Ch. 4 Notes: Political Culture and Ideology

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AP U.S. Government & Politics
Chapter 4: Political Culture and Ideology
Political culture – widely shared beliefs, values, and norms that citizens hold
near and dear to their <3 about their government.
Suffrage – having the right to vote. aka – “enfranchisement”
15th Amendment (1870) – African American Men, 21+
19th Amendment (1920) – Women, 21+
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 (aka “Snyder Act”)
24th Amendment (1964) – ended Poll Taxes
Voting Rights Act (1965) – ended literacy tests and all other obstacles
26th Amendment (1971) – 18-20 year olds
Deliberation – “deliberate” thoughtful process used by those elected
(representatives) to participate in the decision-making process.
Social capital – democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise,
consensus and respect for differences (bipartisanship).
Democratic consensus – agreement among elected officials about how to
govern based on the values held by the country’s constituents.
Majority Rule / Minority Rights – Governance according to the outcome of the
majority – unless it violates the constitutionality of any one person.
Nationalism – an enduring sense of national identity that consists of historic,
linguistic, cultural and political similarities.
Patriotism – devotion to one’s country – “my country’s better than your country!”
Capitalism – an economic system defined by private property, economic
incentive, limited government, and competition. (pretty much, the characteristics
of classical liberalism)
Political ideology – political views and beliefs about the role of one’s
government.
Classical liberalism – an idea that emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries that
government should be limited, and that people / businesses should be protected
from too much government involvement / regulation.
Contemporary liberalism – refers to the government’s role in ensuring that
equality and justice are provided for everyone, including those traditionally /
formerly marginalized in society. Calls for governmental intervention when
necessary.
Conservatism – belief in free enterprise: property rights, competitive markets,
and personal opportunity. (“conserving” these rights and enhancing individual
liberties.)
- Traditional Conservatives: pro-business, low taxes, minimum
regulations
- Social Conservatives: less focus on economic, more focus on morality
and lifestyle, i.e. pro life, anti affirmative action, anti same sex
marriage.
Socialism – an economic system based on public ownership. The government
owns all means of production – no private property. (Karl Marx – “transitional
stage between capitalism and communism.)
Communism – political, social and economic system in which land and capital
are collectively owned and political power is exercised by the masses. (Single
political party, i.e. China, Cuba, Vietnam)
Libertarianism – political ideology that values individual liberty and extremely
limited government. To a degree, combining anarchism with conservatism.
Opposed to governmental regulation (seat belt & helmet laws), the UN or foreign
involvement. Regulation is costly and interferes with the free market, and
foreign involvement is an unnecessary cost.
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