Diapositive 1

By: Pamela Estrada
Brief description of the country
Historical review
The actors
Drug trafficking and political situation
Peace talks
Plan Colombia
• Government type: Republic
• Administrative divisions:
32 departments and 1 capital district
• Population: 41.539.011 inhabitants
• Language: Spanish
• Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other
The Violence period (1948-1958)
The National Front (1958-1978)
The formation of the guerrilla groups (60’s)
The “Cartels War” (80’s)
The formation of paramilitary groups
The current situation
Guerrilla groups: (left wing)
The FARC-EP (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–People's Army
The ELN (National Liberation Army).
Others like M-19, EPL
Paramilitary groups (right wing):
AUC (The United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia ). The AUC likes to
portray itself as a group of people who were forced to take up
arms to defend themselves against guerrilla kidnapping and
extortion in the place of a powerless state. Others, including the US,
see it as little more than a drugs cartel moving some 40% of the 800 tons
of cocaine that leave Colombia every year.
The Colombian Army (with the U.S aid)
First apparition of drugs in Colombia: at the end of the 1970s, focused on
the growth and distribution of marijuana.
At the end of the 1970s: the first cocaine exports and the most important
distribution networks were created as a consequence of reduction in
neighbours countries.
Creation of the cartels:
1. Medellin’s Cartel: Pablo Escobar and Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha knew
as “The Mexican”.
- Creation of the first paramilitary groups as a means of defence from
the guerrillas.
2. Cali’s Cartel: Rodriguez Orejuela brothers
Drug production and distribution by guerrillas groups = ‘Narcoguerrillas’.
The resources of drug dealing are fuelling the current conflict in Colombia.
• Initiative of the former Colombian President, Andrés Pastrana (19941998)
• Total budget of US$7.5 billion: 65% from Colombian resources and 35%
from international community financiation.
• EU didn’t support the plan, but the Americans immediately support it
(US$ 3 billion since 2000, U$600m per year ). Colombia is top recipient of
US foreign assistance outside Middle East
• The Americans support the “drug war”, because up to 90% of all
cocaine on American streets comes from Colombia. The US want to
tackle the supply at source.
• Aerial fumigation to eradicate coca: The most controversial element of
the anti-narcotic strategy is aerial fumigation to eradicate coca.
• With the ELN: in process, and in a good way.
• With de AUC (paramilitaries): process that began in
December 2002 when the AUC called a unilateral
• With the FARC: Difficult due to the differences between
both parts. The present government of the president
Uribe looks for approaches to facilitate a humanitarian
interchange (kidnapped by prisoners).
The current conflict which strikes
Colombian population since more than 40
years is a manifestation of the
disproportionate distribution of land and
economic resources in the country. The
gap between riche and poor people grow
every day, feeding this way the social