One of the best texts for identifying rhetorical principles, strategies, and terms! “Public Statement by Eight Alabama clergymen” published in the Post Herald. The clergy make 4 specific accusations: •King is an outsider. •He should negotiate for change rather than demonstrate. •Their actions are “untimely” •There is NO justification for breaking the law. •Paragraph 1 is an introduction •Paragraphs 2-3 King explains why he is NOT an outsider. •Paragraphs 5-11 King explains organization has TRIED to negotiate, and will again. •Paragraphs 12-14 King refutes the accusation that his organization’s actions are “untimely”. •Paragraphs 15-22 King presents an argument justifying civil disobedience. King deftly presents his agreement with the clergymen, but redefines the terms for them. Respectful, courteous *Remember: Dr. King was not then the icon that he is now. Rhetorical Strategies In paragraph 25: Series of rhetorical questions crafted with a parallel structure and repetition. Alludes to Socrates and biblical events. Use of analogy Repeats the word precipitate to emphasize cause and effect. Final sentence is antithesis In paragraph 31 Use of irony with “extremist” Repeats the word extremist so many times it becomes as ordinary as he claims. The final sentence is an understatement, which emphasizes the irony. Repetition Paragraph 44: structure of a complex sentence beginning with an “if” clause and the phrase “I have no…” The conjunction “Before” in two sentences. Repetition is often used in sermons to encourage audience members to remember and, in some communities, to respond. SOAP: Let’s clarify! Subject: general topic/main idea. Occasion: Time, place, historical context, circumstances that give rise to the text Audience: Individual(s) or group(s) to who the text is supposed to appeal Purpose: Writer’s or speaker’s intended reason for writing or delivering the text, what the speaker hopes to achieve Now let’s make it SOAPS Speaker: Identity of the voice of the text, including relevant characteristics such as age, social class, education, reputation Or SOAPSTone: Include the attitude of the speaker toward his or her subject.