Management Skills 1e

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Diagnostic Skills
• Diagnostic skills enable a manager
– To visualize the most appropriate
response to a situation.
– To understand and predict cause-andeffect relationships.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–2
Understanding Control
• Control
– Is the regulation of organizational activities so that
some targeted element of performance remains within
acceptable limits.
• Benefits of Control
– Provides organizations with indications of how well
they are performing in relation to their goals.
– Provides a mechanism for adjusting performance to
keep organizations moving in the right direction.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–3
Areas of Control
Areas of
Control
Physical
Resources
Human
Resources
Information
Resources
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Financial
Resources
6–4
Levels of Control
Strategic
Control
Structural
Control
Operations
control
Financial
control
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–5
Responsibilities for Control
• Managers
– Are responsible for overseeing the wide array of
control systems and concerns in organizations.
• Controller
– Is a staff member that helps
line managers with their control
activities.
• Operative Employees
– Check the quality of their work
and correct their own errors.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–6
Designing Control Systems
• Design and implementation of control
systems requires:
– Careful diagnosis of the organizational,
environmental, and operational context
– An understanding of the specific steps
in the control process
– An understanding of the fundamental
elements of operations control
– An understanding of the characteristics
of effective control
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–7
Managing Control in Organizations
Characteristics of
Effective Controls
Integration with planning
Flexibility
Accuracy
Timeliness
Objectivity
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–8
Managing Control:
Sources of Resistance to Control
Overcontrol
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
Inappropriate
Focus
Rewards for
Inefficiency
Too Much
Accountability
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–9
Overcoming Resistance to Control
• Resistance to control can be overcome by:
– Integrating and aligning controls with organizational
planning, goals, and standards.
– Creating flexible, accurate, timely, and objective
controls.
– Avoiding overcontrol.
– Guarding against controls that reward inefficiencies.
– Encouraging employee participation in the planning
and implementing of control systems.
– Developing checks and balances that verify the
accuracy of performance indicators.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–10
Popular Motivational Strategies
• Empowerment
– Enabling workers to set their work goals, make
decisions, and solve problems within their sphere
of influence.
• Participation
– Giving employees a voice in making decisions
about their work.
– Areas of participation for employees:
• Making decisions about their jobs.
• Decisions about administrative matters
• Participating in decision making about
broader issues of product quality.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–11
Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation
• Reinforcement Theory
– Addresses the role of rewards as
they cause behavior to change or
remain the same over time.
– Assumes that:
• Behavior that results in rewarding
consequences is likely to be repeated.
• Behavior that results in punishing
consequences is less likely to be
repeated.
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–12
Kinds of Reinforcement in Organizations
Kinds of
Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Avoidance
Punishment
Extinction
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–13
Reinforcement Perspectives (cont’d)
Reinforcement Schedules
Time
Fixed
Interval
Frequency
Variable
Interval
Fixed
Ratio
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Variable
Ratio
6–14
Alternative Forms of Working Arrangements
Compressed work schedule
Variable Work
Schedules
Flexible work schedules
(flextime)
Job sharing
Telecommuting
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–15
Reward Systems and Performance
Types of Reward Systems
Individual
Merit
Rewards
Systems
Individual
Incentive
Rewards
Systems
Group and Team
Incentive
Rewards
Systems
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
6–16
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