Presentación de PowerPoint

José Aguilar
Javier Cevallos
Ricardo Mosquera
Diana Mantilla
José Luis Pacheco
Ramiro Figueroa
Banana’s Boom
 In 1950, Ecuador got back into the international market by the
production of banana, starting this way a new period of
 The initial process of banana expansion lasted until the end of
1950 and was based on small and medium-sized plantations,
due to a policy that encouraged this type of production by the
government and prevented the concentration of land and
capital in a few hands, as happened with the cocoa boom. This
process triggered the formation of an agrarian bourgeoisie that
strengthened the middle class, which, according to the
conception of the government, was the bearer of democratic
Banana’s Boom
 During the 1960s, Central American plantations began to
recover, which led to a decline in demand for Ecuadorian
fruit. The crisis of overproduction and the presence of
pests hit hard the small and medium producers, who did
not have the capital to cope with periods of crisis or new
investments. The bankruptcy of small farmers was taken
advantage by the large landowners, who started the stage
of the large banana plantations in the Ecuadorian coast.
Often these production combined with export activity,
imposing prices to small producers that still survived in
the agro Coast.
Banana’s Boom
 Economically, the effects of the banana boom in the
country were important. It deepened the capitalist
development model in relation to the world market.
Ecuador was inserted into a new international order, in
which clearly it assumed the role of suppliers. At the
same time there was an increase in domestic production
in different orders, wage relations expanded, the market
grew and diversified economy. The growing sectors were
industry, construction, industrial fishing, agricultural
production, trade, banking, transportation and
 During that time, Galo Plaza Lasso son of Leonidas Plaza was
elected as president.
 The coast started producing banana as the new exportation
product, also the development of the country was analyzed by the
CEPAL (Comisión Económica para América Latina) on 1952.
 The estate developed an internal market, so they built a lot of roads
especially from Quito to Guayaquil; with these the bicentralist state
gained more power, preventing the equal development of the
 On 1952, Velasco Ibarra assumed the presidency, consolidating the
conservative party.
 The traditional political parties (conservatives, liberals and
socialists) had a regular working period of time, but they had to
get used to new forces that were raising.
 During 1948 and 1960, Ecuador had a little political-economical
stability but it ended with the banana crisis.
 During this period of time, Ecuador experienced many
great cultural experiences.
 The controversy caused by the transformation to a Secular
State not only influenced politics, but also culture. This is
why al the middle of the twentieth century many
prominent Ecuadorian thinkers got involved, becoming
an important part of the politic part.
 Between the 1940s and 1970s, a so called “artistic boom”
occured, that found its most important figures in Mideros,
Kingman and Guayasamín.
 All this cultural development was a cause of the creation
of “La Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana”, founded by
Benjamín Carrión.
(Quito, 1906-1987.)
Galo Plaza
 Born in New York, United States, where his
father, Leonidas Plaza Gutiérrez had been exiled.
 President from: September 1, 1948 until August
31, 1952
 His public life began in Ecuador in 1937, being
the first councilor of the Municipality of Quito,
and later its President. In 1939, President
Mosquera Narvaez appointed him Minister of
Defense and Sports.
Galo Plaza
 Galo Plaza Lasso took office on September 1,
1948, began planning a campaign, which
recently applied earlier, eagerly surrendered to
administrative tasks.
 All religious ideology was respected by the
government. Life tax and state budgets found a
remarkable haven during placismo. The
country's public servants were paid their salaries
on time. The export of cocoa was the main
source of wealth of Ecuador, as well as bananas.
(Quito, 1944-1968)
Velasco Ibarra
 In May 1944, following the "Glorious Revolution of May 28“, he
was named Supreme Commander of the Republic and then
Constitutional President by the Constituent Assembly. In 1947
he was overthrown by the military.
 He begins his third term on September 1, 1952, this period ends
on August 31, 1956. In 1960 he was elected President for the
fourth time and is overthrown on November 7, 1961.
 In 1960 declaring the nullity of the Rio Protocol, which would
make Ecuador and Peru face repeatedly in the conflicts of
Paquisha in 1981 and the Cenepa War in 1995, this one the most
 Finally, in 1968 he earned for the fifth time the presidency of the
Republic. That government abruptly ends on February 15, 1972,
in which once again is overthrown, and then the power was
taken by General Guillermo Rodriguez Lara. Velasco Ibarra was
president nearly thirteen years.
(Quito, 1912-1976)
Camilo Ponce Enríquez
 Ecuadorian politician, lawyer and leader of the
conservative party.
 He was president from: 1956 to 1960, the first
conservative ruling the country after 64 years of
liberal regimes.
 He foundated the newspapers: ‘Democracia’ and ‘El
 He organized the ‘Movimiento Social Cristiano’ that
became a few years later to ‘Partido Social Cristiano’.
Camilo Ponce Enríquez
 He excelled as well by making numerous public works
like: built the Palace of Congress, the Foreign Ministry,
the Security Fund, the Hotel Quito, the terminals of the
airports in Quito and Guayaquil and modern marine
terminal in this city. Also he built schools throughout the
Republic, lifting about 500 new schools across the
 He was a respected thinker but he left the Republic with a
huge economic crisis.
 Also, he wrote some books: ‘Estudio sobre las ideas de
Simón Bolívar’ and ‘Génesis y ocaso de un regimen’
Something nice to read
 Camilo Ponce Enríquez, ecuadorian president 1956-60, was a
rather conservative Christian Democrat who didn't say – and
wouldn't have said – "give me a balcony and I will become
president". The balcony quote – a staple of Latin American
political folklore – is attributed to the more colourful and
consequential José María Velasco Ibarra, five times president
between 1934 and 1972, who, when told his campaign was out
of cash, replied, no matter, "give me a balcony in each pueblo
[community] and I will be president" (there are different
versions). Velasco is rightly seen as the classic embodiment of
Ecuadorean populism, a vigorous tradition that includes more
recent presidents such as Abdalá Bucaram, 1996-97 (who
reportedly declared: "I am the last spasm of Ecuadorean
populism"), and Rafael Correa, president since 2007 (who
proved him wrong).