# Document 10583132

```c Dr Oksana Shatalov, Spring 2013
1
10. Linear homogeneous equations of second order with constant coefficients the case of distinct roots of characteristic equation (sec. 3.1)
1. PROBLEM: Find general solutions of linear homogeneous equation
ay 00 + by 0 + cy = 0
(1)
with constant real coefficients a, b, and c.
2. Recall that
• By Superposition Principle: Any linear combination C1 y1 (t) + C2 y2 (t) of any two solutions y1 (t)
and y2 (t) of (1) is itself a solution.
• The family of solutions y(t) = C1 y1 (t) + C2 y2 (t) with arbitrary coefficients C1 and C2 includes every
solution of (1) if and only if there is a points t0 where W (y1 , y2 ) is not zero. In this case the pair
(y1 (t), y2 (t)) is called the fundamental set of solutions of (1).
3. To find a fundamental set for the equation (1) note that the nature of the equation suggests
that it may have solutions of the form
y = ert .
Plug in and get so called characteristic equation of (1):
ar2 + br + c = 0.
(2)
Note that the characteristic equation can be determined from its differential equation simply
by replacing y (k) with with rk .
4. Solve y 00 − 16y = 0.
5. Fact from Algebra: The quadratic equation ar2 + br + c = 0 has roots
√
√
−b + b2 − 4ac
−b − b2 − 4ac
r1 =
, r2 =
2a
2a
which fall into one of 3 cases:
• two distinct real roots r1 6= r2 (in this case D = b2 − 4ac &gt; 0) [section 3.1]
• two complex conjugate roots r1 = r2 (in this case D = b2 − 4ac &lt; 0) [section 3.3]
• two equal real roots r1 = r2 (in this case D = b2 − 4ac = 0) [section 3.4]
Case 1: Two distinct real roots (D = b2 − 4ac &gt; 0)
6. Two distinct real roots r1 and r2 of the characteristic equation give us two solutions
y1 (t) = er1 t ,
Is this a fundamental set of solutions?
y2 (t) = er2 t
(r1 6= r2 ).
c Dr Oksana Shatalov, Spring 2013
2
7. Consider
3y 00 − y 0 − 2y = 0.
(a) Find general solution.
(b) Find solution satisfying the following initial conditions: y(0) = α,
is a real parameter.
y 0 (0) = 1, where α
8. Consider
y 00 + (a + 1)y 0 + (a − 2)(1 − 2a)y = 0
where a is a real parameter.
(a) Determine the values of the parameter a, if any, for which all solutions tend to zero as
t → ∞.
(b) Determine the value of the parameter a, if any, for which all (nonzero) solutions become
unbounded as t → ∞.
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