Chapter 8 Reading Guide 1. According to Kwame Nkrumah, why do people seek independence? 2. What is Political Geography? 3. What is a state? 4. What is territoriality? 5. What is sovereignty? 6. What is mercantilism? 7. What is the significance of the Peace of Westphalia? 8. What is a nation? 9. What is a nation-state? 10. Why are there very few true nation-states in the world? 11. Most state are __________________ states. 12. When a nation stretches across borders and across states, the nation is called a _______ nation. 13. Nations without states are called ________. 14. List an example of a stateless nation. 15. What are the 3 basic tenets of world-system theory as defined by Immanuel Wallerstein? 16. What is Capitalism? 17. What is Commodification? 18. What set up the world economy and how was it accomplished? 19. What are the 3 tiers of World System Theory? 20. Explain the semiperiphery. 21. What are two concerns about World System Theory? 22. What is the greatest political challenge facing the states of Africa since independence? 23. What is centripetal force? 24. What is centrifugal? 25. What is a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state is called ________________. 26. What is a federal system of government? 27. What is devolution? 28. Give 2 examples of how devolutionary processes have affected Europe. 29. Name 2 devolutionary forces. 30. Describe an example of economic devolutionary forces. 31. What one feature is in common with devolutionary events? 32. Describe devolutionary forces in the USA. 33. What is reapportionment? 34. What is redistricting for advantage? 35. What are the four steps in establishing a boundary? 36. When is a geometric boundary used? 37. What are Physical-political boundaries? 38. What are the four principal forms of boundary disputes? 39. Provide an example of a locational boundary dispute. 40. What is geopolitics? 41. What are the two classical geopolitical schools? 42. Which school attempts to answer “Why are certain states powerful”? 43. According to Friedrich Ratzel, what is the state’s essential life-giving force? 44. Describe Mackinder’s heartland theory? 45. What is critical geopolitics? 46. Provide an example of critical geopolitics by a U.S. President? 47. What is an example of supranationalism? 48. What is unilateralism? 49. What dispute is keeping Turkey from joining the EU? 50. What is the purpose of a regional economic association?