Introduction to Pattern Recognition Jason Corso 15 January 2013 SUNY at Buffalo

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Introduction to Pattern Recognition
Jason Corso
SUNY at Buffalo
15 January 2013
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
1 / 41
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
2 / 41
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Hand-Written Digit Recognition
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Computational Finance and the Stock Market
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Bioinformatics and Gene Expression Analysis
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Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Biometrics
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Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
Examples of Pattern Recognition in the Real World
It is also a Novel by William Gibson!
Do let me know if you want to borrow it!
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Example: Sorting Fish
Salmon
Sea Bass
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Example: Sorting Fish
Pattern Recognition System Requirements
Set up a camera to watch the
fish coming through on the
conveyor belt.
Classify each fish as salmon or
sea bass.
Prefer to mistake sea bass for
salmon.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to
FIGURE 1.1. The objects to be classified are first sensed by a transducer (camera),
whose signals are preprocessed. Next the features are extracted and finally the classification is emitted, here either “salmon” or “sea bass.” Although the information flow
is often chosen to be from the source to the classifier, some systems employ information
Pattern
Recognition
January
2013
41
flow in
which earlier levels of processing can be15
altered
based on
the tentative9or/pre-
Pattern Recognition By Example
A Note On Preprocessing
Inevitably, preprocessing will be necessary.
Preprocessing is the act of modifying the input data to simplify
subsequent operations without losing relevant information.
Examples of preprocessing (for varying types of data):
Noise removal.
Element segmentation;
Spatial.
Temporal.
Alignment or registration of the query to a canonical frame.
Fixed transformation of the data:
Change color space (image specific).
Wavelet decomposition.
Transformation from denumerable representation (e.g., text) to a
1-of-B vector space.
Preprocessing is a key part of our Pattern Recognition toolbox, but
we will talk about it directly very little in this course.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Patterns and Models
Ideal State Space
The Space of All Fish
Salmon
Sea Bass
Clear that the populations of salmon and sea bass are indeed distinct.
The space of all fish is quite large. Each dimension is defined by some
property of the fish, most of which we cannot even measure with the
camera.
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Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Patterns and Models
Real State Space
The Space of All Fish
Given a Set of Features
Salmon
Sea Bass
When we choose a set of possible features, we are projecting this very
high dimension space down into a lower dimension space.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Patterns and Models
Features as Marginals
The Space of All Fish
Given a Set of Features
Salmon
Sea Bass
Marginal
(A Feature)
And indeed, we can think of each individual feature as a single
marginal distribution over the space.
In other words, a projection down into a single dimension space.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Patterns and Models
Models
The Space of All Fish
Salmon
Sea Bass
Sea Bass
Salmon
Of
Models
We build a model of each phenomenon we want to classify, which is
an approximate representation given the features we’ve selected.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Patterns and Models
Models
The overarching goal and approach in pattern classification is to
hypothesize the class of these models, process the sensed data to
eliminate noise (not due to the models), and for any sensed
pattern choose the model that corresponds best. -DHS
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Introduction to Pattern Recognition
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Modeling for the Fish Example
Selecting Feature(s) for the Fish
Suppose an expert at the fish packing plant tells us that length is the
best feature.
We cautiously trust this
expert. Gather a few examples
from our installation to analyze
the length feature.
These examples are our
training set.
Want to be sure to gather a
representative population of
them.
We analyze the length feature
by building histograms:
marginal distributions.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Histogram of the Length
Feature
salmon
sea bass
count
22
20
18
16
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
length
5
10
15
20
25
l*
FIGURE 1.2. Histograms for the length feature for the two categories. No single threshold value of the length will serve to unambiguously discriminate between the two categories; using length alone, we will have some errors. The value marked l ∗ will lead to
the smallest number of errors, on average. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Modeling for the Fish Example
Selecting Feature(s) for the Fish
Suppose an expert at the fish packing plant tells us that length is the
best feature.
We cautiously trust this
expert. Gather a few examples
from our installation to analyze
the length feature.
These examples are our
training set.
Want to be sure to gather a
representative population of
them.
We analyze the length feature
by building histograms:
marginal distributions.
Histogram of the Length
Feature
salmon
sea bass
count
22
20
18
16
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
length
5
10
15
20
25
l*
FIGURE 1.2. Histograms for the length feature for the two categories. No single threshold value of the length will serve to unambiguously discriminate between the two categories; using length alone, we will have some errors. The value marked l ∗ will lead to
the smallest number of errors, on average. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright But this is a disappointing result. The sea bass length does exceed
the salmon length on average, but clearly not always.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Modeling for the Fish Example
Selecting Feature(s) for the Fish
Lightness Feature
Try another feature after inspecting the data: lightness.
count
salmon
14
sea bass
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
x* 6
lightness
8
10
FIGURE 1.3. Histograms for the lightness feature for the two categories. No single
threshold value x ∗ (decision boundary) will serve to unambiguously discriminate between the two categories; using lightness alone, we will have some errors. The value x ∗
marked will lead to the smallest number of errors, on average. From: Richard O. Duda,
c 2001 by John
Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright Wiley & Sons, Inc.
This feature exhibits a much better separation between the two
classes.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
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Pattern Recognition By Example
Modeling for the Fish Example
Feature Combination
Seldom will one feature be enough in practice.
In the fish example, perhaps lightness, x1 , and width, x2 , will jointly
do better than any alone.
This is an example of a 2D feature space:
x
x= 1 .
(1)
x2
width
22
salmon
sea bass
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
J. Corso (SUNY
at 1.4.
Buffalo)
Introduction
to Pattern
Recognition
15 The
January
FIGURE
The two features
of lightness
and width
for sea bass and salmon.
dark2013
18 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Curse Of Dimensionality
The two features obviously separate the classes much better than one
alone.
This suggests adding a third feature. And a fourth feature. And so
on.
Key questions
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Curse Of Dimensionality
The two features obviously separate the classes much better than one
alone.
This suggests adding a third feature. And a fourth feature. And so
on.
Key questions
How many features are required?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
19 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Curse Of Dimensionality
The two features obviously separate the classes much better than one
alone.
This suggests adding a third feature. And a fourth feature. And so
on.
Key questions
How many features are required?
Is there a point where we have too many features?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
19 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Curse Of Dimensionality
The two features obviously separate the classes much better than one
alone.
This suggests adding a third feature. And a fourth feature. And so
on.
Key questions
How many features are required?
Is there a point where we have too many features?
How do we know beforehand which features will work best?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
19 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Curse Of Dimensionality
The two features obviously separate the classes much better than one
alone.
This suggests adding a third feature. And a fourth feature. And so
on.
Key questions
How many features are required?
Is there a point where we have too many features?
How do we know beforehand which features will work best?
What happens when there is feature redundance/correlation?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
19 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Decision Boundaries and Generalization
Decision Boundary
The decision boundary is the sub-space in which classification
among multiple possible outcomes is equal. Off the decision
boundary, all classification is unambiguous.
width
22
count
salmon
14
sea bass
salmon
sea bass
21
12
20
10
19
8
18
6
17
4
16
2
15
0
2
4
x* 6
lightness
8
10
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
FIGURE 1.3. Histograms for the lightness feature for the two categories.
single
FIGURENo
1.4.
The two features of lightness and width for sea bass and salmon. The dark
threshold value x ∗ (decision boundary) will serve to unambiguouslyline
discriminate
be-as a decision boundary of our classifier. Overall classification error on
could serve
∗
tween the two categories; using lightness alone, we will have some errors.
The value
the data
shownx is lower than if we use only one feature as in Fig. 1.3, but there will
marked will lead to the smallest number of errors, on average. From: Richard
O. Duda,
still be some
errors. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern
c 2001 by John
Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Classification
. Copyright Wiley & Sons, Inc.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
20 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Decision Boundaries and Generalization
Bias-Variance Dilemma
Depending on the available features, complexity of the problem and
classifier, the decision boundaries will also vary in complexity.
width
22
salmon
width
22
sea bass
salmon
width
22
sea bass
21
21
21
20
20
20
19
19
19
18
18
18
17
17
17
16
16
16
15
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
salmon
sea bass
?
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
FIGURE
1.5. Overly
complex
FIGURE 1.4. The two features of lightness and width for sea bass
and salmon.
The dark
FIGURE
1.6. The
decision boundary shown might represent
the optimal
tradeoff
be- models for the fish will lead to decision boundaries t
line could serve as a decision boundary of our classifier. Overall
classification
error on
are complicated.
tween
performance
on the training set and simplicity of classifier,
therebyWhile
givingsuch
the a decision may lead to perfect classification of our train
the data shown is lower than if we use only one feature as highest
in Fig. 1.3,
but thereonwill
it would
poor performance on future patterns. The novel test po
accuracy
new patterns. From: Richard O. Duda,samples,
Peter E. Hart,
and lead
DavidtoG.
still be some errors. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern
marked
? is Inc.
evidently most likely a salmon, whereas the complex decision bound
c 2001 by John Wiley
& Sons,
Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Classification. Copyright shown leads it to be classified as a sea bass. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, a
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc
David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
21 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Decision Boundaries and Generalization
Bias-Variance Dilemma
Depending on the available features, complexity of the problem and
classifier, the decision boundaries will also vary in complexity.
width
22
salmon
width
22
sea bass
salmon
width
22
sea bass
21
21
21
20
20
20
19
19
19
18
18
18
17
17
17
16
16
16
15
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
salmon
sea bass
?
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
FIGURE
1.5. Overly
complex
FIGURE 1.4. The two features of lightness and width for sea bass
and salmon.
The dark
FIGURE
1.6. The
decision boundary shown might represent
the optimal
tradeoff
be- models for the fish will lead to decision boundaries t
line could serve as a decision boundary of our classifier. Overall
classification
error on
are complicated.
tween
performance
on the training set and simplicity of classifier,
therebyWhile
givingsuch
the a decision may lead to perfect classification of our train
the data shown is lower than if we use only one feature as highest
in Fig. 1.3,
but thereonwill
it would
poor performance on future patterns. The novel test po
accuracy
new patterns. From: Richard O. Duda,samples,
Peter E. Hart,
and lead
DavidtoG.
still be some errors. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern
marked
? is Inc.
evidently most likely a salmon, whereas the complex decision bound
c 2001 by John Wiley
& Sons,
Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Classification. Copyright Simple decision boundaries (e.g., linear) seem to miss some obvious
Pattern Classification
trends in the data — variance.
shown leads it to be classified as a sea bass. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, a
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc
. Copyright David G. Stork,
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
21 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Decision Boundaries and Generalization
Bias-Variance Dilemma
Depending on the available features, complexity of the problem and
classifier, the decision boundaries will also vary in complexity.
width
22
salmon
width
22
sea bass
salmon
width
22
sea bass
21
21
21
20
20
20
19
19
19
18
18
18
17
17
17
16
16
16
15
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
salmon
sea bass
?
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
FIGURE
1.5. Overly
complex
FIGURE 1.4. The two features of lightness and width for sea bass
and salmon.
The dark
FIGURE
1.6. The
decision boundary shown might represent
the optimal
tradeoff
be- models for the fish will lead to decision boundaries t
line could serve as a decision boundary of our classifier. Overall
classification
error on
are complicated.
tween
performance
on the training set and simplicity of classifier,
therebyWhile
givingsuch
the a decision may lead to perfect classification of our train
the data shown is lower than if we use only one feature as highest
in Fig. 1.3,
but thereonwill
it would
poor performance on future patterns. The novel test po
accuracy
new patterns. From: Richard O. Duda,samples,
Peter E. Hart,
and lead
DavidtoG.
still be some errors. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern
marked
? is Inc.
evidently most likely a salmon, whereas the complex decision bound
c 2001 by John Wiley
& Sons,
Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Classification. Copyright Simple decision boundaries (e.g., linear) seem to miss some obvious
Pattern Classification
trends in the data — variance.
Complex decision boundaries seem to lock onto the idiosyncracies of
the training data set — bias.
shown leads it to be classified as a sea bass. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, a
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc
. Copyright David G. Stork,
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
21 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Decision Boundaries and Generalization
Bias-Variance Dilemma
Depending on the available features, complexity of the problem and
classifier, the decision boundaries will also vary in complexity.
width
22
salmon
width
22
sea bass
salmon
width
22
sea bass
21
21
21
20
20
20
19
19
19
18
18
18
17
17
17
16
16
16
15
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
salmon
sea bass
?
15
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
14
lightness
2
4
6
8
10
FIGURE
1.5. Overly
complex
FIGURE 1.4. The two features of lightness and width for sea bass
and salmon.
The dark
FIGURE
1.6. The
decision boundary shown might represent
the optimal
tradeoff
be- models for the fish will lead to decision boundaries t
line could serve as a decision boundary of our classifier. Overall
classification
error on
are complicated.
tween
performance
on the training set and simplicity of classifier,
therebyWhile
givingsuch
the a decision may lead to perfect classification of our train
the data shown is lower than if we use only one feature as highest
in Fig. 1.3,
but thereonwill
it would
poor performance on future patterns. The novel test po
accuracy
new patterns. From: Richard O. Duda,samples,
Peter E. Hart,
and lead
DavidtoG.
still be some errors. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern
marked
? is Inc.
evidently most likely a salmon, whereas the complex decision bound
c 2001 by John Wiley
& Sons,
Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Classification. Copyright Simple decision boundaries (e.g., linear) seem to miss some obvious
Pattern Classification
trends in the data — variance.
Complex decision boundaries seem to lock onto the idiosyncracies of
the training data set — bias.
A central issue in pattern recognition is to build classifiers that can
work properly on novel query data. Hence, generalization is key.
Can we predict how well our classifier will generalize to novel data?
shown leads it to be classified as a sea bass. From: Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, a
c 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc
. Copyright David G. Stork,
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
21 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Cost and Decision Theory
Decision Theory
In many situations, the consequences of our classifications are not
equally costly.
Recalling the fish example, it is acceptable to have tasty pieces of
salmon in cans labeled sea bass. But, the converse is not so.
Hence, we need to adjust our decisions
(decision boundaries) to incorporate
these varying costs.
count
salmon
14
sea bass
12
10
8
For the lightness feature on the fish, we
would want to move the boundary to
smaller values of lightness.
6
4
2
0
2
4
x* 6
lightness
8
10
FIGURE 1.3. Histograms for the lightness feature for the two categories. No single
threshold value x ∗ (decision boundary) will serve to unambiguously discriminate between the two categories; using lightness alone, we will have some errors. The value x ∗
marked will lead to the smallest number of errors, on average. From: Richard O. Duda,
c 2001 by John
Peter E. Hart, and David G. Stork, Pattern Classification. Copyright Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Our underlying goal is to establish a decision boundary to minimize
the overall cost; this is called decision theory.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
22 / 41
Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Pattern Recognition
First in-class quiz: can you define Pattern Recognition?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Pattern Recognition
First in-class quiz: can you define Pattern Recognition?
DHS: Pattern recognition is the act of taking in raw data and taking an
action based on the “category” of the pattern.
DHS: Pattern classification is to take in raw data, eliminate noise, and
process it to select the most likely model that it represents.
Jordan: The field of pattern recognition is concerned with the automatic
discovery of regularities in data through the use of computer algorithms and
with the use of these regularities to take actions such as classifying data into
different categories.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Types of Pattern Recognition Approaches
Statistical
Focus on statistics of the patterns.
The primary emphasis of our course.
Syntactic
Classifiers are defined using a set of logical rules.
Grammars can group rules.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Feature Extraction and Classification
Feature Extraction — to characterize an object to be recognized by
measurements whose values are very similar for objects in the same
category, and very different for objects in different categories.
Invariant features—those that are invariant to irrelevant
transformations of the underlying data—are preferred.
Classification — to assign an category to the object based on the
feature vector provided during feature extraction.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Feature Extraction and Classification
Feature Extraction — to characterize an object to be recognized by
measurements whose values are very similar for objects in the same
category, and very different for objects in different categories.
Invariant features—those that are invariant to irrelevant
transformations of the underlying data—are preferred.
Classification — to assign an category to the object based on the
feature vector provided during feature extraction.
The perfect feature extractor would yield a representation that is
trivial to classify.
The perfect classifier would yield a perfect model from an arbitrary
set of features.
But, these are seldom plausible.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Definitions
Feature Extraction and Classification
Classification Objective Functions
For classification, there are numerous underlying objective functions
that we can seek to optimize.
Minimum-Error-Rate classification seeks to minimize the the error
rate: the percentage of new patterns assigned to the wrong category.
Total Expected Cost, or Risk minimization is also often used.
Important underlying questions are
How do we map knowledge about costs to best affect our classification
decision?
Can we estimate the total risk and hence know if our classifier is
acceptable even before we deploy it?
Can we bound the risk?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
No Free Lunch Theorem
No Free Lunch Theorem
A question you’re probably asking is What is the best classifier?
Any ideas?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
No Free Lunch Theorem
No Free Lunch Theorem
A question you’re probably asking is What is the best classifier?
Any ideas?
We will learn that indeed no such generally best classifier exists.
This is described in the No Free Lunch Theorem.
If the goal is to obtain good generalization performance, there are no
context-independent or usage-independent reasons to favor one
learning or classification method over another.
When confronting a new pattern recognition problem, appreciation of
this thereom reminds us to focus on the aspects that matter
most—prior information, data distribution, amount of training data,
and cost or reward function.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Analysis By Synthesis
Analysis By Synthesis
The availability of large collections of data on which to base our
pattern recognition models is important.
In the case of little data (and sometimes even in the case of much
data), we can use analysis by synthesis to test our models.
Given a model, we can randomly sample examples from it to analyze
how close they are to
our few examples and
what we expect to see based on our knowledge of the problem.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Classifier Ensembles
Classifier Ensembles
Classifier combination is obvious – get the power of multiple models
for a single decision.
But, what happens when the different classifiers disagree?
How do we separate the available training data for each classifier?
Should the classifiers be learned jointly or in silos?
Examples
Bagging
Boosting
Neural Networks (?)
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Key Ideas in Pattern Recognition
Classifier Ensembles
SO MANY QUESTIONS...
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
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Schedule of Topics
Schedule of Topics
1
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
2
Tree Classifiers
1
2
Getting our feet wet with real classifiers
Decision Trees: CART, C4.5, ID3.
Random Forests
3
Bayesian Decision Theory
4
Linear Discriminants
1
2
3
5
2
3
Discriminative Classifiers: the Decision Boundary
Separability
Perceptrons
Support Vector Machines
Parametric Techniques
Theory
1
Grounding our inquiry
Generative Methods grounded in Bayesian Decision
Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Bayesian Parameter Estimation
Sufficient Statistics
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
31 / 41
Schedule of Topics
6
Non-Parametric Techniques
1
2
3
7
Kernel Density Estimators
Parzen Window
Nearest Neighbor Methods
Unsupervised Methods
1
Component Analysis and Dimension Reduction
1
2
3
4
2
The Curse of Dimensionality
Principal Component Analysis
Fisher Linear Discriminant
Locally Linear Embedding
Clustering
1
2
3
8
Exploring the Data for Latent Structure
K-Means
Expectation Maximization
Mean Shift
Classifier Ensembles (Bagging and Boosting)
1
2
Bagging
Boosting / AdaBoost
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
32 / 41
Schedule of Topics
9
Graphical Models
Machine Learning
1
2
3
Introductory ideas and relation back to earlier topics
Bayesian Networks
Sequential Models
1
2
3
10
State-Space Models
Hidden Markov Models
Dynamic Bayesian Networks
Algorithm Independent Topics
Learned Tools
1
2
3
4
11
The Modern Language of Pattern Recognition and
Theoretical Treatments in the Context of
No Free Lunch Theorem
Ugly Duckling Theorem
Bias-Variance Dilemma
Jacknife and Bootstrap Methods
Other Items Time Permitting
1
2
Syntactic Methods
Neural Networks
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
33 / 41
Coding and Experiment Environments
Code / Environments
Course material will be enriched with code examples and problems.
We will use both Matlab and Python.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
34 / 41
Coding and Experiment Environments
Code / Environments
Course material will be enriched with code examples and problems.
We will use both Matlab and Python.
Why Python (and Matlab)?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Matlab is the language of the PR/ML/CVIP realm. You will get
exposed to it outside of this course. . .
Python is maturing and becoming increasingly popular for projects
both within PR/ML/CVIP and beyond. So, I want to expose you to
this alternate reality.
Preparation with Python in 555 may be more useful to a graduate in
the job-hunt than some of the 555 material itself, e.g. Google does a
lot with Python.
Python is free as in beer.
Some of the constructs in Python are easier to work with than other
high-level languages, such as Matlab or Perl.
Python is cross-platform.
Numpy and Scipy are available.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
34 / 41
Coding and Experiment Environments
Python
Introduction to Python Slides (from inventor of Python)
Introduction to NumPy/SciPy
http://www.scipy.org/Getting_Started
http://www.scipy.org/NumPy_for_Matlab_Users
We will use the Enthought Python Distribution as our primary
distribution (version 7.3).
http://enthought.com/products/epd.php
Available on the CSE network. https://wiki.cse.buffalo.edu/
services/content/enthought-python-distribution
Python 2.7
Packages up everything we need into one simple, cross-platform
package.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
35 / 41
Coding and Experiment Environments
Python
Introduction to Python Slides (from inventor of Python)
Introduction to NumPy/SciPy
http://www.scipy.org/Getting_Started
http://www.scipy.org/NumPy_for_Matlab_Users
We will use the Enthought Python Distribution as our primary
distribution (version 7.3).
http://enthought.com/products/epd.php
Available on the CSE network. https://wiki.cse.buffalo.edu/
services/content/enthought-python-distribution
Python 2.7
Packages up everything we need into one simple, cross-platform
package.
You should become Python-capable so you can work with many of
the examples I give.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
35 / 41
Wrap-Up
Logistical Things
Read the course webpage (now and regularly):
http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~jcorso/t/
CSE555
THE BOOK
Read the syllabus:
http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~jcorso/t/
CSE555/files/syllabus.pdf
Read the course mailing list:
[email protected]
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
36 / 41
Wrap-Up
Logistical Things
Policy on reading and lecture notes
Lecture notes are provided (mostly) via pdf linked from the course website.
For lectures that are given primarily on the board, no notes are provided.
It is always in your best interest to attend the lectures rather than
exclusively read the book and notes. The notes are provided for reference.
In the interest of the environment, I request that you do NOT print out
the lecture notes.
The lecture notes linked from the website may be updated time to time
based on the lecture progress, questions, and errors. Check back regularly.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
37 / 41
Wrap-Up
Grading and Course Evaluation
There will be homeworks posted after each topic. The homeworks are
to be done alone or in groups. Solutions will be posted. No
homeworks will be turned in or graded.
There will be a quiz once a week. Each quiz will have one rote
question and one longer question; ten minutes of class time will be
allotted to quizzes each week.
14 quizzes will be given. 2 lowest will be dropped.
Quizzes will be on Tuesday or Thursday; you will not know in advance.
Quizzes will be in-class, independent, closed-book.
Quizzes will not require a calculator.
Assessments of this type force you to study continuously throughout
the term.
See syllabus for more information.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
38 / 41
Wrap-Up
Testimonials (err, Evaluation Comments)
455
Slightly advanced math for an undergrad CSE student; I felt
bombarded with math; This is a statistics class.
I would have liked to see more in depth walkthroughs. . . cemented
with real numbers.
This will rarely happen in the course. First, there is a lot of material to
cover. Second, you can work through these while you study; active study.
Third, there are recitations/hours with the TA to work through these.
I appreciated the balance between powerpoint and blackboard; there
was good reason to attend class.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
39 / 41
Wrap-Up
Testimonials (err, Evaluation Comments)
455
Slightly advanced math for an undergrad CSE student; I felt
bombarded with math; This is a statistics class.
I would have liked to see more in depth walkthroughs. . . cemented
with real numbers.
This will rarely happen in the course. First, there is a lot of material to
cover. Second, you can work through these while you study; active study.
Third, there are recitations/hours with the TA to work through these.
I appreciated the balance between powerpoint and blackboard; there
was good reason to attend class.
The (hands-down) most interesting class I’ve taken to-date; Very cool
course. Really cool field.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
39 / 41
Wrap-Up
Testimonials (err, Evaluation Comments)
555
The course requires a very strong foundation in probability theory. . . it
would have been a lot easier if the professor [reviewed this material in
the beginning of the semester].
Students are expected to be fluent in probability theory and have a fresh
review of the material. Take responsibility.
I need more detailed examples on the course material; More time
should be spent with examples.
High-level examples on plausible data sets are indeed shown throughout the
course. Source code is also given to allow self-experimentation.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
40 / 41
Wrap-Up
Testimonials (err, Evaluation Comments)
555
The course requires a very strong foundation in probability theory. . . it
would have been a lot easier if the professor [reviewed this material in
the beginning of the semester].
Students are expected to be fluent in probability theory and have a fresh
review of the material. Take responsibility.
I need more detailed examples on the course material; More time
should be spent with examples.
High-level examples on plausible data sets are indeed shown throughout the
course. Source code is also given to allow self-experimentation.
This is the best course I have taken so far in UB; This course is great;
This class stimulated me to go into the field of Machine Learning.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
40 / 41
Wrap-Up
Parting Comments, Online Materials
The nature of lecture courses in higher ed is in flux.
Free, online courses are abundant.
https://www.coursera.org/course/ml
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
41 / 41
Wrap-Up
Parting Comments, Online Materials
The nature of lecture courses in higher ed is in flux.
Free, online courses are abundant.
https://www.coursera.org/course/ml
So, why are you here?
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
41 / 41
Wrap-Up
Parting Comments, Online Materials
The nature of lecture courses in higher ed is in flux.
Free, online courses are abundant.
https://www.coursera.org/course/ml
So, why are you here?
I will run this course to best possible embrace the worthwhile material
available yet make good use of my own time.
I pay very specific attention to the material selected in my course and
marry it well with the other courses here at Buffalo.
I will link to online video lectures and related material when possible.
The in-class time will be rich with interactive questions and
discussion, which is crucial to understanding material.
J. Corso (SUNY at Buffalo)
Introduction to Pattern Recognition
15 January 2013
41 / 41
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