Improving Oil Recovery Selecting and integrating the right water-related solutions for EOR/CEOR © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Challenges & opportunities with low salinity systems • Water based EOR/CEOR price is substantial (5-20% more OOIP recovery) • Water flooding mechanisms are well known, but each reservoir case is unique. • Technologies are available and mature, but low salinity system is technically complex with few references in operation • System know-how and experience in the oil & gas industry is limited. • Offshore retrofitting is very challenging © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Build on experience with Sulphate Removal Systems (SRP) Lessons learned with Sulphate Removal System installations: • 20 years operation with SRP’s / > 80 systems in total • Average system availability < 90% (global market) • Roughly 70% of operation troubles caused by inadequate pre-treatment (scaling/fouling) and wrong chemical handling • Number of start up / shut downs correlates with number of failures • Inferior materials, equipment, lack of plant operation knowledge of personnel causing downtime • Interface issues (lack of holistic seawater treatment design) 100k bwpd Seawater SRP module. 18m x 8m x 18 m size / 320 MT dry weight © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. EOR / Low salinity system is to 40% larger and more expensive than a sulphate removal system Pre-treatment capacity increase with 25-30% Two different sets of pumps for NF/RO Energy Recovery System Parallel operation of NF and RO systems. NF permeate is mixed with RO permeate to meet specified product water. Pressure class from 300# to 600# Quantity of valves increases Larger feed pumps © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Design parameters and consideration • The NF and RO membranes dictates system design, being highly sensitive and subject to fouling by suspended materials, and not tolerant to hydrocarbons, chlorine and miscellaneous gases. • Pretreatment is critical factor for system integrity, uptime and membrane lifetime. • Feed water temperature impacts flux, energy, size, and permeate • Design product / permeate (blend system) • Design flow / pressure (no variations) • Metallurgy (non-corroding higher grade materials) © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Membrane pre-treatment is key factor for success Ultrafiltration is the best available pre-treatment for NF/RO membranes Desalination (SWRO) 100,000 BPD Membrane projections and system design MMF Cartridge Ultrafiltration MMF Cartridge Ultrafiltration 198 / 1386 160 / 1120 168 / 1008 144 / 864 Chemical wash frequency [per year] 4-6 1 4-6 1 System availability [planned] 89-92% 97% 89-92% 97% 42% 50% 75% 75% 3 6+ 3 6+ No of pressure vessels/membranes System recovery Membrane lifetime SCUF – Ultrafiltration system for oil & gas offshore operation © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Sulfate Removal (SR) 150,000 BPD Typically a SRP or Low Salinity Module with Ultrafiltration will be 20% less size/weight than with MMF and Cartridge filters, and 50% less OPEX. Implementing an EOR / Low Salinity System Key messages: • Do it right at the beginning! Invest in early design phase. Involve operation personnel in the Feed, RFQ and Supplier evaluation • No compromise on quality of pretreatment, material and equipment – must be reflected in the RFQ • Quality of maintenance. Proactive, accurate readings, regular calibration, and strategic spares • Quality in operation. Continuous operation at design capacity, operator training, accuracy in testing and trends, correct chemicals • Net present value approach when selecting technologies/suppliers © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. Looking ahead… Emerging technology solutions: • Digitalization (fully automated operation and remote controlled maintenance tasks). • Compact membrane solutions (to 40% reduction in size and weight) • Tailor made water chemistry - more ion specific technologies • Advanced produced water technologies enables safer produced water re-injection • Sub sea EOR/CEOR water flood systems Produced water Produced water treatment Seawater treatment • • • • • • • • • • • Oil Particles TDS Hardness Sulfate Gases Particles TDS Hardness Sulfate Oxygen Injection Producing reservoir Make up water Injection The Vision: Produced water recycle loop with ideal fluid properties for IOR/EOR at the seabed © Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved. We are happy to answer your questions! © Siemens AG 2015. 2013. All rights reserved.