By: Pamela Estrada 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Brief description of the country Historical review The actors Drug trafficking and political situation Peace talks Plan Colombia Conclusion • Government type: Republic • Administrative divisions: 32 departments and 1 capital district • Population: 41.539.011 inhabitants • Language: Spanish • Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10% • • • • • • The Violence period (1948-1958) The National Front (1958-1978) The formation of the guerrilla groups (60’s) The “Cartels War” (80’s) The formation of paramilitary groups The current situation Guerrilla groups: (left wing) 1. The FARC-EP (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–People's Army 2. The ELN (National Liberation Army). 3. Others like M-19, EPL Paramilitary groups (right wing): 1. AUC (The United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia ). The AUC likes to portray itself as a group of people who were forced to take up arms to defend themselves against guerrilla kidnapping and extortion in the place of a powerless state. Others, including the US, see it as little more than a drugs cartel moving some 40% of the 800 tons of cocaine that leave Colombia every year. The Colombian Army (with the U.S aid) • First apparition of drugs in Colombia: at the end of the 1970s, focused on the growth and distribution of marijuana. • At the end of the 1970s: the first cocaine exports and the most important distribution networks were created as a consequence of reduction in neighbours countries. • Creation of the cartels: 1. Medellin’s Cartel: Pablo Escobar and Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha knew as “The Mexican”. - Creation of the first paramilitary groups as a means of defence from the guerrillas. 2. Cali’s Cartel: Rodriguez Orejuela brothers • Drug production and distribution by guerrillas groups = ‘Narcoguerrillas’. • The resources of drug dealing are fuelling the current conflict in Colombia. • Initiative of the former Colombian President, Andrés Pastrana (19941998) • Total budget of US$7.5 billion: 65% from Colombian resources and 35% from international community financiation. • EU didn’t support the plan, but the Americans immediately support it (US$ 3 billion since 2000, U$600m per year ). Colombia is top recipient of US foreign assistance outside Middle East • The Americans support the “drug war”, because up to 90% of all cocaine on American streets comes from Colombia. The US want to tackle the supply at source. • Aerial fumigation to eradicate coca: The most controversial element of the anti-narcotic strategy is aerial fumigation to eradicate coca. • With the ELN: in process, and in a good way. • With de AUC (paramilitaries): process that began in December 2002 when the AUC called a unilateral ceasefire • With the FARC: Difficult due to the differences between both parts. The present government of the president Uribe looks for approaches to facilitate a humanitarian interchange (kidnapped by prisoners). The current conflict which strikes Colombian population since more than 40 years is a manifestation of the disproportionate distribution of land and economic resources in the country. The gap between riche and poor people grow every day, feeding this way the social displeasure.