Mainstream Victorian Women & their dissenters! OK, BACK TO MIDDLE CLASS (VICTORIAN) MORALITY MIDDLE CLASS OBSESSIONS Respectability Possessions Female Sexuality “Manners” …and Motherhood Virginal Purity or Loving Mother “Separate Spheres” Mainstream View The Princes Man for the field and woman for the hearth: Man for the sword and for the needle she: Man with the head and woman with the heart: Man to command and woman to obey; All else confusion. Alfred Lord Tennyson Mainstream View Ladies in general [are] very unsatisfactory mental food: they seem to have no particular thoughts or ideas, and though for a time it is flattering to one’s vanity to think one may teach them something, it palls after a while. Of course at a certain age, when you have a house and so on, you get a wife as part of its furniture, and find her a very comfortable institution; but I doubt greatly whether there were ever many men who had thought worth recounting, who told these thoughts to their wives at first, or who expected them to appreciate them. L.Creighton, letter to R.T. Raikas 1864 Cult of Domesticity Mainstream View A house should be made as cheerful and light as possible, that the husband may look forward with delight to his return at night, after a hard day’s work. It is the paradise of marriage that the man shall work for woman; that he alone shall support her, take pleasure in enduring fatigue for her sake, and spare her the hardship of labor, and rude contact with the world. Our Social Customs 1891 The Underbelly. The Backlash to Victorian Sensibilities. The Hipster Position on all this nonsense. … In Scary “Chiller” Font In a Liberal-Democracy, is it ever “acceptable” to engage in violence to achieve a political end? Does the “political end” sought influence your opinion? Does the target of the Violence influence your opinion? against the Government? against fellow citizens? against property? Emmeline Pankhurst 1858- 1928 WSPU Famous Suffragist BACK TO ENGLAND United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801) 1800s: Growth of the Franchise / Suffrage Gradual Extensions 1832: Middle Class 1867: Working Class 1884: Agrarian workers WOMEN??? Emmeline Pankhurst 1858- 1928 WSPU EARLY TACTICS? 1st Efforts: Create Media Attention. Protests. 1905 Protested House of Commons "We are here not because we are law-breakers; we are here in our effort to become law-makers” 'Will the Liberal Government give votes to women?' ( during speeches by liberal MPs ) Christabelle arrested / fined / refused to pay / prison Emmeline Pankhurst “You have to make more noise than anybody else, you have to make yourself more obtrusive than anybody else, you have to fill all the papers more than anybody else, in fact you have to be there all the time and see that they do not snow you under, if you are really going to get your reform realized.” OK, 2nd Try = larger protests 500,000 in Hyde Park 2 members went to 10 Downing Street threw rocks in windows (not uncommon in Brit history) A group (with Emmeline) march to Commons. Forced entrance. Fight with cops Emmeline arrested + 23 others (3 months in prison) OK, We’ll Starve ourselves to death in prison! 3rd Time’s a charm: Hunger Strikes in prison 1909 Government Response: Force feedings Government’s 1st Response = Forced Feedings Government’s 2nd Response: 4th Tactic: Blowin’ Stuff Up! “The Argument of the Broken Pane of Glass is the most valuable in modern politics.” There is something that governments care (far) more for than human life, and that is the security of property, and so it is through property that we shall strike the enemy . . . 1913: Blow stuff up (property, not people) Burned down 2 MP’s houses, and other property 1000 arrested The militancy of men, through all the centuries, has drenched the world with blood, and for these deeds of horror and destruction men have been rewarded with monuments, with great songs and epics. The militancy of women has harmed no human life save the lives of those who fought the battle of righteousness. Time alone will reveal what reward will be allotted to women. It always seems to me when the anti-suffrage members of the Government criticize militancy in women that it is very like beasts of prey reproaching the gentler animals who turn in desperate resistance when at the point of death . . . Millicent Fawcett UWSS Liberal & Pacifist Opposed WWI Fawcett or Pankhurst Representation of the People Act (1918) * Women 30+ got the vote. * * All men gained suffrage. – Property qualifications were completely eliminated! Reform Act of 1928 – Women over 21 years of age gained the right to vote at last! Emmeline Pankhurst * POST-SUFFRAGE WORK * 1917: Women’s Party * Emmeline +Christabel: - Equal pay for equal work. – Equal marriage & divorce laws. – Equality of rights & opportunities in public service. – A national system of maternity benefits. In a Liberal-Democracy, is it ever “acceptable” to engage in violence to achieve a political end? Does the “political end” that is sought influence your opinion? Does the target of the Violence influence your opinion? against the Government? against fellow citizens? against property?