Math 470.502 Communications & Cryptography HW #3 September 19, 2014 Due Friday, September 26. A. In this problem we will analyze the efficiency of the Euclidean Algorithm. Here is a recap of the algorithm as we discussed in class. Euclidean Algorithm. Let a, b be positive integers with a ≥ b. The following algorithm computes gcd(a, b) in a finite number of steps. (i) Let r0 = a and r1 = b. (ii) Set i = 1. (iii) Divide ri−1 by ri to obtain quotient qi and remainder ri+1 : ri−1 = ri · qi + ri+1 , 0 ≤ ri+1 < ri . (iv) If ri+1 = 0, then gcd(a, b) = ri and the algorithm terminates. (v) Otherwise ri+1 > 0, so set i := i + 1 and go to step (iii). We discussed in class how and why this algorithm works (and terminates!). The purpose here is to determine a maximum number of iterations of the loop needed until it terminates. Answer the following questions. (a) Show for all i = 0, 1, 2, . . . that 1 ri+2 < ri , 2 by examining the following cases: • Case 1: Assuming ri+1 ≤ 12 ri , show that ri+2 < 12 ri . • Case 2: Assuming ri+1 > 12 ri , show that ri+2 < 12 ri . (Hint: when we write ri = ri+1 · qi+1 + ri+2 via the division algorithm, what must qi+1 be?) (b) Use part (a) to show that, for any k ≥ 0, r2k+1 < b . 2k (c) Now let k be the smallest integer such that 2k ≥ b > 2k−1 . Show that k < log2 (b)+ 1. Show that the maximum number of steps through the loop is 2k < 2 log2 (b)+2. Thus the Euclidean algorithm requires at most d2 log2 (b) + 1e iterations.