Chapter 13 Learning and Memory

Chapter 13
Learning and Memory
What is the relationship between learning and memory? Summarize the distinction between
learning studies and memory studies
Be familiar with the main ideas of classical conditioning and operant conditioning
What is an engram?
Explain Karl Lashley’s search for the engram (1.connections between the cortex & 2. search for
location in the cortex)
Types of Memory
Be able to define and identify the following types of memories
Short-term, Long-term, Working Memory
Explicit (definition)
o Semantic, Episodic
Implicit (definition)
o Procedural
Findings from Neuropsychology
Be able to define retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia
Be familiar with the case of H.M. How did H.M. contribute to our understanding of memory?
A Medial Temporal Lobectomy removes the medial portions of the temporal cortex, most of the
hippocampus and the amygdala. What effects on memory result from Medial Temporal Lobe
Be able to explain how researchers demonstrate and study implicit memories (pictures, Tetris,
Memory: Types and Structures
Be able to explain how each of the following structures contribute to learning and memory
o Hippocampus
o Basal Ganglia
o Amygdala
o Cerebellum
o Cortex
Memory Consolidation
Be able to define memory consolidation
Summarize the Standard Consolidation Theory (and explain why H.M. supports this theory)
Summarize the role of protein-synthesis in consolidation
Summarize Canal & Gold’s (2007) study (from PPT)
Summarize Brawn and colleagues (2010) study on sleep, motor-skills and consolidation (from
Explain memory reconsolidation
Long-Term Potentiation
Define long-term potentiation
Be able to explain how LTP occurs. Explain the role of
o Glutamate
o AMPA, NDMA receptors
o Magnesium (Mg++), Calcium (Ca+), migrating protein (CaMKII)
Be able to summarize the changes that can occur in the presynaptic neuron
o Action potential level
o Release of glutamate
o Expansion of axons
o Transmitter release from additional sites
The Hippocampus and Spatial Memory
Be able to summarize the evidence for why the hippocampus is important for spatial memory
What did the rats running down the runway indicate?
What do fMRI and PET scan studies from humans and London taxi drivers indicate?
What do MRI studies of London taxi drivers indicate?
Chapter 14
Lateralization of Function
Consciousness and Attention
Lateralization of Function
 Define lateralization
 Be familiar with the three major commissures: corpus callosum, anterior commissure,
hippocampal commissure
 Be familiar with the left-hemisphere dominance tasks, and right hemisphere dominant tasks
Consciousness and Attention
 Be able to define consciousness and attention
 Be able to explain how brain activity is related to consciousness
 Be able to summary the following studies:
o Crick and Koch (2004) – word priming (from PPT)
o Macaluso, Frith, & Driver (2000) – attention and brain region (from PPT)
 What is binocular rivalry? How does it help us understand consciousness?
 Explain consciousness as a threshold phenomenon
 Explain the research that indicates that meaning of stimulus can be processed on a nonconscious
 Explain the phi-phenomenon and its implications of consciousness
NYTimes Article: Could Conjoined Twins Share a Mind?
What part(s) of the brain do the twins share?
What is the evidence that the Twins are able to share sensory information
What is the evidence that the twins are able to share a consciousness (thoughts)
Based on the information we have learned about the nature of consciousness do you think the
twins will be able to share a consciousness?