Supplemental Material for “Can Visual Recognition Benefit from Auxiliary Information in Training?”

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Supplemental Material for “Can Visual
Recognition Benefit from Auxiliary Information
in Training?”
Qilin Zhang1 , Gang Hua1 , Wei Liu2 , Zicheng Liu3 , Zhengyou Zhang3
1
2
Stevens Institute of Technolog, Hoboken, NJ
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY
3
Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA
In this supplemental material, we present the proof of Proposition 1 in Section 1 and additional experimental results with the the RGBD Object dataset [1]
in Section 2.
1
Proof of Proposition 1
In this section, we present the proof of the Proposition 1 for Paper 498. First,
the existence of the upper bound is proven in Section 1.1, then the proof that the
sequence f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is monotonic is presented in Section 1.2. With the
Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem and the conclusions of Section 1.1 and Section 1.2,
the Proposition 1 is proven.
1.1
Proof of the existence of the upper bound Cu
From the constraint in Eq. (6) of the paper:
1
T
T
Wj (1 − τj ) Rj Rj + τj In Wj = I,
n
(1)
where τj denotes the pre-specified regularization parameter, 0 < τj < 1 (j =
1, 2, · · · , J), we have
1 T
Wj Rj RTj Wj + τj tr WjT Wj = n,
(2)
(1 − τj )tr
n
and therefore
tr WjT Rj RTj Wj ≤
1
, 0 < τj < 1, ∀j = 1, 2, · · · , J.
1 − τj
In addition, we have
1h i
tr WjT Rj RTk Wk ≤
tr WjT Rj RTj Wj + tr WkT Rk RTk Wk
2
1
1
1
+
< ∞,
≤
2 1 − τj
1 − τk
(3)
(4)
(5)
2
Q. Zhang, G. Hua, W. Liu, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang
where the inequality (4) follows the property
1
tr(AT A) + tr(BT B) ,
(6)
2
T
which comes from the fact that tr
(A − B) (A− B) ≥ 0, because the matrix
(A − B)T (A − B) 0. Since tr WjT Rj RTk Wk is bounded, , g(x) = x or x2 ,
we have
2
1 1
1
< ∞.
(7)
g tr WjT Rj RTk Wk
+
≤
4 1 − τj
1 − τk
tr(BT A) ≤
Considering cjk = 0 or 1, we have
J
X
j6=k
2
J 1 T
1 X
1
1
cjk g tr
< ∞,
Wj Rj RTk Wk
≤
+
n
4n
1 − τj
1 − τk
(8)
j6=k
which shows that the sequence f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is upper bounded by
Cu =
2
J 1 X
1
1
+
< ∞.
4n
1 − τj
1 − τk
(9)
j6=k
t
u
1.2
Proof that the sequence f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is monotonically
increasing
In this section, the monotonic property of the sequence f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is
presented. Following [2–4], we first present a Lemma, and then prove that
f (W(s)) ≤ f (W(s + 1)), s = 1, 2, · · · ,
(10)
where s is the iteration index, s = 1, 2, · · · .
def
Define the function r(Yj , Yk ) = tr( n1 YjT Yk ) = tr( n1 WjT Rj RTk Wk ), therefore,
f (W1 (s), · · · , WJ (s)) =
J
X
cjk g[r(Yj (s), Yk (s))].
(11)
j,k=1,k6=j
Using this notation, we have the following Lemma:
Lemma 1. Define
def
fj (Wj ) =
j−1
X
J
X
cjk g r(RTj Wj , Yk (s + 1)) +
cjk g r(RTj Wj , Yk (s))
k=1
k=j+1
(12)
s.t.
WjT Nj Wj
= I,
Visual Recognition with Auxiliary Information in Training
3
then
fj (Wj (s)) ≤ fj (Wj (s + 1)), j = 1, · · · , J.
(13)
Proof. We prove Lemma 1 in two cases, i.e., g(x) = x2 and g(x) = x.
Case 1: when g(x) = x2 , we have fj (Wj ) in the following form,
fj (Wj ) =
j−1
X
J
2
2
X
cjk r(RTj Wj , Yk (s + 1)) +
cjk r(RTj Wj , Yk (s)) ,
k=1
k=j+1
(14)
which can be written as
j−1
1X
(s)
cjk θjk tr(Wj (s)T Rj Yk (s + 1))
fj (Wj (s)) =
n
k=1
J
1 X
(s)
cjk θjk tr(Wj (s)T Rj Yk (s))
(15)
n
k=j+1



j−1
J
X
X
1 
(s)
(s)
cjk θjk Yk (s) ,
= tr Wj (s)T Rj 
cjk θjk Yk (s + 1) +
n
+
k=1
k=j+1
(16)
(s)
where θjk are defined as
(s)
θjk
(
r (Yj (s), Yk (s + 1)) if k = 1, · · · , j − 1
=
.
r (Yj (s), Yk (s))
if k = j + 1, · · · , J
Note that in Eq. (16), the term
P
(s)
j−1
k=1 cjk θjk Yk (s
+ 1) +
(17)
(s)
k=j+1 cjk θjk Yk (s)
PJ
is equivalent to the definition of Zj (s), hence fj (Wj ) can be simplified as
1
T
n tr(Wj Rj Zj (s)). Considering the following optimization problem:
1
maxWj tr(WjT Rj Zj (s)), s.t. WjT Nj Wj = I,
n
(18)
whose solution is exactly
†
Wj (s + 1) = Nj−1 Rj Zj (s) [Zj (s)T RTj Nj−1 Rj Zj (s)]1/2 ,
(19)
tr(Wj (s)T Rj Zj (s)) ≤ tr(Wj (s + 1)T Rj Zj (s)).
(20)
we have
4
Q. Zhang, G. Hua, W. Liu, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang
Similarly, the following equations can be obtained:
fj (Wj (s)) =
j−1
X
k=1
≤
j−1
X
J
X
(s)
cjk θjk r(Yj (s), Yk (s + 1)) +
(s)
cjk θjk r(Yj (s), Yk (s))
k=j+1
(s)
cjk θjk r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s + 1))
k=1
J
X
+
(s)
cjk θjk r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s)).
(21)
k=j+1
Considering that cjk is either 0 or 1, we hence have cjk = c2jk . Applying the
Cauchy-Schwartz inequality, we have
fj (Wj (s)) ≤
j−1
X
(s)
c2jk θjk r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s + 1)) +
k=1
J
X
(s)
c2jk θjk r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s))
k=j+1
v
uj−1
J
2
2
X
uX
(s)
(s)
cjk θjk
+
cjk θjk
≤t
k=1
k=j+1
v
uj−1
J
X
uX
2
2
cjk (r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s)))
·t
cjk (r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s + 1))) +
k=1
k=j+1
v
uj−1
J
X
uX
2
2
=t
cjk (r(Yj (s), Yk (s + 1))) +
cjk (r(Yj (s), Yk (s)))
k=1
k=j+1
v
uj−1
J
X
uX
2
2
·t
cjk (r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s + 1))) +
cjk (r(Yj (s + 1), Yk (s)))
k=1
=
q
k=j+1
fj (Wj (s)) ·
q
fj (Wj (s + 1)).
(22)
We immediately have fj (Wj (s)) ≤ fj (Wj (s + 1)). This concludes the case 1
scenario.
Case 2: when g(x) = x, we have
fj (Wj ) =
j−1
X
cjk r(RTj Wj , Yk (s + 1))
k=1
+
J
X
cjk r(RTj Wj , Yk (s)).
(23)
k=j+1
(s)
Therefore, we can have exactly the same equation as Eq. (16), except that θjk ≡
1 for all the cases. The same equation as in Eq. (20) can be obtained, which
directly implies that fj (Wj (s)) ≤ fj (Wj (s + 1)). This concludes both the case
2 scenario and the entire proof of Lemma.
t
u
Visual Recognition with Auxiliary Information in Training
5
With the conclusion in Lemma 1, we proceed with the proof that the sequence
f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is monotonically increasing. Consider the following subtraction
J
X
[fj (Wj (s + 1)) − fj (Wj (s))]
j=1
=
j−1
J X
X
j=1 k=1
+
1
T
T
Wj (s + 1) Rj Rk Wk (s + 1)
cjk g tr
n
J
J
X
X
j=1 k=j+1
−
j−1
J X
X
j=1 k=1
−
j−1
J X
X
j=1 k=1
=
−
1h
2
1
T
T
Wj (s + 1) Rj Rk Wk (s)
cjk g tr
n
1
T
T
Wj (s) Rj Rk Wk (s + 1)
cjk g tr
n
1
cjk g tr
Wj (s + 1)T Rj RTk Wk (s + 1)
n
J
X
cjk g tr
j,k=1,k6=j
J
X
cjk g tr
j,k=1,k6=j
1
Wj (s + 1)T Rj RTk Wk (s + 1)
n
i
1
Wj (s)T Rj RTk Wk (s)
≥ 0.
n
(24)
The last equation in Eq. (24) follows the Lemma 1. This implies that
f (W1 (s), · · · , WJ (s)) ≤ f (W1 (s + 1), · · · , WJ (s + 1))
i.e., f (W(s)) ≤ f (W(s + 1)), s = 1, 2, · · · .
(25)
(26)
Using Eq. (8), Eq. (26), the bounded sequence f (W(s)), s = 1, 2, · · · is monotonically increasing.
According to the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, the sequence will converge,
i.e., Proposition 1 is proven.
2
Additional Experimental Results
With the same RGBD Object dataset and experimental settings from [1] and [5],
we have also conducted additional experiments with the state-of-the-art HMPbased features [5]. These additional results are summarized in Table 1–2 (too
many entries to fit in a single page).
As is seen in Table 1–2, the overall recognition accuracy improves significantly
across all methods, as compared to the EMK-based features [1]. In a large portion
of the categories, perfect recognition is achieved even with the naive baseline
6
Q. Zhang, G. Hua, W. Liu, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang
Table 1. Accuracy Table Part 1 for the Multi-View RGBD Object Instance recognition
with HMP features, the highest and second highest values are colored red and blue,
respectively. The remaining part is in Table 2.
Category
SVM SVM2K KCCA
apple
ball
banana
bell pepper
binder
bowl
calculator
camera
cap
cellphone
cereal box
coffee mug
comb
dry battery
flashlight
food bag
food box
food can
food cup
food jar
garlic
glue stick
greens
hand towel
instant noodles
keyboard
kleenex
lemon
light bulb
lime
marker
mushroom
notebook
onion
orange
peach
pear
pitcher
plate
pliers
potato
rubber eraser
scissors
shampoo
soda can
87.62
100
73.74
82.07
100
83.08
100
99.17
100
98.43
100
92.88
96.67
86.34
97.34
100
100
98.08
96.32
98.73
90.91
100
76.76
99.63
100
94.55
98.87
45.02
87.67
67.78
100
99.42
100
98.74
72.46
100
90.04
100
99.66
92.58
63.71
69.61
100
99.35
100
93.33
100
77.78
84.06
100
86.54
100
100
100
95.29
100
85.45
97.33
84.14
97.34
100
99.84
93.02
98.90
100
98.40
100
89.73
100
99.51
95.05
97.36
47.41
97.26
62.22
93.93
100
100
94.64
97.58
100
93.24
100
100
89.96
71.81
75.49
100
99.68
100
92.86
100
81.31
78.88
100
86.54
100
100
100
95.81
100
96.90
97.33
85.46
97.87
100
100
94.39
97.06
100
98.40
100
89.19
100
99.76
95.05
97.36
47.41
96.58
61.11
98.26
100
100
95.90
99.03
100
90.75
100
100
90.39
74.13
71.57
100
99.68
99.55
KCCA
RGCCA RGCCA
RGCCA
+L
+L
+AL
77.14
92.38
87.62
93.33
100
100
100
100
81.31 80.30 75.25
80.30
77.29
73.31
80.88
73.31
100
100
100
100
86.15 87.31 77.69
87.69
99.44
100
100
100
100
99.17 99.17
99.17
100
100
97.08
100
94.76 95.81 98.43
95.81
100
100
100
100
94.43 99.69 91.64
99.69
96.67 98.00 95.33
98.00
76.65 87.67 85.90
88.55
95.21
100
97.34
100
100
100
96.88
100
99.84
100
100
100
81.67 99.18 98.08
99.32
96.32
97.43
97.06
97.43
91.46
100
97.15
100
96.26 95.99
91.98
95.99
100
100
99.68
100
85.41
85.41
81.08
90.27
100
100
99.63
100
99.76
100
100
100
94.55 96.04 94.55
96.53
96.98 98.87 98.87
98.87
45.82 47.81 44.62
47.81
95.21
91.78
89.04
92.47
58.33
62.78 68.33
62.78
96.75
99.57
100
99.78
100
100
99.42
100
100
99.62
100
100
95.90
96.53 99.37
98.74
98.07 96.62
69.57
99.03
100
100
100
100
90.04
91.81
88.61
91.81
100
100
100
100
99.32
95.59
100
99.32
90.39 93.45 92.58
93.45
65.64
65.25
67.57
71.04
69.61
70.59 74.02
70.59
100
100
100
100
98.39 99.68 94.19
99.68
99.10
100
100
100
DCCA
93.33
100
80.30
83.27
100
87.69
100
99.17
100
95.81
100
100
98.00
88.55
100
100
100
99.32
98.53
100
95.99
100
91.35
100
100
96.53
98.87
47.81
92.47
62.22
99.57
100
100
98.74
99.03
100
93.95
100
99.32
93.45
71.43
71.08
100
99.68
100
Visual Recognition with Auxiliary Information in Training
7
Table 2. Continued from Table 1: Accuracy Table Part 2 for the Multi-View RGBD
Object Instance recognition with HMP features, the highest and second highest values
are colored red and blue, respectively.
Category
sponge
stapler
tomato
tooth brush
tooth paste
water bottle
average
SVM
99.49
80.12
69.69
99.48
100
97.32
92.62
SVM2K
100
73.59
81.59
100
100
95.98
93.35
KCCA KCCA+L RGCCA RGCCA+L RGCCA+AL DCCA
100
99.83
99.83
99.83
99.83
99.83
76.56
76.56
81.90
81.90
82.20
82.49
83.85 83.85
80.45
68.56
80.45
80.45
99.48
96.91
98.97
99.48
98.97
98.97
100
100
100
100
100
100
95.71
94.64
96.25
96.78
96.25
96.25
93.87
91.85
93.93
92.40
94.35
94.62
SVM algorithm, However, the advantage of the proposed method is revealed in
some of the challenging categories.
Overall, with the HMP-based features, “KCCA+L” and the “RGCCA+L”
algorithms cannot match the SVM baseline, and the “SVM2K” and “KCCA”
algorithms are only marginally better than the baseline. The “RGCCA” and
“RGCCA+AL” algorithms offer some improvements, while the proposed DCCA
algorithm achieves the highest overall recognition accuracy. Considering there
are more than 13,000 testing samples, the two percent performance improvement
means correctly classifying an additional amount of more than 200 samples.
References
1. Lai, K., Bo, L., Ren, X., Fox, D.: A large-scale hierarchical multi-view rgb-d object
dataset. In: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011 IEEE International Conference
on, IEEE (2011) 1817–1824
2. Tenenhaus, A., Tenenhaus, M.: Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis. Psychometrika 76 (2011) 257–284
3. Tenenhaus, A.: Kernel generalized canonical correlation analysis. Actes des 42è
journées de Statistique (2010)
4. Hanafi, M.: Pls path modelling: computation of latent variables with the estimation
mode b. Computational Statistics 22 (2007) 275–292
5. Bo, L., Ren, X., Fox, D.: Unsupervised feature learning for rgb-d based object
recognition. ISER, June (2012)
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