José Aguilar Javier Cevallos Ricardo Mosquera Diana Mantilla José Luis Pacheco Ramiro Figueroa Banana’s Boom In 1950, Ecuador got back into the international market by the production of banana, starting this way a new period of prosperity. The initial process of banana expansion lasted until the end of 1950 and was based on small and medium-sized plantations, due to a policy that encouraged this type of production by the government and prevented the concentration of land and capital in a few hands, as happened with the cocoa boom. This process triggered the formation of an agrarian bourgeoisie that strengthened the middle class, which, according to the conception of the government, was the bearer of democratic values. Banana’s Boom During the 1960s, Central American plantations began to recover, which led to a decline in demand for Ecuadorian fruit. The crisis of overproduction and the presence of pests hit hard the small and medium producers, who did not have the capital to cope with periods of crisis or new investments. The bankruptcy of small farmers was taken advantage by the large landowners, who started the stage of the large banana plantations in the Ecuadorian coast. Often these production combined with export activity, imposing prices to small producers that still survived in the agro Coast. Banana’s Boom Economically, the effects of the banana boom in the country were important. It deepened the capitalist development model in relation to the world market. Ecuador was inserted into a new international order, in which clearly it assumed the role of suppliers. At the same time there was an increase in domestic production in different orders, wage relations expanded, the market grew and diversified economy. The growing sectors were industry, construction, industrial fishing, agricultural production, trade, banking, transportation and communications. Politics (1948-1960) During that time, Galo Plaza Lasso son of Leonidas Plaza was elected as president. The coast started producing banana as the new exportation product, also the development of the country was analyzed by the CEPAL (Comisión Económica para América Latina) on 1952. The estate developed an internal market, so they built a lot of roads especially from Quito to Guayaquil; with these the bicentralist state gained more power, preventing the equal development of the country. On 1952, Velasco Ibarra assumed the presidency, consolidating the conservative party. The traditional political parties (conservatives, liberals and socialists) had a regular working period of time, but they had to get used to new forces that were raising. During 1948 and 1960, Ecuador had a little political-economical stability but it ended with the banana crisis. CULTURE During this period of time, Ecuador experienced many great cultural experiences. The controversy caused by the transformation to a Secular State not only influenced politics, but also culture. This is why al the middle of the twentieth century many prominent Ecuadorian thinkers got involved, becoming an important part of the politic part. Between the 1940s and 1970s, a so called “artistic boom” occured, that found its most important figures in Mideros, Kingman and Guayasamín. All this cultural development was a cause of the creation of “La Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana”, founded by Benjamín Carrión. (Quito, 1906-1987.) Galo Plaza Born in New York, United States, where his father, Leonidas Plaza Gutiérrez had been exiled. President from: September 1, 1948 until August 31, 1952 His public life began in Ecuador in 1937, being the first councilor of the Municipality of Quito, and later its President. In 1939, President Mosquera Narvaez appointed him Minister of Defense and Sports. Galo Plaza Galo Plaza Lasso took office on September 1, 1948, began planning a campaign, which recently applied earlier, eagerly surrendered to administrative tasks. All religious ideology was respected by the government. Life tax and state budgets found a remarkable haven during placismo. The country's public servants were paid their salaries on time. The export of cocoa was the main source of wealth of Ecuador, as well as bananas. (Quito, 1944-1968) Velasco Ibarra In May 1944, following the "Glorious Revolution of May 28“, he was named Supreme Commander of the Republic and then Constitutional President by the Constituent Assembly. In 1947 he was overthrown by the military. He begins his third term on September 1, 1952, this period ends on August 31, 1956. In 1960 he was elected President for the fourth time and is overthrown on November 7, 1961. In 1960 declaring the nullity of the Rio Protocol, which would make Ecuador and Peru face repeatedly in the conflicts of Paquisha in 1981 and the Cenepa War in 1995, this one the most representative. Finally, in 1968 he earned for the fifth time the presidency of the Republic. That government abruptly ends on February 15, 1972, in which once again is overthrown, and then the power was taken by General Guillermo Rodriguez Lara. Velasco Ibarra was president nearly thirteen years. (Quito, 1912-1976) Camilo Ponce Enríquez Ecuadorian politician, lawyer and leader of the conservative party. He was president from: 1956 to 1960, the first conservative ruling the country after 64 years of liberal regimes. He foundated the newspapers: ‘Democracia’ and ‘El Heraldo’. He organized the ‘Movimiento Social Cristiano’ that became a few years later to ‘Partido Social Cristiano’. Camilo Ponce Enríquez He excelled as well by making numerous public works like: built the Palace of Congress, the Foreign Ministry, the Security Fund, the Hotel Quito, the terminals of the airports in Quito and Guayaquil and modern marine terminal in this city. Also he built schools throughout the Republic, lifting about 500 new schools across the country. He was a respected thinker but he left the Republic with a huge economic crisis. Also, he wrote some books: ‘Estudio sobre las ideas de Simón Bolívar’ and ‘Génesis y ocaso de un regimen’ Something nice to read Camilo Ponce Enríquez, ecuadorian president 1956-60, was a rather conservative Christian Democrat who didn't say – and wouldn't have said – "give me a balcony and I will become president". The balcony quote – a staple of Latin American political folklore – is attributed to the more colourful and consequential José María Velasco Ibarra, five times president between 1934 and 1972, who, when told his campaign was out of cash, replied, no matter, "give me a balcony in each pueblo [community] and I will be president" (there are different versions). Velasco is rightly seen as the classic embodiment of Ecuadorean populism, a vigorous tradition that includes more recent presidents such as Abdalá Bucaram, 1996-97 (who reportedly declared: "I am the last spasm of Ecuadorean populism"), and Rafael Correa, president since 2007 (who proved him wrong).