in the motorcycle casualty crash
frequency for low speed zones than for high speed zones.
26
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
However there was a considerably steeper reduction in the motorcycle casualty crash
frequency for low speed zones than for high speed zones.
Figure 3.23:
0III
Ql
III
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in
VICTORIA by SPEED ZONE, 1984-1993
2000
1400
400
600
800
U
1200
z:ii:..
.•..
cJ
0
~1984
1000
Ql
ca
.r::
Cs
0
200
1600
1800
_
-
1985
Figure 3.24:
1986
--0- -
75 km/h or IOVler
80 km/h or higher
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in NSW
by SPEED ZONE, 1984-1993
4500
4000
______ 75 km/h or lower
3500
-0 -
80 km/h or higher
III
]
3000
III
••
cJ
.!u
2500
~
2000
>u
::i:
~
2o
1500
1000
500
o
1984
3.4.2
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Single/Multi Vehicle Casualty Crashes
For Victoria a decrease in the number of multi-vehicle casualty crashes occurred
between 1984-1989 (Figure 3.25), compared with an increase for all vehicle casualty
crashes in the same period. Single-vehicle motorcycle casualty crashes did not show
the decline that occurred in multi-vehicle motorcycle casualty crashes, instead an
increase occurred between 1984-1988. After 1989 the single-vehicle motorcycle
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
27
casualty crash frequency lessened marginally in similar proportions to the multivehicle motorcycle casualty crash frequency.
Figure 3.25: Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in
VICTORIA by SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle, 1984-1993
t,).s::
z:EIII
Gl
400
1000
1600
1200
800
600
1984200
0
1400
..
III
0U
•III
..
00>.•.
0
Gl
- -D- - Single Vehicle
1985
Figure 3.26:
1986
1987
___
Multi Vehicle
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Number of Police-Reported Motorcycle Casualty Crashes in NSW
by SINGLE/MULTI MOTORISED Vehicle, 1984-1993
4000
3500
~[]_
Single Vehicle
__
Multi Vehicle
3000
••
••
J:.
E
2500
<.l
••
U
>2000
u
go
~
o
z
1500
c:i
1000
500
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
In New South Wales, similar reductions of approximately 66% occurred for
motorcycle single and multi-vehicle casualty crashes during 1984-1993 (Figure 3.26).
These trends mirrored the overall motorcycle casualty crash frequency reduction
displayed in Figure 3.4.
Figures 3.27 and 3.28 give the motorcycle proportion of all single-vehicle and all
multi-vehicle casualty crashes respectively for New South Wales. The corresponding
Victorian figures can be found in the Stage 1 Report.
28
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 3.27: SINGLE MOTORISED VEHICLE Motorcycle Casualty Crashes Total Numbers and as a Proportion of All Single-Vehicle Casualty Crashes
in NSW, 1984-1993
2500
18.0%
16.0%
•• 2000
••
.::
14.0%
••
••
III
c;,
12.0% ~
U
u••
.'f:i
:ii:
••
i
c
Cl:
1500
E
.2 ()
U
:c
8.0%
••
>••
c;,
c
iii
1000
.•.
o
~
gj
10.0% '0
t: ••
0 U
a.
._
0'::
~ ..
0.>
6.0%
~
4.0%
~
>
u
500
2.0%
o
0.0%
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.28: MULTI MOTORISED VEHICLE Motorcycle Casualty Crashes Total Numbers and as a Proportion of All Multi-Vehicle Casualty Crashes
in NSW, 1984-1993
••
••
0'::::I0.
a.U
~.::
>
o
••
10.0%
U
••C
11-
1500 ~
2500
4000
III 2000
u
3000
>
0'•• >1000
U
f
20.0%
:ii:
15.0%
~ 30.0%
25.0%
.u
:ii:
Cl:
.....
'f:: U
••
5.0%••
500
0.0%
o
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
A progressively significant reduction in the motorcycle proportion of all singlevehicle casualty crashes occurred between 1985-1989 in New South Wales, and
declined moderately thereafter. By 1993 the ratio of motorcycle to all single vehicle
casualty crashes had almost halved to 9%. Similarly, a significant decline in the
motorcycle proportion of all multi-vehicle casualty crashes occurred between 1984
(21%) and 1990 (10%) as depicted by the non-overlapping 95% confidence limits in
Figure 3.28. The ratio remained relatively constant thereafter.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
29
3.4.3
Speed Zone by Single/Multi Vehicle Casualty Crashes
The decline that occurred in motorcycle casualty crashes during 1984-1993 in Victoria
was primarily for multi-vehicle casualty crashes in low speed zones (Figure 3.29). For
single-vehicle casualty crashes in low speed zones, a 51% increase resulted during
1984-1988, whereas an 11% decrease occurred for multi-vehicle casualty crashes
during the same period. However, during 1988-1993, similar reductions occurred for
both single and multi-vehicle casualty crashes (28% and 26% reductions for single
and multi-vehicle crashes respectively).
Figure 3.29: Police-Reported MOTORCYCLE Casualty Crashes in
LOW SPEED Zones by SINGLE/MULTI Vehicle in VICTORIA, 1984-1993
0III .c
•...
U
z:EcJ(,).•..ci0>
III
800
1400
1000
400
600
200
1984
ca
0»
Cl
0»
0
1200
"-
-D-
-CY
______--0-- ----0-------0------0I
I _
--0-- _ Single Vehicle
_
1985
1986
1987
--0--_---0-_-0
Multi Vehicle
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.30: Police-Reported MOTORCYCLE Casualty Crashes in LOW
SPEED Zones by SINGLE/MULTI MOTORISED Vehicle in NSW, 1984-1993
3500
2000
.J:.
1000
0•• 13
~
U
z.§••cau••0>- 1500
2500
3000
500
o
1984
30
MONASH
1985
UNIVERSITY
1986
1987
ACCIDENT
1988
1989
-0-
Single Vehicle
__
Multi Vehicle
1990
RESEARCH CENTRE
1991
1992
1993
Figure 3.30 gives the number of motorcycle casualty crashes in low speed zones by
single and multi-vehicle crash types in New South Wales. Both types of crashes,
single and multi-vehicle, showed similar steady reductions during 1984-1993 in low
speed zones.
3.5
SUMMARY
In New South Wales the number of fatal motorcycle crashes declined rapidly during
1984-1993 reflecting the decline that occurred for all fatal crashes. Furthermore a
decrease of 50% (from 18% to 9%) occurred in the motorcycle proportion of fatal
crashes between 1984 and 1991/1993, in contrast with no significant change in
Victoria.
Although the number of motorcycle casualty crashes declined steadily in Victoria
during 1989-1993 the decline was less than for total casualty crashes, hence there was
a significant increase in the motorcycle proportion of all casualty crashes during this
time. In New South Wales, however, the decline in the motorcycle casualty crash
frequency was matched with a decrease in the motorcycle proportion from 21 % in
1984 to 10% in 1993.
For Victoria, the decline in the number of motorcycle casualty crashes was primarily
for multi-vehicle casualty crashes occurring in low speed zones of 75 km/h or lower.
No decline was evident for high speed zones (80 km/h or higher) or for single-vehicle
motorcycle casualty crashes. In New South Wales the progressive decline occurring
for motorcycle casualty crashes was reflected in both low and high speed zones, and
in both crash types - single and multi-vehicle. Factors that may have led to the multivehicle motorcycle casualty crash reduction in low speed zones for Victoria but not
for New South Wales warrant further investigation.
A marginal downward trend occurred in the proportion of all injured motorcyclists
who were killed or seriously injured in Victoria, whereas the corresponding
proportion remained relatively constant in New South Wales. There were, however,
fewer hospital-admitted injuries in New South Wales than there were serious injuries
in Victoria, because persons classified by the Victoria Police as having sustained
serious injuries may not necessarily be hospitalised.
Motorcycle riders killed with BAC readings of at least 0.151g/100ml increased
substantially in New South Wales from 10% in 1984 to 28% in 1993. In contrast, for
Victoria, a decline occurred between 1989-1993, with the proportion of killed riders
having excessive BACs decreasing from a peak of 27% in 1989 to 12% in 1993.
Furthermore the number of killed riders with unknown BAC rates was similar for both
states. However the trends in the unknown BAC proportions for riders with serious or
admitted injuries differed. In Victoria a sharp increase occurred after 1989, probably
due to the changes made to the taking of blood samples in hospitals about this time.
This trend did not occur in New South Wales - only a marginal increase occurred in
the unknown BAC proportion for riders with admitted injuries after 1989.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
31
Little change occurred in the proportion of female motorcycle riders in casualty
crashes, but after 1990 female pillion passengers out-numbered males in both states.
For casualty crashes in both New South Wales and Victoria, younger motorcyclists
aged under 26 years, exhibited the greatest decrease during 1984-1993 whilst those
aged over 37 years showed an increasing trend.
Although age trends were similar in both states the trends in the licence status of
inexperienced motorcycle riders involved in casualty crashes differed. In New South
Wales learner casualties decreased considerably (87%) but in Victoria they increased
marginally during 1984-1993. However, provisional licence casualties marginally
increased in New South Wales for 1984-1989 unlike in Victoria where a considerable
decrease (74%) occurred.
The proportion of motorcyclists not wearing a helmet significantly declined in New
South Wales after 1988 (from 7.2% to 3.4%) while the proportion in Victoria
remained in the range 3%-4%.
32
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
4.
ANALYSIS OF TRENDS OF HOSPITAL ADMISSION
RECORDS FOR MOTORCYCLISTS IN VICTORIA
4.1
INTRODUCTION
Six years of data using the Victorian Inpatient Minimum Data set (VIMD) have been
analysed to investigate the trends associated with motorcyclist injuries, and
motorcyclist injuries in the context of all Motor Vehicle Traffic (MVT) injuries (note,
traffic includes motorcyclist injuries). The Victorian Inpatient Minimum Data set is a
database of all people admitted to public hospitals in Victoria. The subset of the
database described here is injury based which means that the data relates to the
number of people injured, rather than to the number of crashes recorded (as is the case
with the VicRoads enhanced version of the State Traffic Accident Record (STAR)
"police-reported" crash database).
Although the police reported road accident
database can be used for a variety of means (e.g., accident based, vehicle based,
person based), the information is initially recorded on the basis of a crash occurring.
Thus, the reporting police officer primarily collects information about the
circumstances contributing to the crash event (e.g., hazardous road conditions, faulty
traffic lights), with the person-based information providing secondary data about why
the crash occurred (e.g., BAC level).
The data was extracted according to injury E-codes. E-codes (injury variable) are
derived from the International Classification of Diseases - Version 9, and describe the
cause of the injury. The database also contains N-codes (diagnosis variable) which
provide information about the nature of the injury and body part injured.
Given that the data is collected to assist the Victorian Department of Health and
Community Services with the provision of health care needs, the data is reported
according to financial year. Although data is available for the financial year 1986/87,
it was omitted for the purposes of this study due to a number of issues relating to the
accuracy and completeness of data. Data was not yet available for 1993/94 at the time
of the analyses. Furthermore, private hospital admissions data collected during
1992/93 was excluded from the analysis on the basis that it would inflate the figures
for that year. Data relating to private hospitals is not available for any other year.
According to Victorian hospital admissions data, on -and -off-road MVT injury
admissions comprised only 1.1% of all injury admissions in private hospitals in
1992/93.
It should be noted that the words motorcycle and motorcyclist include both the
motorcycle rider and pillion passenger. The latter two terms are used separately when
referring exclusively to the motorcycle rider or pillion passenger.
An attempt was made to exclude deaths from the sample but this did not prove
possible. It appears there have been changes in coding over the years which have
resulted in errors in categorising deaths. Although fairly sure of the code for deaths
for the financial years 1989/90 - 1992/93, it was not possible to locate the appropriate
codes for 1987/88 - 1988/89. Rather than subtract the 47 cases assumed to be deaths
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA 33
(0.7% error), and apply a similar ratio to the previous years of data, it was decided to
leave the data intact and not make any further assumptions. Hence, deaths occurring
following hospital admission are included in the sample.
In reference to the section dealing with the nature of injuries, it should be noted that
the number of injuries recorded exceeds the total number of people injured. Rather
than simply relate to primary diagnosis, the data refers to up to five types of injury
coded for each patient. Therefore, up to five injury codes can be found for anyone
motorcyclist injured.
Note, the following data refers only to traffic injuries, Le., injuries sustained on-road
(MVT). However, section 2.3 is included to highlight the overall difference between
on -and -off-road crashes.
4.2
GENERAL TRENDS (VICTORIAN INPATIENT MINIMUM DATA
SET)
4.2.1 Number of Persons Hospitalised
The number of persons hospitalised as a result of motor vehicle traffic (MVT) and
motorcyclist injuries (including pillion passengers) has decreased steadily since
1987/88, before increasing again slightly during the 1992/1993 financial year (Figure
4.1). Few differences were found between the trends in numbers of people
hospitalised as a result of MVT and motorcyclist injuries.
Figure 4.1: Persons hospitalised as a result of Motor Vehicle Traffic (MVT)
and Motorcycle crashes (including pillion passengers) in Victoria,
1987/88 -1992/93
400
1400
>•.. :iii:
800
•..
0.. 1000
0
.!!!
J:
.!!!
600
~
i&
U
2•'is.
200
8000
0
1200
7000
Ul
CJ
Gl
Ul
"tI
c:i
6000 ~
o
..,
ca
5000.!!!
i&
•..
'is.
4000 o
Ul
J:
---0--
I-
Motorcyclists
3000>
--MVT
:iii:
20002
1000
o
1987/88
34
MONASH
1988/89
UNIVERSITY
1989/90
ACCIDENT
1990/91
RESEARCH CENTRE
1991/92
1992/93
c:i
Motorcyclists hospitalised as a proportion of all MVT injury hospitalisations have
increased steadily since 1988/89, peaking in 1991/92, before decreasing slightly in
1992/93 (Figure 4.2). Despite an overall decrease in the number of motorcyclists
hospitalised in Victoria, the ratio of motorcyclist injury hospitalisations increased
(from 15.3% in 1988/89 to 17.4% in 1992/93) as a proportion of all MVT injury
hospitalisations. This suggests motorcyclist injury hospitalisations are not reducing as
steadily as for other MVT injury hospitalisations.
Figure 4.2: Motorcyclists hospitalised (including pillion passengers) - Total
numbers and as a percentage of all MVT hospitalisations in Victoria,
1987/88 -1992/93
! .!!z.!!U"
>••
"Cl
c:i
•..
••
::t:
••
0
::i:
.is.
'0
0
400
1400
800
600
1000
200
0
1200
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
4.2.2 Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
Clearly, more Victorians were hospitalised as a result of crashes whilst riding a
motorcycle (over 90%) as opposed to being a pillion passenger during the past six
years (Figure 4.3). Although the number of motorcycle riders hospitalised has
decreased since 1987/88, the number of pillion passengers hospitalised has remained
fairly constant, before decreasing in 1991/92 and 1992/93.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
35
Figure 4.3:
"!0
u0>
zii:0!5•• J:u..
••
a;
••
••
'0.
•!!!
::!!:
"
No. of Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers hospitalised in
Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
1200
800
1000
600
400
200
1987/88
0
120
1001l
!
.!!!
80 .~
o
J:
••
a;
60
g>
••
••
••
ca
-Q--
Motorcycle
--
Pillion
4-
Riders
40
c
~
Passengers
a::
20
~
o
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Although the number of people hospitalised as pillion passengers varied over the
years, peaking in 1988/89 and again in 1990/91, the trend depicted in Figure 4.4 has
been inconsistent. Since 1990/91, the number of pillion passengers hospitalised in
Victoria has decreased.
Similarly, pillion passenger injury hospitalisations as a proportion of all motorcyclist
hospitalisations have decreased since 1990/91, falling to below 6% in 1992/93.
Figure 4.4: Pillion Passengers - Total numbers and as a percentage of all
Motorcyclists hospitalised (including pillion passengers) in Victoria,
1987/88 - 1992/93
z0c:
Gl
~
"C
;
40
120
80
100
60
IQ
Ul
Gl
20
a.
•..
'a
J:
.!!!
Ull
C
la
c:
Ul
ii:
10
c:i
9
0
8
-g
.!!!
7 ~c.
Ul
6 ~
l!!
5
&
c:
Gl
4 :l
IQ
a.
3
c:
~
2 ii:
?f.
o
1987/88
36
MONASH
1988/89
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
1989/90
1990/91
RESEARCH CENTRE
1991/92
1992/93
4.2.3
On-Road Vs Off-Road
Although the number of motorcyclist traffic hospitalisations has steadily decreased
since 1987/88, motorcyclist non-traffic hospitalisations increased between 1988/89
and 1990/91, before decreasing slightly since 1990/91 (Figure 4.5).
The total number of off-road (n=2576) motorcyclist hospitalisations is less than half
the number of on-road (n=6,320) hospitalisations.
Figure 4.5: Number of motorcyclists hospitalised as a result of Motorcyclist
Traffic and Motorcyclist Non-Traffic injuries in Victoria, 1987/88 -1992/93
---[}--
I'll
1Il
Traffic
--
Motorcyclist
Non-Traffic
400
1400
800
600
1000
200
...•..
>==
•...2
I:e
o C
:E~
22°a
u
ci
==
I!!
Motorcyclist
U
1Il
U1Il'"
I'll
1Il
500
450
1200
0
4OO~
.•.
I'll
350~
,
1Il
C C
300
~.,g
•••
250~
200
150
100
I'll
~
U
I'll
~·a
o 0
•••
1Il
0 J:
:E
2ci
50
o
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Figure 4.6: Average number of Motorcyclist Traffic and Motorcyclist NonTraffic injury hospitalisations per year in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
--
Motorcyclist
Traffic
-er---
Motorcyclist
Non-Traffic
300
~
250
C
Gl
:::l
g"2oo
u:
~
C
C
«
Gl
Cl
150
100
I'll
«~
50
o
~
"
Ol
oD
~
.- Ol,- ~N
6
J,
6
.- .N
~
Ol
N
N
"
J,
10
DJ
DJ
DJ
1\
11
Age Groups
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
37
As shown in Figure 4.6, the average number of motorcyclist traffic hospitalisations
per year far exceeded that of motorcyclist non-traffic hospitalisations from about the
age of 15 years, peaking at age 20-24 years, before levelling out at around 55 years of
age. Of importance was the finding that motorcycle non-traffic hospitalisations
(n=744) were more predominant than motorcycle traffic hospitalisations (n=259) in
the less than 15 year old age group across the six years. Almost triple the number of
10-14 year olds were admitted to hospital with off-road motorcycle injuries than onroad injuries. It should be noted that in a previous study by Haworth, Ozanne-Smith,
Fox and Brumen (1994) it was found that 22% of under 21 year old on-road
motorcycle riders hospitalisations were under the licensing age of 17 years and 9
months.
4.3
PERSON CHARACTERISTICS
For comparative purposes, the remainder of this report will refer only to on-road
motorcycle injuries.
4.3.1
Sex
Clearly, males consistently comprised over 90% of all motorcyclists hospitalised in
Victoria, with a slight increase in the proportion of females hospitalised since 1987/88
(Figure 4.7).
Figure 4.7:
Motorcyclists hospitalised (including pillion passengers) in
Victoria by Gender (proportional), 1987/88 - 1992/93
95
10
"C
ll:
..
94
=a
9
"C.
8
=a
..
.6.
.6.
o
7 o
:c
1I)
1I)
6 :l
:c 93
i
u
1I)
.!!l
5 ~u
>u
~
..o 92
4
~
'0
::!J
::!J
CD
3
.!!
2
.f
1a
::!J
CD
1I)
tll
E
91
'*
'*
o
90
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Males comprised approximately 95% of all motorcycle rider injury hospitalisations in
Victoria across the six financial years of data. The percentage of female motorcycle
riders hospitalised varied between 4.4% and 5.4% across the six years. No clear
trends were evident in Figure 4.8.
38
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 4.8:
Motorcycle Riders hospitalised in Victoria by Gender
(proportional), 1987/88 - 1992/93
6
100
5.5
99
5
~
Gl
III
:a
.t::
Q.
:g
J:
98
~
4.5.~
97
4
96
3.5~
III
3 ~
t
95
a:
94
~
ia
;!::
Q.
III
a;
2.5 a:
Gl
Gl
ia
2
ia
1.5
u..
E
:E 93
cfi!.
Gl
92
cfi!.
91
0.5
o
90
1987/88
Figure 4.9:
III
Cl
'Q.
.!!!
III
~
~
cfi!.
0
III
ll.
Gl
l:
..IIIGll:
J:
a;
ia
a::
0%
90%
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Pillion Passengers hospitalised in Victoria by Gender,
1987/88 - 1992/93
80%
60%
1988/89
100%
1990/91
1989/90
30%
70%
40%
20%
50%
10%
1987/88
1991/92
1992/93
Although males comprised the majority of pillion passenger injury hospitalisations in
Victoria until 1990/91 (average 59.3%), as seen in Figure 4.9, this trend reversed in
1991/92 - 1992/93 with females comprising the majority of pillion passengers
hospitalised (average 56.4%). However, it is not known whether this indicates an
increase in the number of female pillion passengers in Victoria, as the relative rates of
riding and being a passenger are unknown.
Although the overall proportion of motorcycle riders hospitalised who were male
remained constant at approximately 95% (Figure 4.10), the proportion of pillion
passengers hospitalised who were male decreased dramatically since 1991/92
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
39
(approximately 17%). Proportionally, male motorcycle riders were hospitalised
almost twice as often as pillion passengers in Victoria.
Figure 4.10:
Male Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers hospitalised in
Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
40
100
60
80
..
•..
50
c0:!:
30
u
III
'5.
•..
J:
.!!!
ftj
••
>
70
:!:
III
10
1987/88
20
ftj
0
'';:;
U
III
••
'#.
--
0
90
Figure 4.11:
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
--------
Male Rider
--{]--
Male Pillion
1991/92
1992/93
Female Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers hospitalised
Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
0
0
c0III~
III
•..
>
J:
.!!!
U
ftj
••
•u
..
ftj
III
E
III :!:
'#.
u..
'5.
'';:;
60
20
30
40
10
50
in
1989/90
1988/89
1990/91
1987/88
••
0
--------
Female Rider
--{]--
Female Pillion
1991/92
1992/93
This trend is reversed for females (Figure 4.11) in that the proportion of females
hospitalised as a result of motorcycle rider related injuries remained fairly constant at
approximately 5%, while the proportion of female pillion passenger hospitalisations
increased somewhat from approximately 40% to 57% in 1991/92. Given that the
overall number of female pillion passenger hospitalisations has continued to decrease
(Figure 4.4), the increase in proportion of female pillion passenger hospitalisations
40
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
appears to be a function of female pillion passengers hospitalisations not decreasing at
the same rate as male pillion passenger hospitalisations.
4.3.2 Age
Although 15-19 year olds were the predominant age group hospitalised in 1988/89,
this trend shifted during 1989/90, with people aged 20-24 years becoming the
predominant age group hospitalised (Figure 4.12). Although the 15-19 year old age
group had generally decreased in frequency over the years, the 20-24 year age group
decreased up to 1990/91, before increasing slightly.
Although not shown, the younger age group (0-14 years) was predominantly made up
of people aged 10-14 years (74%), followed by the 5-9 year olds (19%), and the 0-4
year age group (7%).
Of interest is the finding that the 35-39 age group has not decreased to any extent over
the period, while the 40+ age group has steadily increased in frequency over the years,
perhaps indicating that motorcycle users are an ageing population, or that more people
in these age groups are choosing to use this means of transport.
Figure 4.12: Victorian Motorcyclist injury hospitalisations (including pillion
passengers) by Age, 1987/88 -1992/93
300
co
01
250
-----
0-14 yrs
---0--
15-19 yrs
-.-
20-24 yrs
+:;
,~ 200
iii
..
--<>--
25-29 yrs
8 150
------
30-34 yrs
o
---fr---
35-39 yrs
-----
40 + yrs
'is.
J:
z
100
50
o
1987/88
STAGE
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
41
4.4
INJURY SEVERITY
4.4.1
Length of Hospitalisation
As an indicator of injury severity, Figure 4.13 suggests that approximately half of all
hospitalised motorcyclists stayed in hospital for at least 5-7 days hospitalisation.
There was a slight shift in frequency since 1989/90 whereby the length of
hospitalisation progressively decreased. This was followed by an increase in same
day admissions in 1992/93. Whether this indicates a decrease in injury severity, or a
shift in hospital management of patients due to the introduction of case-mix funding
in Victoria is not clear.
Also, since there was an increase in the number of motorcyclists killed on-road
between 1992 and 1993, this may partially explain the decrease in length of stay in
hospital (Le., increase in the number of people dying soon after admission to hospital).
Little difference was found between the length of hospitalisation for motorcycle riders
and pillion passengers. Length of hospitalisation peaked for both motorcycle riders
and pillion passengers at between 1-2 days of hospitalisation.
The finding that
approximately one quarter of all hospitalised motorcyclists stayed in hospital for
between 8-20 days, and a further 10% more than 21 days, provides a useful indicator
of injury severity.
Figure 4.13: Victorian Motorcyclist injury hospitalisations (including pillion
passengers) by Length of Hospitalisation, 1987/88 - 1992/93
Q)
Ii~0
(J)
•...
(J)
0l:
U
:2
.~
+"
6-
0..
10'/"
4J'/"
!D'/"
W'/"
3J'/"
l:ISrred:y
D1-2d¥
~34d¥
115-7d¥
[)8-:Dd¥
~>21d¥
As shown in Figure 4.14, approximately half of all motorcycle riders required at least
5-7 days of hospitalisation. This percentage decreased slightly since 1991/92, with
fewer patients requiring 8-20 days of hospitalisation, and a greater proportion
requiring either 5-7 days or same day admissions. Although this suggests a shift in
length of hospitalisation towards fewer days admission, it is not known whether this
42
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
reflects a decrease in injury severity or a change in patient management procedures,
i.e., the lead up to case-mix funding in Victoria.
Figure 4.14:
Motorcycle Riders hospitalised in Victoria by Length of
Hospitalisation, 1987/88 - 1992/93
100%
•...
90'%
W
"U
(I)
,- l::
80%
0::
'il(I)
70%
00'/0
8Same day
o';[i
o :t:::
_0...
o (I)
:2 0
50%
01-2 days
w
U
0
~I
4CY%
~3-4days
3;%
115-7 days
20'/0
[]8-20days
1CY%
0%
Figure 4.15:
c:I>21 days
Pillion Passengers hospitalised in Victoria by Length of
Hospitalisation, 1987/88 - 1992/93
100'/0
•...
W
90%
l:: l::
W 0
00%
00'/0
a Same day
CL=I)j
50%
01-2 days
:t::::
40%
01(1)
~
'il
I)j (I)
C
=o
0...
(I)
70'%
~3-4days
0
CLI
3J%
20'/0
1lIiII5-7
~
10%
[]8-20days
:=
0%
1987/88
1009190
1900'91
1991/92
1992/93
days
~>21 days
The data relating to pillion passenger injuries during the six years of hospital
admission data available is variable (Figure 4.15). No trends were evident although
length of hospitalisation appeared to peak in 1988/89 and 1991/92 at approximately
60% for stays greater than 4 days.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA 43
4.4.2 Nature of Injury and Body Part Injured
Table 4.1 highlights
accidents in Victoria
and the number of
increased slightly in
the types of injury hospitalisations resulting from motorcycle
by financial year. Both the number of motorcyclists hospitalised
injuries recorded have decreased steadily since 1987/88, but
1992/93.
Fractures accounted for over half of the injuries recorded, with fractures to the lower
and upper limbs making up a total of 78% of all fractures over the past six years.
Although less frequent, fractures to the skull and face are of concern given the
implications for compulsory helmet wearing in Victoria.
Similarly, the high number of intracranial injuries is important (second to fractures)
and reflects a high level of injury severity. Although lower in frequency to fractures,
head injuries account for 10.8% of all injuries sustained (8% intracranial injury, 2.8%
fractured skull), and are particularly costly for the patient and health care system.
Following fractures to the lower limbs, upper limbs, and neck/trunk, hospitalisation
due to head injury is the fourth largest class of injuries sustained by motorcyclists
(Figure 4.16). Although the number of lower and upper limb fractures has decreased
steadily over the years, the number of head injuries decreased until 1989/90, reached a
plateau and increased slightly in 1992/93, as a result of increased number of skull
fractures being recorded.
The frequency of nerve/spinal cord damage remained constant, yet there was a slight
increase in the frequency of internal injuries.
Figure 4.16: Number of specific injuries among Motorcyclists hospitalised
(including pillion passengers) in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
~ 700
-a.
U)
T
600
o
J:
:l 500
U
>
~400
..
.!I!
o
:lE
g'300
o
E
<C
200
U)
Gl
..
'£:
:::l
:5'100
.•.
o
~
0
1987/88
44
MONASH
1988/89
UNIVERSITY
1989/90
ACCIDENT
1990/91
1991/92
RESEARCH
CENTRE
1992/93
-------
Head Injury
--0---
Fractured Face
-+-
Fractured Neck/Trunk
---<>--
Fractured Upper Umb
-.--
Fractured Lower Umb
----fr---
Internal Injury
----
Nerve/Spinal Cord
VI
......•
Contusions
Wound
7.7
71
124
97
21
5
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.6
3.6
4.0
2.9
3.2
2.6
0.5
2.1
2.4
2.2
2.8
342
541
461
847
161
144
172
159
110
132
4.9
42
7.2
7.5
4.4
4.6
8.2
6.0
5.2
49
7.4
4.3
54
7.9
89
66
79
69
2.7
77
65
11
9
0
6
7
206
114
140
110
64
79
52
23
10
50
15
3.3
4.6
3.9
0.8
5.1
4.7
107
103
1.1
4.8
5.0
60
19
14
74
83
97
5.4
21
78
16
0.7
3.1
1.0
610
113
509
0.9
5.3
4.0
4.8
92
22
•.....
0.4
0.2
6255
24
991
930
944
8
3
0.3
0.1
0.0
4.2
0.9
3.0
0.7
4.1
2.0
3.8
3.4
4.3
126
156
378
288
3.1
1.7
563
111
155
5.6
8.3
68
6.7
70
53
55
50
80
3.0
57
2.3
56
3.6
67
61
85
23
13
3
2
1
8.0
0.5
36
100%
100%
100%
% Lower
en
Table
4.1:
Intracranial
1,147
1,046
2,241
1,965
Injury
2,493
1,192
1,009
12,675
2,116
1,948
1,912
I 1100%
Injuries
Inju~
Burns
Superficial
Injuries
Dislocations
Injury
Z
Nerve/Spinal
Cord
Injuries
Frequencies
of
Motorcycle
injuries in Victoria by ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes,
1987/88 - 1992/93
tr:l
::r::
1992/93
Open
Limb
Wound
en
...,
>t'""
tr:l
(')
-<
Internal
Injury
~
unspecified
Crushing
Injuries
>-l
Open
Injuries
Upper
to
Blood
Limb
Vessels
Wound
(J
Traumatic
Complications,
>Z
(5
Fractures
(total)
Sprains/Strains
~
(12,670)
N
I
>Open
Head/Neck/Trunk
11987/881 ~
11988/891 ~
11989/901 ~
11990/911 ~
1991/92
Total
No.
of
I
%
All
Late
Effects
~
00
6,845
~
With respect to fractures only, fractures to the lower limbs (average 44.9%), and
fractures to the upper limbs (average 32.7%) to a lesser extent, have remained the
most frequent type of fracture sustained by motorcyclists over the past six years.
No obvious trends are apparent other than a general downward trend in lower and
upper limb fractures over the last few years, and a rise in skull fractures in 1992/93
(Figure 4.17).
Figure 4.17:
---------
Skull
Number of Motorcyclist fractures in Victoria by Body Part
injured, 1987/88 - 1992/93
---{}-Face
--+- Faceor Skull ---<>- NecklTrunk -aUpperLimb ---tr-- Lower Limb
lI)
ll)
~
.•..
l;l
It
600
.5
~5oo
;:;
"3
lI)
&!400
lI)
ll)
'C
.2. 300
..5
ll)
U
~ 200
l5
.•..
o
:E 100
.•.
o
ci
Z
0
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
4.5
CRASH CHARACTERISTICS
4.5.1
Multi/Single Vehicle Injury Hospitalisations
1991/92
1992/93
Multi Vehicle Injury Hospitalisations are roughly defined as injuries incurred by
motorcyclists as a result of a collision with another vehicle. Single Vehicle Injury
Hospitalisations are defined as injuries not incurred in a collision with another
vehicle, e.g., loss of control of vehicle, hitting a pedestrian.
The majority of people hospitalised following a MVT accident were injured in a
single vehicle crash (average 60.4%). Single and multi vehicle crashes in Victoria
have steadily decreased in frequency since 1988/89, before rising again in 1992/93.
The magnitude of this trend is similar for both single and multi vehicle injury
hospitalisations (Figure 4.18). The Southern Metropolitan Region includes the
following Statistical Local Areas; South Melbourne, St Kilda, Oakleigh, Dandenong,
Chelsea and Hastings (A.B.S.: 1991 Census).
For motorcyclist hospitalisations, more people have been injured in single vehicle
crashes than multi vehicle MVT crashes in Victoria during the past six years.
46
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
However, the frequency of single vehicle injuries plateaued in 1989/90, whereas the
multi vehicle frequency continued to decrease in magnitude until 1991/92, before
rising somewhat in 1992/93.
Figure 4.18: Number of Motor Vehicle Traffic (MVT) and Motorcyclist injury
hospitalisations in Victoria by Single/Multi Vehicle, 1987/88 - 1992/93
Motor Vehicle Traffic Hospitalisations
5000
3000
'"
C
o
4500
I>
••
2500,~
iij
.•.
4000
'Q.
:E '" 3500
2000 ~
-0
,~'.;::l 3000
Gl C
:r:
I-
.cm
cu '"
> 'ai 2500
1500>:E
CD.~
cu
U
~ li,_
0 2000
~:r:
o
z
1500
----{}-
Single Vehicle
1000
-----
MJlti Vehicle
1OOO~
>
"'5
'.;::l
z
0500 :E
ci
500
o
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Motorcyclist Hospitalisations
500
800
450
.•.
'"
400~
>
o
350 Cl '"
05
300:EGl ~'"
250:§ 'ai
.J:.t::
----{}-
200';
Single Vehicle
li-
o
'.;::l:r:
150 "'5
-----
:E
MJlti Vehicle
100
50
o
ci
z
o
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
The frequency of single vehicle motorcyclist injury hospitalisations has decreased
steadily since 1987/88, yet single vehicle hospitalisations as a percentage of all single
vehicle MVT injury hospitalisations increased until 1991/92 (Figure 4.19). Though
small in magnitude, this suggests that while single vehicle motorcyclist injuries have
decreased in frequency overall, they have not decreased to the same extent for other
single vehicle MVT injuries. Note, caution must be given in interpreting this
difference as the increase is only small (from 14.7 to 18,6%),
Similarly, motorcyclist multi vehicle injury hospitalisations have decreased in
frequency until 1991/92, before rising slightly in 1992/93 (Figure 4.20). Motorcyclist
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
47
multi vehicle injury hospitalisations as a percentage of all MVT multi vehicle
hospitalisations have remained constant over the years (average 17.3%), with a slight
reduction in 1988/89.
Figure 4.19: Single Vehicle motorcyclist injury hospitalisations (including
pillion passengers) - Total numbers and as a percentage of all Victorian Single
Vehicle injury hospitalisations, 1987/88 - 1992/93
800
600
.c
u
200
>~
in
z'6lJ:
U
l: J!•.•
U
0 400
300
100
20
:E-B
18
G)'.!!!
.01
G)
G) 01
>-
c:i
•..
~
l!!
500
7000
16
>-
5
14 :E
.!!Ul
12.2
.c
.-g
G)'"
10>_01
.;
G)CI.~
8 .!:
lIlo~
=J:
6 .•.
01
o
4
'#.
2
o
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Figure 4.20: Multi Vehicle motorcyclist injury hospitalisations (including
pillion passengers) - Total numbers and as a percentage of all Victorian Multi
Vehide injury hospitalisations, 1987/88 - 1992/93
500
450
•..
400
•!!!
U
>-
350
~
o
•.•l:
00
Ul
300
:E',;:;
:l
u=
G)
._
01
250
.J:.t:::
~ ~ 200
._ 0
.t:J:
~
150
z
100
c:i
50
o
1987/88
48
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
1988/89
ACCIDENT
1989/90
1990/91
RESEARCH CENTRE
1991/92
1992/93
4.6
LOCATION
4.6.1
Residential Location
Residential location was calculated according to the postcode of where the
motorcyclist normally resides, rather than the postcode where the crash occurred, as is
the case with police based data. Hence, the following chart does not provide
information about where motorcycle crashes occurred.
Figure 4.21: Number of Motorcyclist injury hospitalisations (including pillion
passengers) in Victoria by Residential Location, 1987/88 -1992/93
700
~ 600
o
'';:::
III
.!!l 500
ftj
'ii.
:g 400
..
x
..
o
Ul
'fj
300
>u
l:i
'0 200
~
~
100
o
1987188
--
1989/90
1988/89
Melbourne Metro
----0--
Country Victoria
1990/91
----+-
Interstate
1991/92
--<>--
1992/93
Other
Clearly, Figure 4.21 shows that the majority of motorcyclist injury hospitalisations
occurred in the Melbourne Metropolitan area (57% overall), although their frequency
decreased until 1990/91, and then increased slightly. The number of hospitalisations
of motorcyclists from Country Victoria (38.8% overall) decreased gradually over the
years which suggests either general improvements in motorcycle safety leading to
fewer injury hospitalisations, or a decrease in the use of motorcycles in country
Victoria. Exposure data are needed in relation to the number of people riding
motorcycles and riding distance in order to clarify this.
4.6.2
Health Region
Although the majority of MVT injury hospitalisations involved people residing in the
Melbourne Metropolitan Region (64%), the number of injury hospitalisations to
people in the Southern Metropolitan Region was particularly high (41 % of those
residing in the Melbourne Metropolitan Region). The Southern Metropolitan Region
includes a large area of Melbourne spanning from South Melbourne, St Kilda,
Oakleigh, Dandenong, Chelsea and Hastings,
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
49
Similar patterns were evident for motorcyclists in that they predominantly lived in the
Southern Metropolitan Region (40% of all persons residing in the Melbourne
Metropolitan Region). A total of 60% of hospitalised motorcyclists resided in the
Melbourne Metropolitan Region.
Other than an increase in the proportion of
motorcyclists hospitalised in the Barwon-South Western Region (includes the Great
Ocean Road) as compared to MVT hospitalisations overall, few differences were
found between the two groups (Figure 4.22).
Figure 4.22: Number of Motor Vehicle Traffic and Motorcyclist (including
pillion passengers) injury hospitalisations in Victoria by
Health Region of residence, 1987/88 - 1992/93
Motor Vehicle Traffic Hospitalisations
4000
2000
10000
0
12000
c-5••>
8000
••••
oa:
••
,!!
z >••c.'"
"m.c J:~:sI~ci~ .~ 6000
::E
BarwonSouth
Western
Western
ci
..i;j••>
J:
U
!!
c
0'tI
u
.c
a:
'is.
J:
,!!
>
••
••
's,
::E
i;j
.!!
0
-5
:l
Grampians
Region
Loddon
Hume Region
Mallee Region
Motorcyclists
Mallee
loddon
Barwon0Region
Grampians
South
400
1000
200
600
1200
1400
1600
800
MONASH
Western
Northern
Eastern
Southern
Metro Region Metro Region Metro Region Metro Region
Hospitalised
Region
Hume
Region
50
Gippsland
Region
UNIVERSITY
Gippsland
Region
ACCIDENT RESEARCH
Western
Metro
Region
CENTRE
Northern
Metro
Region
Eastern
Metro
Region
Southern
Metro
Region
4.7
SUMMARY
There has been a gradual reduction in the number of persons hospitalised as a result of
MVT and motorcyclist injuries since 1987/88, yet motorcyclists hospitalised as a
proportion of all MVT injury hospitalisations have increased steadily since 1988/89.
Thus, motorcyclist injury hospitalisations have not reduced as steadily as all other
MVT injury hospitalisations.
This trend differs for off-road motorcyclist injury
hospitalisations as the number of persons hospitalised as a result of off-road crashes
has only recently began to decrease, i.e., slight decrease since 1990/91. For children
less than 15 years of age, off-road motorcyclist injury hospitalisations were more
predominant than on-road motorcyclist injury hospitalisations.
The reduction in pillion passenger injury hospitalisations has not been as dramatic as
motorcycle rider injury hospitalisations. However, pillion passenger injuries only
comprised approximately 10% of all motorcyclist injury hospitalisations. Although
female pillion passenger injuries outnumbered male pillion passenger injuries since
1991/92, males comprised approximately 90% of the motorcycle injury population
overall.
Motorcyclists aged 15-29 years were the primary age group hospitalised for
motorcycle related injuries, with the 20-24 year old age group predominating. The
trend for a progressive increase in the number of motorcyclists over 34 years of age
being hospitalised suggests that motorcycle users may be an ageing population.
There was a trend towards more motorcyclists being hospitalised for single vehicle
related motorcyclist injuries (60.4% overall). Most injuries were sustained by people
living in the Melbourne Metropolitan area (57% overall).
Since 1989/90 there has been a steady decrease in the length of hospitalisation in
Victoria. At face value this suggests that injuries were less severe, yet another
possibility exists that either the injuries were so severe that they resulted in death
within the first few days of hospitalisation, or that there had been a shift in hospital
management procedures due to the introduction of case-mix funding in Victoria.
There was a trend for fractures accounting for half of the injuries recorded, with most
occurring to the lower and upper limbs (78%). Head injuries comprised 10.8% of the
injuries sustained.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
51
52
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH
CENTRE
5.
COMPARISON OF TRENDS IN INJURED
MOTORCYCLISTS AS RECORDED IN THE POLICE
REPORTED VICROADS ACCIDENT DATABASE AND
THE HOSPITAL ADMISSION DATABASE IN
VICTORIA
5.1
INTRODUCTION
Making a comparison between two different databases is often a very effective means
of gaining more information about the factors surrounding an injury event.
Comparison between the VicRoads enhanced version of the Police reported State
Traffic Accident Record (STAR) database and the hospital admissions database
(Victorian Inpatient Minimum Data set - VIMD) provides a more complete
understanding of the events surrounding on-road motorcycle crashes that ultimately
result in hospital admission.
For the purposes of this analysis, the following
comparison relates exclusively to on-road motorcycle crashes. It should be noted that
only on-road motorcycle accidents need to be reported to the Police, and that
information pertaining to off-road accidents are deliberately excluded from the official
Police accident database in Victoria.
Injuries per se will not be compared across the two databases as VicRoads data does
not include a breakdown of injury types. Rather, comparison between the databases
will be attempted only on the variables that are common across each database.
However, a number of factors must be considered before any comparisons between
the databases can be made.
Firstly, it should be noted that the VicRoads database is essentially 'crash-based'
which means that each crash report relates to a particular crash, rather than to a
particular person. Although information is obtained for each injured person in the
crash, it is recorded within the context of the crash and not the injury sustained, i.e.,
the information is geared towards an episode rather than a person. In order to make a
comparison between the two databases, serious injury cases recorded in the STAR
database will be compared to VIMD hospital admission injury cases. The VIMD
database is essentially 'person-based' which means that the information coded on the
data form relates only to the person injured. That is, a separate form is filled out for
each individual involved in the crash.
Motorcycle injuries are included in the definition of Motor Vehicle Traffic (MVT)
injuries, i.e., MVT includes all types of motor vehicles involved in crashes, which
occur on a public road for both databases.
For VicRoads data, and for the purposes of this comparison, only motorcycle crashes
resulting in serious injuries have been included. The reason for this is that the VIMD
data only refers to injuries serious enough to warrant hospital admission, and therefore
cannot be compared to the less serious injuries classified as "minor" in the VicRoads
database. Note, although VicRoads data analysed here excludes fatalities, deaths are
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
53
included in the VIMD database due to changes in coding across the years which have
made it difficult to exclude deaths from the database.
Prior to 1988 the code "serious" (depicting the severity of the injury sustained)
derived from information on the Police report form (No. 510) was fairly synonymous
with hospital admission. Since 1988, MVT casualties have been categorised as
"fatal", "major", "serious", or "minor" on the Police report form. VicRoads recode
this injury data into "fatal", "serious injury" and "other injury" using additional
information recorded by the Police regarding whether the "major" person was taken to
hospital. Since 1989 there has been a marked decrease in the number of people coded
by VicRoads as "seriously injured". Unfortunately substantial checks have not been
made with the Victorian hospital system to ascertain the magnitude of this shift, nor to
ascertain the direction of the error (underreporting versus overreporting). The
procedure may create a bias, which is partly reflected in the finding that some injuries
are categorised as "serious" by VicRoads yet do not appear in the hospital admissions
database. According to the findings of Ozanne-Smith and Haworth (1993), this
mismatching of injury severity seems to be more of a problem for Victoria than for
other states, and is largely a function of the lack of objectivity in coding injury
severity in the VicRoads database.
A problem exists when comparing location across the two databases as the VicRoads
subset accessed for this study refers to the location of the crash, whereas the VIMD
data refers to the postcode of residence of the hospitalised motorcyclist.
(Note,
although postcode of residence is available in the VicRoads database, the information
was not available in the subset of VicRoads data utilised by this study.) For this
reason, location has been divided into Metropolitan Melbourne and Rest of Victoria.
Only a crude comparison is made as it is quite common for a person living in
Melbourne to be involved in a crash in country Victoria, or vice versa.
The definition used to denote single vehicle crashes versus multi vehicle crashes
varies depending on the database being used. That is, single vehicle crashes according
to VIMD refer mainly to loss of control of the vehicle, colliding with a pedestrian, and
colliding with an object set in motion by another vehicle, whereas single vehicle
crashes according to VicRoads refer strictly to situations where one vehicle is
involved in the crash. For both databases, multi vehicle crashes refer to crashes where
two or more vehicles collide (including pedal cyclist, animal carrying person, animaldrawn vehicle, or streetcar). A problem arises if for example a motorcyclist loses
control, hits a pole and then collides with a pedestrian, and the pedestrian is thrown
into the path of another vehicle that loses control and runs into a fence, yet at no time
do the two vehicles collide. Although this would be coded as a multi vehicle crash in
the VicRoads database (i.e., crash involving two or more vehicles), it would be coded
as a single vehicle crash in the VIMD database as the collision is not between two
vehicles. Thus, a direct comparison cannot be made between Police and hospital
admissions data in this instance.
Although it lacks the detail regarding circumstances of the crash contained in the
VicRoads database, the VIMD database is considered the most complete database for
describing the incidence and prevalence of motorcycle crashes resulting in severe
54
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
injury (Ozanne-Smith & Haworth, 1993). The reason for this is that all persons
admitted to public hospitals in Victoria are automatically included in the database.
The Police, on the other hand are not necessarily requested to attend all on-road
motorcycle crashes resulting in serious injury, which means that their database (which
excludes off-road injured motorcyclists) is dependent on crash notification for on-road
injuries. Note, although the VIMD database is considered the most accurate in terms
of injury classification, it may not be complete for motorcyclists due to the small
proportion of vehicle users coded as unknown (approximately 7% of all MY traffic
admissions). In addition, the VIMD database may also contain motorcyclists who
were injured in off-road crashes miscoded as on-road crashes. Thus, a comparison
between the two databases serves only as a crude estimate of underreporting of serious
motorcyclist injuries to the Police.
It should be noted that since injuries treated in private hospitals have only been
included in the database in a substantial way (comprising 18.5% of all injuries versus
1.1% of on -and -off-road MVT injuries) from the first half of 1993, they have been
excluded from this analysis to avoid potential bias.
This report should be read in conjunction with the companion Stage 1 report by
Diamantopoulou, Dyte and Cameron (1995) which analyses Police reported
motorcycle crash data in Victoria between 1984 and 1993.
5.2
GENERAL TRENDS
5.2.1
Overall Frequency of Injuries
There has been an overall reduction in the number of severely injured motorcyclists
recorded as on-road casualties in both the hospital admissions (VIMD) and VicRoads
enhanced version of the police reported (VicRoads) databases across the six years of
data presented. However, there was a slight increase in the number of injured
motorcyclists requiring hospital admission (VIMD) in the financial year 1992/93.
Similar reductions were apparent for MVT injuries which suggest an overall decrease
in the incidence of serious motor vehicle related injuries in Victoria.
Figure 5.1 suggests that fewer seriously injured motorcyclists were recorded in the
VicRoads database across the six years of data available (N=5,380), as compared to
injured motorcyclists recorded in the hospital admissions data (N=6,320).
This
indicates an average 15% level of underreporting which ranged from 10% in 1987/88
to 20% in 1992/93. This suggests that the VicRoads database does not contain
information on all serious motorcyclist injuries in Victoria.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
55
Figure 5.1:
Comparison of VI MD and VicRoads data - Persons injured as a
result of serious MVT and Motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria,
1987/88 -1992/93
_
c=J
VIMD - Motorcyclists
VicRoads Motorcyclists
---0--
VIMD - MVT
1I)
800
600
> 1400
400
ij(;0 z'§0:u:E
iE 1000
200
Gl
1I)
---
.i
1991/92
1200
0
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
,!!
:iE
:;
6000 :E
I4000
ci
2000
010000
8000
z
>
VicRoads - MVT
1992/93
12000
1990/91
Two possibilities exist as to why seriously injured motorcyclists were underreported
in VicRoads enhanced police data. Firstly, although by law Victorians are required to
report all traffic casualties resulting in injury to the police, police are sometimes not
notified of crashes where the injuries appear minor, where there is little damage to
property, or where the motorcyclist is trying to avoid prosecution because s/he has
broken the law, e.g., unlicensed. Secondly, as this comparison only refers to injured
motorcyclists classified as serious by VicRoads, it is possible that the reporting police
officer underestimated the severity of the motorcyclists injury, coded the injury as
minor, and therefore resulted in that motorcyclist wrongly being excluded from this
comparison, hence, an element of error.
Also, sometimes people present to
Emergency Departments some time after the incident complaining of injuries which
appeared minor at the time, yet have since required hospital admission.
Although fewer serious motorcyclist injuries were recorded in the VicRoads enhanced
version of police reported data in comparison to persons admitted to hospital, this
trend reversed for MVT casualty crashes overall. That is, VicRoads reported more
MVT casualties as serious than were actually represented in the hospital admissions
data. A likely explanation for the under-estimation of severe motorcyclist injuries is
underreporting of casualty crashes to the police reported database (Rosman &
Knuiman, 1994). It is possible that the police overestimated the severity of MVT
injuries, while they underestimated the severity of motorcyclist injuries. Rosman and
Knuiman (1994) claim in Western Australia that injury severity is often underreported
by police, and that the linkage between police reported and hospital admissions data is
poorer for motorcyclists (51.8%) than for MVT injuries (64%) overall. However,
whether this can be generalised to Victorian data is difficult given the finding by
Ozanne-Smith and Haworth (1993) that Victorian trends do not mirror those of other
states, and that there is an anomaly when categorising injury severity on Victorian
police report forms.
56
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
The Federal Office of Road Safety (FORS, 1993) indicated that little difference was
found between Victorian hospital admissions and police derived estimates of hospital
admission for MVT hospitalisations overall during 1990. However, this differed
according to the types of road user as police derived data was found to underreport
motorcyclist hospitalisations by 21%, and overestimate driver admissions by 37%.
FORS concluded that this may be due to a mis-classification of the severity of minor
injuries (hospitalisation status) on the police form, and the changing of requirements
in 1988 whereby police were no longer required to verify admission status for road
casualties.
Figure 5.2:
Comparison of VI MD and VicRoads data - Motorcyclists severely
injured (including pillion passengers) as a percentage of all severe MVT injuries
in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
_
VIMD - MVT
C=:J VicRoads - MVT
--
---Q-
VIMD - %
Motorcyclists
z
>
.!!
U)
VicRoads - %
Motorcyclists
6000
12000
4000
8000
20.0
2000
10000
0
18.0
:E
:E
Icl:;-
16.0
I>
:E
14.0:=
o
12.0 ~
U)
III .!!
10.0 U)
:;
1lI'I:
8.0 ~.!!!
6.0 ~u
4.0 ~o
2.0 :E
0.0
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Although a greater number of persons injured as a result of MVT casualty crashes
were recorded in the VicRoads data than in the VIMD data (Figure 5.2), severely
injured VIMD motorcyclists accounted for a greater percentage of all MVT persons
injured than did severely injured VicRoads motorcyclists. Over the six years of data
available, on average severely injured VIMD motorcyclists accounted for 16.6% of all
persons severely injured as a result of MVT casualty crashes, whereas VicRoads
seriously injured motorcyclists accounted for 11.5% of all persons seriously injured in
MVT casualty crashes.
This suggests that either the severity of VicRoads
motorcyclist injuries were underestimated at the time of the crash, and were therefore
not included in this comparison (i.e., serious casualties only), that not all motorcyclist
casualty crashes that involved serious injury warranting hospital admission were
reported to the police, or that the severity of non-motorcyclist injuries were overestimated.
Overall, an upward trend is evident for motorcyclist injuries as a percentage of all
MVT injuries, excepting for the financial year 1992/93. Prior to 1991/92 the
percentage of motorcyclists injured as a proportion of all MVT injuries increased for
both VicRoads and VIMD serious casualties.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
57
5.2.2
Motorcycle Riders and Pillion Passengers
Although an overall decrease in the number of motorcycle riders severely injured for
both VIMD and VicRoads data is evident (Figure 5.3), fewer injuries involving
motorcycle riders were recorded in the police enhanced database than the hospital
system. Motorcycle riders as a percentage of all motorcyclists injured averaged
92.3% for VIMD data and 91% for VicRoads data. This indicates a consistency in the
proportion of motorcycle riders injured in each database, and is particularly evident in
later financial years.
Figure 5.3:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of Motorcycle Riders - Total
numbers and as a percentage of all motorcyclists severely injured
in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
_
c==J
VIMD - Riders
VicRoads - Riders ------
VIMD - % Riders
----Q--- VicRoads - %
Riders
1200
100
98
iii
96
15
94
~"i
92
::l:5'
"Cl
Cl)
:;
1000
:s
l!! 800
Cl)
ii
"Cl
Cl)
U
>
u
ca
90 ~=
~~
600
88ii~
Cl)
.9
o
400
86
:E
z
ci
:;
l:!
~.s
u 0
84 •..
~:E
200
o
82 :E
o
80
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
The frequency of pillion passengers severely injured over the six years of VIMD data
has fluctuated. There has been an overall decrease in the number of pillion passengers
injured in the VicRoads database, with the number more than halving since 1987/88
(Figure 5.4).
Few differences were apparent with regards to the percentage of pillion passengers
injured as a proportion of all motorcyclists injured, yet the percentage of VicRoads
reported pillion passenger injuries slightly exceeded the percentage of hospital
admission injuries, with VIMD cases averaging 7.7% over the six years and VicRoads
data averaging 9%.
58
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 5.4:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of Pillion Passengers - Total
numbers and as a percentage of all motorcyclists severely injured
in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
_
VIMD - Pillions
c==J
1987/88
1988/89
VicRoads - Pillions ----
VIMD - % Pillions
---0--
VicRoads - %
Pillions
120
1l
•.. 100
;:,
:5'
In
•..
80
Ql
Cl
l:
5:
In
60
ftI
ll..
~
40
Q:
zci
20
o
5.3
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
PERSON CHARACTERISTICS
5.3.1 Sex
Figure 5.5 highlights the disparity between the number of male and female
motorcyclists injured in Victoria, with females comprising less than 10% of all
motorcyclists injured in both data bases. Although there has been a reduction in the
number of male and female motorcyclists injured across the six years, the reduction
has been less marked for females (1.3% VIMDreduction, 0.7% VicRoads reduction).
On average, female motorcyclists in the VIMD database averaged 7.9% of all VIMD
motorcyclists severely injured while VicRoads females averaged 8% of all VicRoads
motorcyclists severely injured.
Similarly, Figure 5.6. shows that males comprised the majority of motorcycle riders
severely injured with females making up approximately 4.9% of the cases in the
VIMD database and 4% of the cases in the VicRoads database. Although the number
of males injured while riding a motorcycle continued to decrease for both VIMD and
VicRoads data, the decrease was less marked for females. Whilst there was a decrease
for female riders as reported to the VicRoads database, no trends were apparent for
female riders in the VIMD database. However, the number of injuries in the VIMD
database continued to out number that of the VicRoads data. Whether these
differences are related to chance is unknown.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
59
Figure 5.5:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of the number of motorcyclists
severely injured (including pillion passengers) in Victoria by Gender,
1987/88 -1992/93
-------
VIMD - Male
---D--
VicRoads - Male
---+~
VIMD - Female
----0--- VicRoads - Female
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
1987/88
"C
.!!
u
> ..
0:;
U
III z
'0
:E
0
Gl
:::E
0
1988/89
1989/90
1991/92
1990/91
1992/93
Figure 5.6:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of the number of motorcycle
riders severely injured in Victoria by gender, 1987/88 -1992/93
z'ii
800_VIMD-Male
600
400
1987/88
1200
200
III 1000
0
:»
~"Ca0:
c==J
VicRoads - Male
-------
VIMD - Female
---D--
VicRoads - Female
:::E
Gl
60
50
III
40:»"C
a:
Gl
30'ii
E
Gl
u..
20 0
z
10
o
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
The differences in frequency between male and female pillion passengers severely
injured was less marked than for motorcycle riders (Figure 5.7). Although slightly
more males were injured as pillion passengers during the years 1987/88 - 1990/91,
this trend reversed during 1991/92. Consequently, females have since outnumbered
males with regards to pillion passenger injuries for both VIMD and VicRoads data.
60
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH
CENTRE
Figure 5.7:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of the number of pillion
passengers severely injured in Victoria by gender, 1987/88 -1992/93
_VIMD-Male
c==J
VicRoads - Male
------
VIMD - Female
--{}--
VicRoads - Female
70
70
60
60
01
g'
Gl
01
01
01
50
50
5i
01
01
la
~40
40~
c:
~
.2
~ 30
30 is:
Gl
Gl
'1li
'1li
20 u..
~
::E 20
ci
Z
l!!
Gl
ai
ci
10
1QZ
o
o
1987/88
STAGE
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
61
5.3.2
Age
Figure 5.8:
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of Motorcyclists severely injured
(including pillion passengers) in Victoria by Age and Financial
Year
1987/88
I !Ill! VIMD
1988189
D VicRoads I
I
400
i
_; 350
300
250
~ 200
1150
• 100
!
D VicRoads I
!Ill! VIMD
350
300
1250
1200
1150
• 100
!
50
o
<10
10-16
17-19
I
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-49
50
o
<10
50+
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
Age Group
Age Group
1989/90
1990/91
!Ill! VIMD
D VicRoads
I !Ill! VIMD
I
400
30-34
35-49
50+
35-49
50+
35-49
50+
D VicRoads I
400
300
} 300
200
I- 200
100
1100
!
o
o
0-9
10-16
17-19
I
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-49
50+
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
Age Group
Age Group
1991/92
1992/93
!Ill! VIMD
D VicRoads
I !Ill! VIMD
I
400
30-34
D VicRoads I
400
I1300
1300
Loo
• 100
I
i200
1200
!
!
o
o
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-49
50+
0-9
Age Group
62
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
Age Group
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
30-34
Overall, the age distribution of severely injured motorcyclists remained fairly constant
for both VicRoads and VIMD data (Figure 5.8), with the 20-24 year old age group
predominating throughout the six years of data available (total of 27% VIMD and
31% VicRoads). It should be noted that since the age group span represented in the
17-19 year old group is not synonymous with the 20-24 year age group, caution is
required when making comparisons between the different age groups.
Fewer motorcyclists in the under 17 years age group were represented in the
VicRoads data (total of 178) as opposed to the VIMD data (total of 567). This
suggests that either not all motorcycle casualty crashes where younger motorcyclists
were involved were reported to the police, or they underestimated these injuries as
only minor.
Non-reporting of casualty crashes involving motorcyclists below
licensing age would not be surprising. For example, a report carried out by Haworth,
Ozanne-Smith, Fox and Brumen (1994) found that 45.1% of on-road motorcyclists
admitted to hospital who were under the age of 21 years were either unlicensed or
were riding an unregistered motorcycle. Overall, the above age distribution identifies
a bias in the differences in reporting rates between the two databases.
According to VIMD data there appears to be a slight trend towards older persons (30+
years) being injured whilst riding motorcycles.
The age distribution for motorcycle riders mirrors that of the above distribution and is
therefore not presented in a separate chart. A separate group of charts is presented
below depicting the number of pillion passengers injured in each database by age.
Figure 5.9 provides a graphical presentation of motorcyclists injured across each of
the age groups for each of the databases. These results support those previously found
in Figure 5.8, indicating that 2-24 year old motorcyclists were the predominant age
group hospitalised as a result of serious motorcyclist injuries.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
63
Figure 5.9:
Comparison of VIMD and VicRoads Motorcyclists severely
injured by Age Group and Financial Year
Figure 5.10 highlights the changing age distribution of pillion passengers severely
injured in Victoria across the six years of data available, as well as a general reduction
in the number of pillion passengers injured by financial year. Whilst VicRoads and
VIMD data did not follow the same age trend in earlier years (1987/88 - 1988/89), the
reduction in the overall number of pillion passengers injured also reduced the
differences between the two databases. Thus, during 1991/92 and 1992/93 few
differences were found between VicRoads and VIMD data.
In reference to VicRoads data there has been an enormous shift in the number of
pillion passengers injured in each age group. The 20-24 year old age group
predominated in the VicRoads data throughout the six years, yet varied widely in
frequency. In fact, the frequency of 20-24 year olds in the VicRoads database was
more than double that of the VIMD pillion passengers injured for the same age group
during 1987/88, and continued to exceed the VIMD cases for a number of years. This
in part may be due to improved coding of motorcyclists injured over time, i.e., fewer
coded as "unknown". Note the variability across the age groups (e.g., 17-19,20-24)
when making direct comparisons between the age groups.
64
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
Although few cases were recorded in the VicRoads data for pillion passengers under
the age of 17 years in comparison to VIMD cases, the number of pillion passengers
injured in the 10-16 year age group exceeded VIMD cases during 1991/92.
During 1987/88 the 10-16 year age group predominated in frequency for VIMD cases
rather than the 20-24 year age group evident throughout other years. Likewise, the
frequency of 20-24 year olds was lower during 1990/91, and was exceeded by the 1016, 17-19 and 25-29 year age groups.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
65
Figure 5.10: VIMD and VicRoads comparison of Pillion Passengers severely
injured in Victoria by Age and Financial Year
1987/88
1II1II
1988/89
0 VicRoads
VIMD
I
1II1II
0 VicRoads
VIMD
I
35
130
" 25
t
20
~ 15
& 10
i: 5
~
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-49
0
50+
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
Age
0 VicRoads
VIMD
30-34
35-49
50+
35-49
50+
35-49
50+
1990/91
1989/90
1II1II
25-29
Age
1
1II1II
;
0 VicRoads
VIMD
1
40
E 30
Lo
l
!
if
10
~ 0
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-49
50+
0-9
10-16
17-19
20-24
Age
0-9
10-16
0 VicRoads
VIMD
17-19
20-24
25-29
1
1II1II
30-34
35-49
50+
0-9
10-16
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
17-19
0 VicRoads
VIMD
20-24
Age
Age
66
30-34
1992/93
1991/92
1II1II
25-29
Age
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
25-29
1
30-34
5.4
ACCIDENT
CHARACTERISTICS
5.4.1
Seriously Injured Motorcyclists in Multi/Single Vehicle Crashes
Figure 5.11 shows that there has been a very slight decrease in the number of
motorcyclists severely injured in single vehicle casualty crashes in Victoria across the
six years of data available. No differences were evident between the two databases,
other than that the number of VIMD injuries was double the number of VicRoads
InJunes.
Figure 5.11: VIMD and VicRoads comparison of motorcyclists severely injured
(including pillion passengers) in single and multi vehicle casualty crashes
in Victoria, 1987/88 - 1992/93
Single Vehicle Crashes
c:::==J
[_VIMD
VicRoads
~
% VIMD
--{]----
% VicRoads ]
800
70
.5
~j
700
60'/F. .,
::l .,
600
5
500
'0
:E'
.,
••
i
:0
i
.,
50
40 - :i
u
30 c; ~
Gl
:g:!i 400
>.c
~>
••
Gl
300
:!:
g>
200
20
100
10 g.
lii
o
Gl
0-
alii
z
Gl
:l
~~
i:!:
>Glj;j
o
1987/88
1988/89
1989/90
1990/91
1991/92
1992/93
Multi Vehicle Crashes
[_VIMD
>.c
a0
:!:
'lii ~
Gl
.E
..
"Cl
.,
c:::==J
VicRoads
~
% VIMD
--{]----
% VicRoads ]
800
1990/91
1989/90
1988/89
500
400
700
600
uu ._ 300
"5
200
='U
1000
z:!:.8>
.5
1987/88
.~i
Gl Gl
Gl
.,C..l
1991/92
1992/93
On average, single vehicle motorcycle casualty crashes accounted for 60.4% of
motorcyclist hospital admissions as opposed to 35.5% of VicRoads serious
motorcycle casualties. This is the largest discrepancy between the VIMD and the
VicRoads data bases found in this comparison. It may, in part, be due to the different
definitions of a single vehicle crash (as discussed in the Introduction), and/or to a
tendency for motorcyclists to avoid reporting single vehicle casualty crashes.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
67
There has been a reduction in the number of injuries sustained in multi vehicle
casualty crashes over the six years for both VIMD and VicRoads data, yet the
differences between the two groups was not as large as for single vehicle casualty
crashes. Although VIMD cases exceeded VicRoads cases for single vehicle casualty
crashes, this trend reversed for multi vehicle casualty crashes. While VicRoads data
reflected a greater number of serious injuries resulting from multi vehicle casualty
crashes, VIMD data reported more injuries resulting from single vehicle casualty
crashes. On average, multi vehicle motorcyclist casualty crashes accounted for 39.6%
of motorcyclist hospital admissions as opposed to 64.5% of VicRoads reported
serious motorcyclist casualties.
As reported in an earlier section of the report (Stage 1; Diamantopoulou, Dyte &
Cameron, 1995), each year since 1986 VicRoads reported more serious multi vehicle
casualty crashes than single vehicle casualty crashes in Victoria, and more
motorcyclists were admitted to hospital following single vehicle casualty crashes in
Victoria (Stage 2; VIMD). This suggests that the police may have perceived multi
vehicle crash injuries as more serious than single vehicle crash injuries. This is not
surprising given that the perception of crash severity often escalates in relation to the
number of people injured in a crash. Again, there is also the influence of different
definitions of a multi-vehicle crash in the two databases.
The trend for motorcycle riders severely injured in single vehicle casualty crashes is
similar to that of injured motorcyclists in general, as presented in Figure 5.12, with
VIMD cases almost doubling the frequency ofVicRoads cases.
Although there has been an overall decrease in the number of pillion passengers
severely injured in single vehicle casualty crashes, this trend has been variable due to
a sudden increase in the number of injuries recorded during 1990/91. However, both
VIMD and VicRoads cases follow similar patterns which suggests that the yearly
variation is a true reflection of shifts in single vehicle pillion passenger injuries, rather
than due to variations in individual data collection.
68
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 5.12: VIMD and VicRoads comparison of motorcycle riders and pillion
passengers severely injured in single vehicle casualty crashes in Victoria,
1987/88 -1992/93
50
500
60
10
0••s:E .~
700
30
0
••
l:l:~>
s:••
..
~
20
.E
•• 200
.~Cl
300
l:1j
zCl
600
i(.)
u
in
400
40
.5
1987/88
:.>
'l:l
i(.)
B
l:~l!!0 ••= 100
.5
'l:l m:E ~
is:
•• Gl
ClGl
:l Gl
----
-Gl .ca
Gl
==
---0-1988/89VicRoads
1990/91
1989/90
1991/92
1992/93
Motorcycle
Riders
~~
VIMD
In contrast to single vehicle casualty crashes the VicRoads serious multi vehicle
motorcycle rider injury cases were consistently greater than the VIMD injury cases
(Figure 5.13). A slight downward trend was evident for both databases.
As was the case for single vehicle casualty crashes, there was an overall, though
irregular, downward trend for pillion passengers.
Somewhat fewer cases were
recorded in the VIMD database, although similar trends were evident for each year.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
69
-••i
700
70
0
1991/92
1989/90
1992/93
1988/89
••••
50
::l••
••
zii:.5~
20
100
.5 .. :5'i
0 5.13: 1990/91
..
••E
400
30
10
60
::l ::l
Figure
..
600
lie:;
'0
~(J
c::2
VIMD and VicRoads comparison of motorcycle riders and pillion
40
1987/88
~
~>
en
~
•• 200
500
0 ••>
·C'1
~
~:s
~
300
--G-- Vie Roads
~i
1987/88
- 1992/93
passengers
injured in multi vehicle
casualty
crashes in Victoria,
1------ VIMDseverely
Motorcycle
Riders
:lE
II
5.5
LOCATION
5.5.1
Melbourne Vs Rest of Victoria
The following comparison between VIMD and VicRoads with regards to location
should be analysed with caution as this variable has been defined differently by each
database.
According to VIMD, the location variable reflects the motorcyclists
postcode of residence, whereas it refers to the location of the crash in the VicRoads
database. It should be noted however, that this is a function of the way the Police
reported data was extracted, and not a feature of the database itself. That is, although
postcode of residence is available in the VicRoads database, the information was not
accessed in the subset ofVicRoads data utilised by this study.
To minimise error, location has been divided into two categories, Melbourne
Metropolitan versus the Rest of Victoria. Nevertheless, there will be instances where
70
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
the motorcyclist lives in country Victoria yet was injured in the Melbourne
Metropolitan area, and vice versa for Melbourne residents injured outside the
metropolitan area.
Figure 5.14 shows that up to 50% more motorcyclist injuries were recorded in
Metropolitan Melbourne than the Rest of Victoria, and that this percentage did not
vary much across the six years of data collection. No differences in proportion were
evident between the two databases which suggests that the differences in definition
approximately cancelled out.
Figure 5.14: VIMD and VicRoads comparison of the percentage of
motorcyclists severely injured (including pillion passengers) in Victoria by
location, 1987/88 - 1992/93
-{}--
.... ••:E'.0UU0:l0>.
u
la
..0
c:
'#.
....I
•!!!
Gl
"'0
::!!!!
VIMD - Melbourne
Metro
50
10
70
30
60
40
20
--
VIMD - Rest of
Victoria
---0--
VicRoads - Melbourne
Metro
----tr--
VicRoads - Rest of
Victoria
1991/92
1988/89
1992/93
1990/91
1989/90
VI
0
1987/88
5.6
DISCUSSION
The findings of the six year trend analysis indicates that there has been a decrease in
the number of severe motorcyclist injuries over time for both the hospital admissions
and VicRoads enhanced police reported databases.
However, fewer serious
motorcyclist injuries were recorded in the VicRoads database than were admitted to
Victorian hospitals. This is surprising given that the reverse was found for MVT
injuries overall - i.e., more MVT injuries were coded as severe by VicRoads than
represented in the hospital admissions system. However, it is not known whether the
problem is a coding one (interpretation of injury severity) or due to an underreporting
of motorcyclist injuries to the police. The latter is supported by the finding of an
under-representation of single vehicle casualty crashes in the police reported database
and an underreporting of severely injured motorcyclists aged less than 17 years
(providing that the VIMD database does not contain a high percentage of off-road
motorcyclists miscoded as on-road). This suggests a reluctance to notify the police if
only one vehicle is involved in the crash and if the motorcyclist is underage,
unlicensed or breaking the law in some way.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
71
A comparison between VicRoads and hospital admitted motorcyclist crash data serves
as a useful measure of underreporting and suggests that severe motorcyclist injuries
(labelled as 'taken to hospital') were under-represented in the VicRoads database.
Given that hospital admissions data is generally regarded as the more complete
database in terms of describing the incidence and prevalence of motorcycle crashes
resulting in severe injury in Victoria (Ozanne-Smith & Haworth, 1993), one way of
calculating the level of underreporting of police reported VicRoads data is to subtract
the number of VicRoads casualties from the number of admitted casualties in the
VIMD database. Using this formula, the level of underreporting expressed as a
percentage of total VIMD injuries has been calculated at an average of 15% across the
six years of data (range 10-20%), with the proportion increasing to 20% during
1992/93. This suggests a trend for fewer serious motorcyclist injuries to be recorded
in the VicRoads enhanced version of the police reported data. Given the likelihood
that some off-road motorcycle casualty crashes may have been wrongly coded as onroad, this figure serves only as a crude estimate of underreporting.
Further research is required to ascertain whether this reflects a problem with reporting
(notifying motorcycle casualty crashes to the police) or whether it reflects a difference
in coding practices for injuries which result in hospital admission (serious injuries
wrongly coded as minor). There may also be over-reporting of motorcyclists as
"seriously injured" (taken to mean hospital admitted), but the extent of underreporting of motorcyclist casualty crashes is so great that it hides this effect. Given
the finding that more motorcyclist injury cases were contained in the VicRoads
database (see Stage 1 report describing all levels of severity) than the hospital
admissions database overall, it remains a possibility that some of the serious
motorcyclist injuries appearing in the hospital admissions database were wrongly
coded as minor injuries in the VicRoads database. The finding that fewer single
vehicle casualty crashes were recorded in the VicRoads data than the hospital
admissions database overall (Stages 1 & 2) suggests that the problem is one of
notification rather than coding - i.e, not always reported to the police. The results of a
VicRoads commissioned Roy Morgan Research Centre (1994) computer assisted
random telephone survey of 8,461 households in Victoria (16,843 people) found that
only 78% of the people estimated to be involved in road accidents during the past
three years who had injuries severe enough to warrant medical treatment were
accounted for by the Police accident database. Hence, there is an estimated level of
under-reporting in Victoria of 22% (25% estimated level of under-reporting in
Melbourne versus 15% for the Rest of Victoria). When broken down according to
type of injury accident, the estimated reporting rate for motorcycle accidents
(VicRoads Police reported data as a percentage of Roy Morgan Research Centre
survey data) was 120.4%. It should be noted however, that this survey refers only to
320 injured participants, of which 17 were motorcyclists (Roy Morgan Research
Centre, 1994).
Although this study does not attempt to isolate the reasons for underreporting of
single vehicle casualty crashes, it is interesting to note that injuries involving people
under the age of 17 years were seriously underreported in the VicRoads police
reported database. This may suggest that being unlicensed and the fear of prosecution
may be factors related to why all single vehicle motorcycle casualty crashes were not
72
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
reported in the VicRoads data. Findings from the Roy Morgan Research Centre
(1994) survey also found that road accidents involving young people under the age of
18 years recorded the highest level of under-reporting (42%). On the other hand, the
finding that serious motor vehicle crash injuries were overestimated in the VicRoads
data suggests that the problem may be one of coding or misinterpretation of injury
severity.
Likewise, the fact that serious MVT injuries in the VicRoads database exceed those in
VIMD by approximately 23% suggests that the police may have overestimated the
severity of motor vehicle injuries, while they underestimated serious motorcyclist
injuries by approximately 15%. The possibility also exists that more motorcyclist
injuries were recorded in the VicRoads database than the VIMD database due to errors
in coding off-road motorcyclist casualty crashes as on-road casualty crashes, or vice
versa for VIMD on-road motorcyclist injury admissions. Given that many off-road
motorcyclist crashes actually comprise single vehicle casualty crashes, and that these
are generally regarded as less severe than multi-vehicle crashes, this would help
explain why serious motorcyclist casualty crashes were underestimated in the
VicRoads database (or conversely overestimated in the VIMD database). Research
aimed at directly linking police with hospital admissions data would help clarify the
Issues.
Therefore, there is merit in linking hospital admissions and police reported
(VicRoads) data to gain a better perspective of the motorcycle injury problem in
Victoria. Linking the databases would help to investigate levels of underreporting of
motorcyclist injuries to the police. This in turn could affect the allocation of resources
to road safety and for reducing the incidence of motorcyclist injuries in Victoria.
Although historically the size of the motorcyclist injury problem has been calculated
on the basis of VicRoads road statistics, clearly, use of hospital data would provide a
fuller understanding of the size of the motorcyclist injury problem. Estimates of the
cost of motorcyclist injuries using VicRoads data only, does not provide a fair
estimate of the motorcycle injury problem in Victoria, i.e., up to 20% of hospital
admissions not classified as serious.
Thus, further research is needed to gain a more accurate understanding of
underreporting to the police and to explore coding issues relating to the classification
of injury severity. A comparison of VicRoads motorcyclist injuries with a statewide
medical based database that collects data at the lower spectrum for minor injuries
(e.g., hospital emergency department treatments and possibly GP data) would help to
clarify the issue of coding and would provide a clearer perspective of the motorcycle
injury problem.
Nevertheless, this research has been instrumental in highlighting the level of
underreporting of serious motorcyclist injuries to the police (particularly single
vehicle injuries with younger motorcyclists) and in describing trends over time. What
this research has not been able to achieve is to quantify the contribution of the various
factors which lead to underreporting of motorcyclist injuries to the police. This
remains a challenge for future research, particularly in view of the high costs relating
to lengthy and often expensive health care for injured motorcyclists.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
73
74
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
6.
CONCLUSIONS
The first stage of this project examined trends in Police-reported motorcycle crashes
resulting in death or injury in Victoria during 1984-93. It was found that the trend in
motorcycle casualty crashes was different from that for all reported casualty crashes in
Victoria since 1989, with the proportion of motorcycle crashes generally increasing
since that year. The number of motorcycle casualty crashes in Victoria has decreased
even since 1987, but at a slower rate than casualty crashes generally.
Stage 2 of the project compared these findings with those elsewhere in Australia and
in another data source from Victoria.
Australia-wide, it was found that the number of motorcyclists killed during 1984-93
had decreased more rapidly than in Victoria. In New South Wales in particular, the
proportion of fatal crashes involving motorcycles had been halved, compared with
essentially no change in Victoria. Similar findings were apparent when trends in
motorcycle casualty crashes were compared in the two States.
A notable difference between the two States was that, in Victoria, the decrease in
motorcycle casualty crashes was primarily multi-vehicle crashes occurring in low
speed zones of 75 km/h or lower, whereas in New South Wales, the decline in
motorcycle casualty crashes was in both low and high speed zones, and in both singleand multi-vehicle crashes. Reliable information on blood alcohol levels was available
only for motorcycle riders who were killed. Another notable difference was that, in
New South Wales, the proportion of killed riders with excessive BAC readings (above
0.15 g/lOOml) increased substantially during 1984-93, whereas in Victoria, the
proportion was more than halved during 1989-93. However, both States were
consistent in showing the greatest decreases in motorcyclist casualties among those
aged under 26 years, whilst those aged over 37 years showed an increasing trend in
deaths and injuries.
An alternative source of data on motorcyclist injuries in Victoria was public hospital
admission records, available for 1987/88 to 1992/93. This data source confirmed that
serious motorcyclist injuries did not reduce as rapidly as other road traffic injuries
resulting in hospital admission during the period. The data also showed that for
motorcyclists aged under 15 years, hospital admissions from off-road crashes were
more numerous than those from crashes on-road. In other respects, the hospital
admission records reflected the findings from Police reports, except that admissions
eventuated from a greater proportion of single motorcycle crashes.
When the two sources of data on motorcyclist serious injuries in Victoria were
compared, it was found that substantially fewer serious injuries were recorded in the
database of Police crash reports held by VicRoads than were recorded as admitted to
hospital. The reverse was true for serious road traffic injuries generally, probably
emanating from the known practice whereby the VicRoads database records as
"serious injury" many cases of injury which did not result in hospital admission. Thus
the extent of under-reporting of motorcyclist hospital admissions in the database of
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
75
Police crash records may be even greater than has been indicated.
investigation of this issue is warranted.
7.
Further
RECOMMENDATIONS
This project led to a number of recommendations
research:
for further investigation
and
1. The principal area of improvement in motorcyclist trauma in Victoria during
1984-93 was from the reduction in multi-vehicle crashes in the low speed zones of
75 km/h or lower. Factors which may explain this improvement, in contrast with
other crash types, should be investigated.
2. The creation of a linked file matching motorcyclists recorded on Police reports
with records of motorcyclist hospital admissions would be valuable for research to
understand the extent to which the admissions are reported to the Police, and to
gain some understanding of the injury severity levels which they record.
3. For a fuller understanding of the injury recording practices used by the Police, a
file linking motorcyclists recorded on Police reports should be linked with hospital
admission records, Accident and Emergency Department (non-admission) records,
and records of injury treatments by General Practitioners. Data systems covering
the first two of these non-Police sources exist for the Latrobe Valley in Victoria,
and it is understood that a system covering the third source will be created soon.
The availability of these systems consolidating data on all levels of injury
treatment should be used to create a linkage with Police reports on crashes in the
same regIOn.
76
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH
CENTRE
REFERENCES
Diamantopoulou, K., Dyte, D. & Cameron, M. (1995). Analysis of Trends in
Motorcycle Crashes, Stage 1: Analysis of Trends in Police Reported Motorcycle
Crashes in Victoria, 1984-1993. Monash University Accident Research Centre,
Victoria.
Federal Office of Road Safety (1994). Road Fatalities Australia:
Summary. Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australia.
1993 Statistical
Federal Office of Road Safety (1993). Road Crashes Resulting in Hospitalisation,
Australia 1990. Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australia.
Haworth, N. L., Ozanne-Smith, 1. E., Fox, B., & Brumen, I. (1994). Motorcyclerelated Injuries to Children and Adolescents. Monash University Accident Research
Centre, Victoria.
Development of Data Collection
Ozanne-Smith, J., & Haworth, N. (1993).
Methodology: Crashes Resulting in Hospitalisation and Casualty Crashes not
Resulting in Hospitalisation. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Victoria,
Report No. CR 120.
Rosman, D. L., & Knuiman, M. W. (1994). A Comparison of Hospital and Police
Road Injury Data Accident Analysis and Prevention, 26(2), 215-222.
Roy Morgan Research Centre. (1994). Under-reporting of road trauma (1990-93) in
Victoria: Stage 1; and Survey of vehicle accidents involving property damage only
(1992-93) in Victoria. VicRoads, Victoria, Report No. GR 94-7.
South, D. (1994). Alcohol in Road Accidents in Victoria, 1977-1993. (GR 94-13).
Melbourne: VicRoads General Report.
VicRoads (1991). VicRoads Submission to Social Development Committee Inquiry
into Motorcycle Safety in Victoria.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
77
78
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
APPENDIX
KILLED MOTORCYCLISTS BY BAC AND LICENCE TYPE
FOR VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES,
1984-1993
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
79
80
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure AI:
VICTORIAN LEARNER MotorcycleRiders Killed with
BAC>O.OIOg/IOOmlas a Proportion of Learner Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC,1984-1993
••
0
0
r!
U
:E
""
i
••
...
.~
0 :.:
1:
0••:
'0
2Ea••~
:;~
0'0
D..
...•
<:
•..
<:
52
jjlj
1967
1991
1911O
1905
1906
25%
1968
1992
1969
t993
(12)
(11)
(8)
(9)
(7)
(13)
(9)
(5)
(7)
(8) (2)
(5)
(5)
(1)
(4)
(0)
(')
(3)
(2)
5O"A. (12)
20%
10%
40%
30%
35%
5% ....
15%
,
45% 0%
0.011 10 .050
1!1.05110.100
•. 10110.150
•. 151 or more
Figure A2: NSW LEARNER Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OIOg/100mlas a Proportion of Learner Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
""
••
...
.~
:.:
'"
•:
E0
00••r! 1:
2•0a••~
'0
U
:E
••
'0
:;
D..
...•
<:
•..
l:!
<:
52
jjlj
<:
1991
1911O
'968
1997
1966
'905
25%
1969
(0)
(3)
(1)
(4)
(11)
(17)
(2)
(15)
(14)
(18)
(4)
(5)
(7) (4)
(21)
(20)
(8)
(12)
15%
40%
5O"A. (7)
20%
10%
30%
35%
5% ....
,
45% 0%
0.011 10.050
1!I.05110.1oo
•. 10110.150
•. 151 or more
1992
(t)
(3)
(3)
*
**
***
1993
(1)
(3)
(3)
Number of learner riders killed with BAC >O.OlOg/lOOml.
Number of learner riders killed with known BAC.
Number of learner riders killed.
STAGE
2: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN VICTORIA
81
Figure A3:
VICTORIAN PROBATIONARY Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Probationary Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
100%
90%
~
80%
S2
l!!
.g
70%
a:
"
u
~o
60%
~~l:
d
::l!
0.011
to.05O
8.051
to.1oo
•. 101 to .150
50%
l:lO:
.2.c
•. 151 or more
~l40%
e
ll.
..o
630%
'2
8-
£
200••
,''''
...
1902
1001
1993
1908
1987
1986
1993
(3)
(19)
(7)
(5)
(4)
(17)
(:<I)
(9) (6)
(6)
(17)
(1)
(8)
(1)
(2)
10%
1984
0%
Figure A4:
NSW PROVISIONAL Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Provisional Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
60%
50%
~
S2
"
40%
"
'[0
l!!
:!:!
et:
~i?j
0.011
o l:
'iiil:
to.05O
IIJ.051 to .100
::l!~30%
•. 101 to.150
l:lO:
.2.c
"'=
.~~
~
l:o
•. 151 or more
20%
'2
o
<I.
e
ll.
10%
0%
1984
1986
("0>.010)
(0)
(7)
(6)
(""5
known)
(-Skilled)
*
**
***
82
1987
1902
1993
(2)
(3)
(3)
(1)
(0)
(5)
(11)
(3)
(7)
(3)
(5)
(10)
(1)
(6)
(6)
(12)
(9)
(11)
(2)
(2)
(1)
(3)
(4)
Number of probationary/provisional
Number of probationary/provisional
Number of probationary/provisional
MONASH
,...
''''
UNIVERSITY
1908
1993
1001
riders killed with HAC >O.OlOg/lOOml.
riders killed with known HAC.
riders killed.
ACCIDENT
RESEARCH CENTRE
(1)
Figure AS:
VICTORIAN STANDARD Licence Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Standard Licence Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
50%
45%
"
••
~
40%
f!
.g
ii:
••
U
>.
35%
~ 030%
oe(
~m
0.011
Gl C
to .050
IJ .051 to .100
g ~25%
••C
.!!~
•. 101 to.15O
...J.c
•. 151 or more
"
~ j2Q%
C
co
iil
'0
C
15%
o
:e
&.
10%
e
...
1901
lllO9
1990
1985
1993
1992
1968
1987
(12)
(5)
(22)
(18)
(23)
(29)
(3)
(11)
(20)
(11)
(28)
(24)
(30)
(25)
(6)
(15)
(17)
(8) (23)
(20)
(8)
5%
1984
0%
Figure A6:
NSW STANDARD Licence Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Standard Licence Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
45%
40%
"~
~
35%
"ii:f!
••
"
.!!
30%
~
00
~ ia25%
0.011
:: ~
;" 0C
ID .051 to .100
to.05O
•. 101 to .150
::; ~20"A,
•. 151 or more
~j
"
C
as
15%
'0
C
o
~
Cl.
10%
e
...
1968
1901
lllO9
1988
1985
1990
1987
(54)
(51)
(37)
(23)
(14)
(34)
(94)
(27)
(8) (20)
(89)
(19)
(85)
(18)
(40)
(81)
(57)
(82)
(00)
5%
1984
0%
1992
*
**
***
1993
(12)
(7)
(3l)
(22)
(34)
(22)
Number of standard licence riders killed with BAC >0.0 I Ogll OOm!.
Number of standard licence riders killed with known BAC.
Number of standard licence riders killed.
STAGE
2:
ANALYSIS
OF TRENDS
IN MOTORCYCLE
CRASHES
IN VICTORIA
83
Figure A7:
VICTORIAN UNLICENSED Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Unlicensed Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
80%
70%
..,
.!!
~
80%
l!!
Gl
..,
li:
""'0 50%
.!!
l:!«
0.011
OlD
C
o
to .050
D.051 to .100
~ ~40%
•. 101 to.15O
C.c
Gl_
•. 151 or more
=~
.!:!
§
.~
30%
'0
C
o
~
a.
2
ll.
20%
10%
1989
1991
1906
1000
1992
1987
1906
1985
1993
(10)
(3)
(6)
(B)
(13)
(7)
(B)
(13)
(5) (4)
(9)
(19)
(10)
(9)
(3)
(14)
(5)
1964
0%
Figure A8:
NSW UNLICENSED Motorcycle Riders Killed with
BAC>O.OI0g/100ml as a Proportion of Unlicensed Riders Killed with
KNOWN BAC, 1984-1993
0.011
to.05O
8.051
to .100
•. 101 to.15O
•. 151 or more
1906
1985(B)
(18)
(7)
(21)
f.'l)
(IB)
0%
killed)
(""2llknown)
("9>.010)
*
**
***
84
1991
1992
'993
(10)
(9)
(9)
(6)
(3)
(17)
(13)
(16)
(10)
(B)
(6)
(19)
(14)
(19)
(12)
(11)
(4)
(10)
(11)
1997
1964
("*"21
1999
1989
1000
Number of unlicensed riders killed with BAC >O.OIOglIOOml.
Number of unlicensed riders killed with known BAC.
Number of unlicensed riders killed.
MONASH
UNIVERSITY
ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
(2)
(6)
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