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Theory and Applications of Categories, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2009, pp. 77–96. ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO Abstract. We show that the (co)endomorphism algebra of a sufficiently separable “fibre” functor into Vectk , for k a field of characteristic 0, has the structure of what we call a “unital” von Neumann core in Vectk . For Vectk , this particular notion of algebra is weaker than that of a Hopf algebra, although the corresponding concept in Set is again that of a group. 1. Introduction Let C = (C , ⊗, I, c) be a braided (or even symmetric) monoidal category. Recall that an algebra in C is an object A ∈ C equipped with a multiplication µ : A ⊗ A → A and a unit η : I → A satisfying µ3 = µ(1 ⊗ µ) = µ(µ ⊗ 1) : A⊗3 → A (associativity) and µ(η ⊗ 1) = 1 = µ(1 ⊗ η) : A → A (unit conditions). Dually, a coalgebra in C is an object C ∈ C equipped with a comultiplication δ : C → C ⊗ C and a counit : C → I satisfying δ3 = (1 ⊗ δ)δ = (δ ⊗ 1)δ : C → C ⊗3 (coassociativity) and ( ⊗ 1)δ = 1 = (1 ⊗ )δ : C → C (counit conditions). A very weak bialgebra in C is an object A ∈ C with both the structure of an algebra and a coalgebra in C related by the axiom δµ = (µ ⊗ µ)(1 ⊗ c ⊗ 1)(δ ⊗ δ) : A ⊗ A → A ⊗ A. For example, when C = Vectk , any k-bialgebra or weak k-bialgebra is a very weak bialgebra in this sense. We note briefly that, if A is such a structure, but has no unit or counit, we simply call A a semibialgebra, or core for short. This minimal structure on A is then called a von Neumann core in C if it also is equipped with an endomorphism S : A → A in C satisfying the axiom µ3 (1 ⊗ S ⊗ 1)δ3 = 1 : A → A. The first author gratefully acknowledges partial support of an Australian Research Council grant, while the second author is partially supported by GCOE, Kyoto University. Parts of this work were completed while the second author was a Ph.D. student at Macquarie University, Australia, and during that time was gratefully supported by an international Macquarie University Research Scholarship and a Scott Russell Johnson Memorial Scholarship. The authors would like to thank Ross Street for several helpful comments. Received by the editors 2007-12-21 and, in revised form, 2009-04-17. Transmitted by Jean-Louis Loday. Published on 2009-04-20. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 18D99, 16B50. Key words and phrases: separable fibre functor, Tannaka reconstruction, bialgebra, von Neumann core. c Brian Day and Craig Pastro, 2009. Permission to copy for private use granted. 77 78 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO A von Neumann regular semigroup is precisely a von Neumann core in Set, while the free k-vector space on it is a special type of von Neumann core in Vectk . However, within this article we shall always suppose that A has both a unit and a counit. For example, when C = Vectk , a Hopf k-algebra or a weak Hopf k-algebra is a von Neumann core in this somewhat stronger sense. Since groups A in Set are characterized by the (stronger) axiom 1 ⊗ η = (1 ⊗ µ)(1 ⊗ S ⊗ 1)δ3 : A → A ⊗ A, (†) a very weak bialgebra A satisfying (†), in the general C , will be called a unital von Neumann core in C . Such a unital von Neumann core A always has a left inverse to the “fusion” operator [9] (1 ⊗ µ)(δ ⊗ 1) : A ⊗ A → A ⊗ A, namely (1 ⊗ µ)(1 ⊗ S ⊗ 1)(δ ⊗ 1) : A ⊗ A → A ⊗ A. Any Hopf algebra in C satisfies the stronger axiom (†), but a weak Hopf algebra does not necessarily do so. In this article we are mainly interested in producing a unital von Neumann core, namely End∨ U , associated to a certain type of split monoidal functor U into Vectk . It seems unlikely that all unital von Neumann cores in Vectk may be reproduced as such. We will tacitly assume throughout the article that the ground category [8] is Vect = Vectk , for k a field of characteristic 0, so that the categories and functors considered here are all k-linear (although any reasonable category [D, Vect] of parameterized vector spaces would suffice). We denote by Vectf the full subcategory of Vect consisting of the finite dimensional vector spaces, and we further suppose that C = (C , ⊗, I, c) is a braided monoidal category with a “fibre” functor U : C → Vect, with both a monoidal structure (U, r, r0 ) and a comonoidal structure (U, i, i0 ), which need not be inverse to one another. We call U separable 1 if ri = 1 and i0 r0 = dim(U I) · 1; i.e., for all A, B ∈ C , the diagrams i / UA ⊗ UB OOO OOO OOO r OOO 1 ' U (A ⊗ B) U (A ⊗ B) 1 r0 / UI GG GG GG i0 dim U I·1 GGG G# k GG k Strictly, we should also require the conditions (cf. [1, 10]) (r ⊗ 1)(1 ⊗ i) = ir : U A ⊗ U (B ⊗ C) → U (A ⊗ B) ⊗ U C, and (1 ⊗ r)(i ⊗ 1) = ir : U (A ⊗ B) ⊗ U C → U A ⊗ U (B ⊗ C) in order for U to be called “separable”, but we do not need these here. ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 79 commute. First we produce an algebra structure (µ, η) on Z C ∨ U (C)∗ ⊗ U C End U = using the monoidal and comonoidal structures on U . Secondly, we suppose that C has a suitable small generating set A of objects, and produce a coalgebra structure (δ, ) on End∨ U when each value U A, A ∈ A , is finite dimensional. Finally, we assume that each A ∈ A has a ⊗-dual A∗ which also lies in A , and that U is equipped with an isomorphism U (A∗ ) ∼ = U (A)∗ for all A ∈ A . This isomorphism should be suitably related to the evaluation and coevaluation maps of C and Vectf which then allows us to define a natural non-degenerate form U (A∗ ) ⊗ U A → k. This last assumption is sufficient to provide End∨ U with an automorphism S so that it becomes a unital von Neumann core in the above sense whenever (U, r, r0 ) is a braided monoidal functor. By way of examples, we note that many separable monoidal functors are constructable from separable monoidal categories, i.e., from monoidal categories C for which the tensor product map ⊗ : C (A, B) ⊗ C (C, D) → C (A ⊗ C, B ⊗ D) is a naturally split epimorphism (as is the case for some finite cartesian products such as Vectnf ). A closely related source of examples is the notion of a weak dimension functor on C (cf. [6]); this is a comonoidal functor (d, i, i0 ) : C → Setf for which the comonoidal transformation components i = iC,D : d(C ⊗ D) → dC × dD are injective functions, while the unique map i0 : dI → 1 is surjective. Various examples are described at the conclusion of the paper. We suppose the reader is familiar to some extent with the standard Tannaka reconstruction problem when restricted to the case of U strong monoidal (see [7] for example). 2. The very weak bialgebra End∨ U If C is a (k-linear) monoidal category and U : C → Vect 80 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO has a monoidal structure (U, r, r0 ) and a comonoidal structure (U, i, i0 ), then End∨ U , when it exists, has an associative and unital k-algebra structure whose multiplication µ is the composite map Z C Z D Z B µ ∗ ∗ / U (C) ⊗ U C ⊗ U (D) ⊗ U D U (B)∗ ⊗ U B O ∼ = Z C,D R⊗ U (C)∗ ⊗ U (D)∗ ⊗ U C ⊗ U D can Z C,D (U C ⊗ U D) ⊗ U C ⊗ U D Z / ∗ R C,D i∗ ⊗r U (C ⊗ D)∗ ⊗ U (C ⊗ D) while the unit η is given by k η / Z C U (C)∗ ⊗ U C O ∼ = coprC=I k∗ ⊗ k i∗0 ⊗r0 / U I ∗ ⊗ U I. The associativity and unit axioms for (End∨ U, µ, η) now follow directly from the corresponding associativity and unit axioms for (U, r, r0 ) and (U, i, i0 ). An augmentation is given by Z C /k U (C)∗ ⊗ U C A ]:: :: : coprC=D :: e U (D)∗ ⊗ U D in Vect, where e denotes evaluation in Vect. We also observe that the coend Z C ∨ End U = U (C)∗ ⊗ U C actually exists in Vect if C contains a small full subcategory A with the property that the family {U f : U A → U C | f ∈ C (A, C), A ∈ A } is epimorphic in Vect for each object C ∈ C . In fact, we shall use the stronger condition that the maps Z A∈A αC : C (A, C) ⊗ U A → U C ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 81 should be isomorphisms, not justR epimorphisms. This stronger condition implies that we R C∈C A∈A can effectively replace by since by the Yoneda lemma Z C Z C Z A ∗ ∗ ∼ U (C) ⊗ U C = U (C) ⊗ ( C (A, C) ⊗ U A) Z A ∼ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A. = If we furthermore ask that each value U A be finite dimensional for A in A , then Z A∈A ∨ ∼ End U = U (A)∗ ⊗ U A is canonically a k-coalgebra with counit the augmentation , and comultiplication δ given by Z A Z A Z A δ / ∗ ∗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A U (A) ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A) ⊗ U A O O copr copr ⊗ copr U (A)∗ ⊗ U A 1⊗n⊗1 / U (A)∗ ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A, where n denotes the coevaluation morphism in Vectf . 2.1. Proposition. If U is separable then End∨ U satisfies the k-bialgebra axiom expressed by the commutativity of δ⊗δ End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U / (End∨ U )⊗4 1⊗c⊗1 (End∨ U )⊗4 µ µ⊗µ End∨ U δ / End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U. Proof. Let B denote the monoidal full subcategory of C generated by A (we will essentially replace C by this small category B). Then, for all C, D in B, we have, by induction on the tensor lengths of C and D, that U (C ⊗ D) is finite dimensional since it is a retract of U C ⊗ U D. Moreover, we have Z A∈A Z B∈B ∗ ∼ U (A) ⊗ U A = U (B)∗ ⊗ U B by the Yoneda lemma, since the natural transformation Z A∈A α = αB : C (A, B) ⊗ U A → U B 82 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO is an isomorphism for all B ∈ B. Since ri = 1, the triangle 7 noooo (U C ⊗ U D) ⊗ (U C ⊗ U D)∗ o ooo OOO n OOO ' k OOOO r⊗i∗ U (C ⊗ D) ⊗ U (C ⊗ D)∗ , commutes in Vectf , where n denotes the coevaluation maps. The asserted bialgebra axiom then holds on End∨ U since it reduces to the following diagram on filling in the definitions of µ and δ (where, for the moment, we have dropped the symbol “⊗”): U C U (C)∗ U D U (D)∗ ∼ = 1 n 1 1 n 1 U C U D (U C U D)∗ r i∗ U (C D) U (C D)∗ U C (U C U (C)∗ ) U (C)∗ U D (U D U (D)∗ ) U (D)∗ ∼ = U C U D U (C)∗ U (D)∗ ∼ = / U C U D U C U D U (C)∗ U (D)∗ U (C)∗ U (D)∗ / 1 n 1 U C U D U C U D (U C U D)∗ (U C U D)∗ / 1 n 1 ∼ = r r i ∗ i∗ U (C D) U (C D) U (C D)∗ U (C D)∗ for all C, D ∈ B. Notably the bialgebra axiom expressed by the commutativity of µ ∨ / End∨ U End∨ U ⊗ End GG U GG GG GG ⊗ GG G# k does not hold in general, while the form of the axiom expressed by End∨ U aD δ DD DD D η DDD D k / End∨ U9 ⊗ End∨ U rr rrr r r rrrη⊗η rrr holds only if η = r0 ⊗ i∗0 . Also η = dim U I · 1 for U separable. The single k-bialgebra axiom established in the above proposition implies that the “fusion” operator (1 ⊗ µ)(δ ⊗ 1) : A ⊗ A → A ⊗ A satisfies the fusion equation (see [9] for details). The k-linear dual of End∨ U is of course Z Z C ∗ ∼ U (C) ⊗ U (C), k = [U (C)∗ , U (C)∗ ] C ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 83 which is the endomorphism k-algebra of the functor U (−)∗ : C op → Vect. If ob A is finite, so that Z is finite dimensional, then Z A U (A)∗ ⊗ U A [U (C) , U (C) ] ∼ = ∗ ∗ C Z [U (A)∗ , U (A)∗ ] A is also a k-coalgebra. 3. The unital von Neumann core End∨ U We now take C = (C , ⊗, I, c) to be a braided monoidal category and A ⊂ C to be a small full subcategory of C for which the monoidal and comonoidal functor U : C → Vect induces U : A → Vectf on restriction to A . We suppose that A is such that • the identity I of ⊗ lies in A , and each object of A ∈ A has a ⊗-dual A∗ lying in A. With respect to U , we suppose A has the properties • “U -irreducibility”: A (A, B) 6= 0 implies dim U A = dim U B for all A, B ∈ A , • “U -density”: the canonical map Z A∈A αC : C (A, C) ⊗ U A → U C is an isomorphism for all C ∈ C , • “U -trace”: each object of A has a U -trace in C (I, I), where by U -trace of A ∈ A we mean an isomorphism d(A) in C (I, I) such that the following two diagrams commute. I d(A) n / k IO e A ⊗ A∗ c / A∗ ⊗ A / dim U A k r0 r0 UI dim U I·U (d(A)) / UI We shall assume dim U I 6= 0 so that the latter assumption implies dim U A 6= 0, for all A ∈ A . 84 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO We require also a natural isomorphism ∼ = u = uA : U (A∗ ) − → U (A)∗ such that r0 k / UI n U A ⊗ U (A)∗ Un U (A ⊗ A∗ ) AA AA AA AA −1 1⊗u > }} } } }} r }} (n, r, r0 ) U A ⊗ U (A∗ ) commutes, and i0 UO I / kO e Ue U (A)∗ ⊗ U A U (A∗ ⊗ A) AA AA AA i AA }> }} } }} }} u⊗1 (e, i, i0 ) U (A∗ ) ⊗ U A commutes. This means that U “preserves duals” when restricted to A . An endomorphism σ : End∨ U → End∨ U may be defined by components Z A σ ∗ U (A) ⊗ U A / Z A U (A)∗ ⊗ U A O O copr copr σA U (A)∗ ⊗ U A / U (A∗ )∗ ⊗ U (A∗ ), each σA being given by commutativity of U (A)∗ ⊗ U A σA / U (A∗ )∗ ⊗ U (A∗ ) O c 1⊗ρ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗∗ u−1 ⊗u∗ / U (A∗ ) ⊗ U (A∗ )∗ , where ρ denotes the canonical isomorphism from a finite dimensional vector space to its double dual. Clearly each component σA is invertible. ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 85 3.1. Theorem. Let C , A , and U be as above, and suppose that U is braided and separable as a monoidal functor. Then there is an automorphism S on End∨ U such that (End∨ U, µ, η, δ, , S) is a unital von Neumann core in Vectk . Proof. A family of maps {SA | A ∈ A } is defined by SA = dim U I · (dim U A)−1 · σA . Then, by the U -irreducibility assumption on the category A , this family induces an automorphism S on the coend ∞ Z A∈An X ∨ ∼ End U = U (A)∗ ⊗ U A, n=1 where An is the full subcategory of A determined by {A | dim U A = n}. We now take S to be the prospective core endomorphism on End∨ U and check that 1 ⊗ η = (1 ⊗ µ)(1 ⊗ S ⊗ 1)δ3 . From the definition of µ and δ, we require commutativity of the exterior of the following diagram (where, again, we have dropped the symbol “⊗”): 1 1 SA 1 1 / U (A)∗ U A U (A∗ )∗ U (A∗ ) U (A)∗ U A U (A)∗ U A U (A)∗ U AQ U (A)∗ U A O h QQ O QQQ1 1 c 1 1 QQQ QQQ (2) Q 1 1 u∗ u−1 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ U (A) U A U A U (A) U (A) U A O (1) 1 n 1 1 1 U (A)∗ U A U (A)∗∗ U (A)∗ U (A)∗ U A 1 1 1 c 1 O U (A)∗ U A U6 A U (A)∗ U (A)∗ U A mm mmm m m mmm mmm 1 1 n 1 1 / U (A)∗ U A U (A)∗ U A O 1 1 1 c 1 U (A)∗ U A U (A)∗∗ U (A)∗ U (A)∗ U A dim U I·(dim U A)−1 ·(1 1 e∗ 1 1) U (A)∗ U A U (A∗ )∗ U (A∗ ) U (A)∗ U A 1 n 1 ∼ = U (A)O∗ U A U (A)∗ U A (U (A∗ ) U A)∗ U (A∗ ) U A (3) 1 1 i∗ r U (A)∗ U A U (A∗ A)∗ U (A∗ A) ∼ = ∗ U (A) U A k ∼ = 1 1 η / ∗ U (A) U A Z 1 1 copr B U (B)∗ U B 86 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO The region labelled by (1) commutes on composition with 1 ⊗ n ⊗ 1 since / n k U A ⊗ U (A)∗ 1⊗n⊗1 U A ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ n 1⊗1⊗c U A ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ n⊗1⊗1 U A ⊗ U (A)∗ / 1⊗c⊗1 U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ commutes (choose a basis for U A). The region labelled by (2) now commutes by inspection of U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ O 1⊗σA ⊗1 1⊗c⊗1 QQQ QQQ QQQ QQQ QQQ QQQ QQ / U A ⊗ U (A∗ )∗ ⊗ U (A∗ ) ⊗ U (A)∗ O 1⊗c⊗1 ∗ 1⊗1⊗ρ⊗1 QQ U A ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ O ∗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ 1⊗1⊗c O 1⊗c⊗1 U A ⊗ U A ⊗ UO (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ 1⊗n⊗1 ∗ ∗ (A ) ⊗ U (A) QQQ U A ⊗ U (A ) ⊗ U O QQQ QQQ QQQ 1⊗u−1 ⊗u∗ ⊗1 QQQ QQQ ( VVVV VVVV VVVV VVVV 1⊗ρ⊗1⊗1 VV 1⊗e∗ ⊗1 U A ⊗ U (A)∗ U A ⊗ U (A)∗∗ ⊗O U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ VVVV VVVV VVVV VV* / U A ⊗ U (A)∗∗ 1⊗1⊗c ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ . From the definition of the U -trace d(A) of A ∈ A , we have that k dim U I·(dim U A)−1 r0 / k r0 UI U (d(A)−1 ) / UI ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 87 commutes, so that the exterior of U A ⊗ U (A)∗ : tt tt t tt JJ JJr JJ J$ 1⊗u−1 U A ⊗ O U (A)∗ (n,r,r0 ) U (A ⊗ A∗ ) O n Un kO / r0 UO I U (d(A)−1 ) dim U I·(dim U A)−1 r0 k / UI commutes. Finally, the region labelled by (3) commutes on examination of the following diagram ∗ (U (A)∗ ⊗ 4 U A)∗ ⊗ U (A) ⊗ UA U UUUU ∗ −1 UUU(u⊗1) UUUU ⊗(u ⊗1) UUUU UU* iii e∗ ⊗1⊗1iiiiii i iiii iiii k ∗ ⊗ U (A)∗ ⊗ U A O (U (A∗ ) ⊗ U A)∗ ⊗ U (A∗ ) ⊗ U A OOO (e,i,i0 ) 1⊗u−1 ⊗1 OOO ' 1⊗c k ∗ ⊗ U (AO ∗ ) ⊗ UA O OO i∗0 ⊗rOO i∗ ⊗r O' U (I)∗ ⊗ U (A∗ ⊗ A) O 11 WWWWW U (e)∗ ⊗1 WWWWW 11 WWWWW 11 + ∗ ∗ k ⊗ U A O ⊗ U (A) 1 OOO (∗) U (A∗ ⊗ A)∗ ⊗ U (A∗ 11 −1 11 1⊗1⊗uO OO' 1⊗U c 11 11 k ∗ ⊗ U A ⊗ U (A∗ ) 11 OOO 11 i∗0 ⊗rOO O' 111⊗U e U (I)∗ ⊗ UO (A ⊗ A∗ ) 111 11 copr 11 1⊗dim U I·(dim U A)−1 ·n 11 1⊗U n 1 1⊗c U (I)∗ ⊗ U I (n,r,r0 ) O 1⊗U (d(A)−1 ) k∗ ⊗ k i∗0 ⊗r0 / U (I)∗ ⊗ U I t: tt t tt tt tt 1 t tt tt U (I)∗ ⊗ U I ⊗ A) copr ?? ?? ?? copr ?? ? / Z B U (B)∗ ⊗ U B whose commutativity depends on the hypothesis that (U, r, r0 ) is braided monoidal in 88 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO order for U A ⊗ U (A∗ ) r / c U (A∗ ) ⊗ U A r (∗) U (A ⊗ A∗ ) / Uc U (A∗ ⊗ A) to commute. 4. The fusion operator The unital von Neumann axiom on End∨ U implies that the fusion operator f = (1 ⊗ µ)(δ ⊗ 1) : End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U → End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U has a left inverse, namely g = (1 ⊗ µ)(1 ⊗ S ⊗ 1)(δ ⊗ 1). For this we consider the following diagram. ∨ End∨ U ⊗ End QQ U δ⊗1 / (End∨ U )⊗3 QQQ QQQ QQQ Q 1⊗δ⊗1 δ⊗1⊗1 δ3 ⊗1 QQQQQ QQ( (End∨ U )⊗4 1⊗µ / End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U δ⊗1 1⊗1⊗µ / (End∨ U )⊗3 1⊗η⊗1 1⊗S⊗1⊗1 1 (End∨ U )⊗3 o 1⊗µ⊗1 (End∨ U )⊗4 Q 1⊗µ End∨ U ⊗ End∨ U o 1⊗µ QQQ QQQ QQ1⊗1⊗µ QQQ QQQ QQQ Q( 1⊗S⊗1 (End∨ U )⊗3 In particular f = (1 ⊗ µ)(δ ⊗ 1) is a partial isomorphism, i.e., f gf = f and gf g = g. 5. Examples of separable monoidal functors in the present context Unless otherwise indicated, categories, functors, and natural transformations shall be k-linear, for k a field of characteristic 0. For these examples we recall that a (small) k-linear promonoidal category (A , p, j) (previously called “premonoidal” in [2]) consists of a k-linear category A and two k-linear functors p : A op ⊗ A op ⊗ A → Vect j : A → Vect ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 89 equipped with associativity and unit constraints satisfying axioms (as described in [2]) analogous to those used to define a monoidal structure on A . The notion of a symmetric promonoidal category (also introduced in [2]) was extended in [4] to that of a braided promonoidal category. The main point is that (braided) promonoidal structures on A correspond to cocontinuous (braided) monoidal structures on the functor category [A , Vect]. This latter monoidal structure is often called the convolution product of A and Vect and is given explicity by the coend formula Z a,b p(a, b, c) ⊗ f a ⊗ gb (f ∗ g)(c) = in Vect. The unit of this convolution product is given by j. 5.1. Example. Let (A , p, j) be a small braided promonoidal category with A (I, I) ∼ =k where j = A (I, −), and suppose that each hom-space A (a, b) is finite dimensional. Let f : A → Vectf be a very weak bialgebra in the convolution [A , Vect] so that we have maps µ:f ∗f →f and η:j→f δ :f →f ∗f and : f → j, and satisfying associativity and unital axioms, plus the very weak bialgebra axiom. Suppose also that A ⊂ C where C is a separable braided monoidal category, with p(a, b, c) ∼ = C (a ⊗ b, c) and j(a) ∼ = C (I, a) naturally, and suppose the induced maps Z c∈A p(a, b, c) ⊗ C (c, C) → C (a ⊗ b, C) are isomorphisms (e.g., A monoidal). We also suppose that each a ∈ A has a dual a∗ ∈ A . Define a functor U : C → Vect by Z a∈A UC = f a ⊗ C (a, C); then, by the Yoneda lemma, U (a∗ ) ∼ = U (a)∗ if f (a∗ ) ∼ = f (a)∗ for a ∈ A . Furthermore, by the Yoneda lemma, Z a∈A UI = f a ⊗ C (a, I) ∼ = fI 90 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO so that, by our assumption A (I, I) ∼ = k the maps η and induce respectively maps r0 : k → U I i0 : U I → k. and Maps r and i are described in the following diagram. Z a,b ∼ = / U C ⊗O U D f a ⊗ f b ⊗ C (a, C) ⊗ C (b, D) O Z r C separable a,b f a ⊗ f b ⊗ C (a ⊗ b, C ⊗ D) i Z a,b Z fa ⊗ fb ⊗ c ∼ = p(a, b, c) ⊗ C (c, C ⊗ D) O µ U (C ⊗ D) o Z 1 c δ f c ⊗ C (c, C ⊗ D) These then produce a braided monoidal and comonoidal structure on U . Moreover, we have i0 r0 = dim U I · 1 if and only if I ηI = dim f I · 1, and if f is a separable very weak bialgebra, then U is separable since ri = 1 if µδ = 1. Therefore, Theorem 3.1 may be applied when A and U satisfy the “U -irreducibility” and “U -trace” criteria. 5.2. Example. Suppose that (A op , p, j) is a small braided promonoidal category with I ∈ A such that j ∼ = A (−, I) and with each x ∈ A an “atom” in C (i.e., an object x ∈ C for which C (x, −) preserves all colimits) where C is a cocomplete and cocontinuous braided monoidal category containing A and each x ∈ A has a dual x∗ ∈ A . Suppose that the inclusion A ⊂ C is dense over Vect (that is, the canonical evaluation morphism Z a C (a, C) · a → C is an isomorphism for all C ∈ C ), and Z z ∼ x⊗y = p(x, y, z) · z (naturally in x, y ∈ A ) so that Z z C (a, x ⊗ y) = C (a, p(x, y, z) · z) Z z ∼ p(x, y, z) ⊗ C (a, z) since a ∈ A is an atom in C , = ∼ = p(x, y, a) by the Yoneda lemma applied to z ∈ A . ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 91 Let W : A → Vect be a strong braided promonoidal functor on A . This means that we have structure isomorphisms Z z ∼ Wx ⊗ Wy = C (z, x ⊗ y) ⊗ W z and k∼ = WI satisfying suitable associativity and unital coherence axioms. Define a functor U : C → Vect by Z a UC = C (a, C) ⊗ W a. Then, if we suppose that W (x∗ ) ∼ = W (x)∗ for all x ∈ A , we have Z a ∗ C (a, x∗ ) ⊗ W a U (x ) = ∼ = W (x∗ ) ∼ = W (x)∗ ∗ Z a ∼ C (a, x) ⊗ W a = = U (x)∗ , so that U (x∗ ) ∼ = U (x)∗ , and Z a i0 : U I = C (a, I) ⊗ W a ∼ = WI ∼ = k, so that i0 r0 = 1 and r0 i0 = 1. Also there are mutually inverse composite maps r and i given by: Z x,y ∼ r : UC ⊗ UD = C (x, C) ⊗ C (y, D) ⊗ U x ⊗ U y Z x,y ∼ C (x, C) ⊗ C (y, D) ⊗ W x ⊗ W y = Z x,y Z z ∼ C (x, C) ⊗ C (y, D) ⊗ C (z, x ⊗ y) ⊗ W z = Z z ∼ C (z, C ⊗ D) ⊗ W z = ∼ = U (C ⊗ D), which uses the assumptions that C is cocontinuous monoidal and A ⊂ C is dense. Thus, ri = 1 and ir = 1 so that U is a braided strong monoidal functor. 92 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO 5.3. Example. (See [6] Proposition 3.) Let C be a braided compact monoidal category and let A ⊂ C be a full finite discrete Cauchy generator of C which contains I and is closed under dualization in C . As in the Häring-Oldenburg case [6], we suppose that each hom-space C (C, D) is finite dimensional with a chosen natural isomorphism C (C ∗ , D∗ ) ∼ = ∗ C (C, D) . Then we have a separable monoidal functor M UC = C (a, C ⊗ b), a,b∈A whose structure maps are given by the composites M UC ⊗ UD ∼ C (c, C ⊗ b) ⊗ C (a, D ⊗ d) = a,b,c,d o / M ∼ = M ∼ = M c=d adjoint C (c, C ⊗ b) ⊗ C (a, D ⊗ c) a,b,c C (a, D ⊗ (C ⊗ b)) a,b C (a, (D ⊗ C) ⊗ b) a,b ∼ = M C (a, (C ⊗ D) ⊗ b) a,b = U (C ⊗ D), and r0 : k → U I the diagonal, with i0 its adjoint. Moreover M U (C ∗ ) = C (a, C ∗ ⊗ b) a,b ∼ = M ∼ = M C (a∗ , C ∗ ⊗ b∗ ) a,b C (a, C ⊗ b)∗ a,b ∼ = U C∗ for all C ∈ C . 5.4. Example. Let (A , p, j) be a finite braided promonoidal category over Setf with I ∈ A such that j ∼ = A (I, −) and with a braided promonoidal functor d : A op → Setf for which each structure map Z u: z p(x, y, z) × dz → dx × dy ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 93 is an injection, and u0 : dI → 1 is a surjection. Then we have corresponding maps Z z / k[p(x, y, z)] ⊗ k[dz] o o / k[dx] ⊗ k[dy] and k[dI] o o // k[1], where k[s] denotes the free k-vector space on the (finite) set s, in Vectf . Define the functor U : C → Vectf by Z x f x ⊗ k[dx] Uf = for f ∈ C = [k∗ A , Vectf ], with the convolution braided monoidal closed structure, where k∗ A is the free k-linear category on A so that Z y Z x gx ⊗ k[dy] f x ⊗ k[dx] ⊗ r : Uf ⊗ Ug = Z x,y ∼ f x ⊗ gy ⊗ (k[dx] ⊗ k[dy]) = Z z Z x,y f x ⊗ gy ⊗ k[p(x, y, z)] ⊗ k[dz] Z z Z x,y ∼ f x ⊗ gy ⊗ k[p(x, y, z)] ⊗ k[dz] = Z z = (f ⊗ g)(z) ⊗ k[dz] Z z = U (f ⊗ g) and Z i0 : U I = x k[A (I, x)] ⊗ k[dx] ∼ = k[dI] k[1] ∼ = k. Hence i0 r0 = dim U I · 1 = |dI| · 1. Thus, U becomes a braided separable monoidal functor. 5.5. Example. Let A be a finite (discrete) set and give the cartesian product A × A the Setf -promonoidal structure corresponding to bimodule composition (i.e., to matrix multiplication). If d : A × A → Setf 94 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO is a braided promonoidal functor, then its associated structure maps X X p((x, x0 ), (y, y 0 ), (z, z 0 )) × d(z, z 0 ) = A (z, x) × A (x0 , y) × A (y 0 , z 0 ) × d(z, z 0 ) z,z 0 z,z 0 ∼ = A (x0 , y) × d(x, y 0 ) → d(x, x0 ) × d(y, y 0 ), and X j(z, z 0 ) × d(z, z 0 ) = X ∼ = X z,z 0 A (z, z 0 ) × d(z, z 0 ) z,z 0 d(z, z) z → 1, are determined by components d(x, y 0 ) d(x, y) × d(y, y 0 ) d(z, z) 1 which give A the structure of a discrete cocategory over Setf . Define the functor U : C = [k∗ (A × A ), Vectf ] → Vectf by M Uf = (f (x, y) ⊗ k[d(x, y)]). x,y Then we obtain monoidal and comonoidal structure maps U (f ⊗ g) o r UI o r0 / i i0 / Uf ⊗ Ug k∼ = k[1] from the canonical maps M f (x, z) ⊗ g(z, y) ⊗ k[d(x, y)] x,y,z o adjoint / M z=u=v M f (x, u) ⊗ k[d(x, u)] ⊗ g(v, y) ⊗ k[d(v, y)] x,u and M v,y k[d(z, z)] k ∼ = k[1]. z These give U the structure of a separable braided monoidal functor on C . ON ENDOMORPHISM ALGEBRAS OF SEPARABLE MONOIDAL FUNCTORS 95 6. Concluding remarks If the original “fibre” functor U is faithful and exact then the Tannaka equivalence (duality) Lex(C op , Vect) ' Comod(End∨ U ) is available, where Lex(C op , Vect) is the category of k-linear left exact functors from C op to Vect. (See [3] for example.) Thus, since C is braided monoidal, so is Comod(End∨ U ) with the tensor product and unit induced by the convolution product on Lex(C op , Vect); for convenience we recall [3] that, for C compact, this convolution product is given by the restriction to Lex(C op , Vect) of the coend Z C,D Z C F C ⊗ GD ⊗ C (−, C ⊗ D) F ∗G= ∼ = F C ⊗ G(C ∗ ⊗ −) computed in the whole functor category [C op , Vect]. Moreover, when U is separable monoidal, the category Co(End∨ U ) of cofree coactions of End∨ U (as constructed in [7] for example) also has a monoidal structure (Co(End∨ U ), ⊗, k), this time obtained from the algebra structure of End∨ U . The forgetful inclusion Comod(End∨ U ) ⊂ Co(End∨ U ) preserves colimits while Comod(End∨ U ) has a small generator, namely {U C | C ∈ C }, and thus, from the special adjoint functor theorem, this inclusion has a right adjoint. The value of the adjunction’s counit at the functor F ⊗ G in Co(End∨ U ) is then a split monomorphism and, in particular, the monoidal forgetful functor Comod(End∨ U ) → Vect, which is the composite Comod(End∨ U ) ⊂ Co(End∨ U ) → Vect, is a separable braided monoidal functor extension of the given functor U : C → Vect. References [1] Aurelio Carboni. Matrices, relations, and group representations, J. Algebra 136 no. 2 (1991): 497–529. [2] Brian Day. On closed categories of functors, in Reports of the Midwest Category Seminar IV, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 137 (1970): 1–38. [3] Brian J. Day. Enriched Tannaka reconstruction, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 108 no. 1 (1996): 17–22. 96 BRIAN DAY AND CRAIG PASTRO [4] B. Day, E. Panchadcharam, and R. Street. Lax braidings and the lax centre, in Hopf Algebras and Generalizations, Contemporary Mathematics 441 (2007): 1–17. [5] Brian Day and Ross Street. Quantum categories, star autonomy, and quantum groupoids, in Galois Theory, Hopf Algebras, and Semiabelian Categories, Fields Institute Communications 43 (2004): 187–226. [6] Reinhard Häring-Oldenburg. Reconstruction of weak quasi-Hopf algebras, J. Algebra 194 no. 1 (1997): 14–35. [7] André Joyal and Ross Street. An Introduction to Tannaka Duality and Quantum Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1488 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991): 411– 492. [8] G. M. Kelly. Basic concepts of enriched category theory, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series 64. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982. Also at http://www.tac.mta.ca/tac/reprints/articles/10/tr10abs.html [9] Ross Street. Fusion operators and cocycloids in monoidal categories, Appl. Categ. Struct. 6 (1998): 177–191. [10] Kornél Szlachányi. Finite quantum groupoids and inclusions of finite type, Fields Inst. Comm. 30 (2001): 393–407. Department of Mathematics Macquarie University New South Wales 2109 Australia Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 Japan Email: [email protected] This article may be accessed at http://www.tac.mta.ca/tac/ or by anonymous ftp at ftp://ftp.tac.mta.ca/pub/tac/html/volumes/22/4/22-04.{dvi,ps,pdf} THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF CATEGORIES (ISSN 1201-561X) will disseminate articles that significantly advance the study of categorical algebra or methods, or that make significant new contributions to mathematical science using categorical methods. 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Richard Blute, Université d’ Ottawa: [email protected] Lawrence Breen, Université de Paris 13: [email protected] Ronald Brown, University of North Wales: ronnie.profbrown (at) btinternet.com Aurelio Carboni, Università dell Insubria: [email protected] Valeria de Paiva, Cuill Inc.: [email protected] Ezra Getzler, Northwestern University: getzler(at)northwestern(dot)edu Martin Hyland, University of Cambridge: [email protected] P. T. Johnstone, University of Cambridge: [email protected] Anders Kock, University of Aarhus: [email protected] Stephen Lack, University of Western Sydney: [email protected] F. William Lawvere, State University of New York at Buffalo: [email protected] Jean-Louis Loday, Université de Strasbourg: [email protected] Ieke Moerdijk, University of Utrecht: [email protected] Susan Niefield, Union College: [email protected] Robert Paré, Dalhousie University: [email protected] Jiri Rosicky, Masaryk University: [email protected] Brooke Shipley, University of Illinois at Chicago: [email protected] James Stasheff, University of North Carolina: [email protected] Ross Street, Macquarie University: [email protected] Walter Tholen, York University: [email protected] Myles Tierney, Rutgers University: [email protected] Robert F. C. Walters, University of Insubria: [email protected] R. J. Wood, Dalhousie University: [email protected]