Kuliah 2 Proses Komunikasi Oleh Coky Fauzi Alfi cokyfauzialfi.wordpress.com Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Topics • • • • Types and Forms Communication Definition of Terms Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Types and Forms Communication Communication Verbal Visual Written Language Nonverbal Oral Spoken Language Visual Pictures Symbols Body Languages Others Oral Wordless Sounds Definition of Terms Verbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving messages with the use of words. Word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. Nonverbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Oral communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be listened to or spoken. Verbal Communication Verbal Communication Theory of Language Theory of Language Charles Morris (an influential 20th-century semiotician), the study of language evolved into three primary branches: 1. Semantics 2. Syntactics 3. Pragmatics Semantics Semantics is the study of the relationship between words and their referents, or the things designated. “Words don’t mean; people mean.” The meaning of a word is always determined by a person. People are not free to use words however they wish. The society, culture, and tradition limit what meanings might be inferred from a term. Meanings are not fixed, however, and do migrate as groups, cultures, and traditions change in how they use various words. Syntactics Syntactics is the study of relationships among signs, which in language involves a focus on how speech sounds, words, and structures are organized into larger segments of meaning. In classical linguistics, syntax refers to grammar. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of signs as used in actual situations. Pragmatics looks at even larger levels of meaning—not just the meaning of words and sentences, but the intentions and goals that lie behind a message and the attributions given to others’ intentions. Nonverbal Communication The first scientific study of nonverbal communication was seen in Charles Darwin’s book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. He argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. People make judgments about the nature and behavior of persons based on their nonverbal and visual cues rather than on their verbal communication. We usually look first at their face to see if their expression reflects what they are saying. Then we listen to the tone of their voice to check if there are any indications of the emotions involved, and finally, we listen to the spoken words to get the actual meaning. Ray Birdwhistell: The most human communication occurs through gestures, postures, position, and distance. He described a 65 to 35% split between actions and words. Albert Mehrabian―There are three main elements of communication: 1. The verbal refers to the words that are spoken, the message. 2. The vocal refers to the intonation, projection, and resonance of the voice through which the message is conveyed. 3. The visual depicts the nonverbal behaviors while speaking. Mehrabian noted the impact of communication across the three forms as verbal, 7% (words); vocal, 38% (tone of voice, inflection); and visual, 55% (nonverbal physical behaviors). The visual is the most controllable and perhaps the most unconscious element of the message from sender to receiver. Modes of Nonverbal Communication • • • • • • • Proxemics Haptics Oculesics Chronemics Kinesics Physical Environment-Appearance Paralanguage Proxemics Edward T. Hall (1950 -1960) ―Proxemics: The studies of how human demonstrate territoriality (human behavior regarding personal space). Owen Hargie and David Dickson identified four such territories; Primary, Secondary, Public and Interaction territory. Primary Territory Primary territory refers to an area that is associated with someone who has exclusive use of it—for example, a house that others cannot enter without the owner’s permission. Secondary Territory Secondary territory, if using the previous example, means that there is no right to occupancy, but people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space. For example, someone may sit in the same seat on a train every day and feel aggrieved if someone else sits there. Public Territory Public territory refers to an area that is available to all, but only for a set period, such as a parking space or a seat in a library. Interaction Territory Interaction territory is the space created by others when they are interacting. For example, when a group is talking to each other on a footpath, others will walk around the group rather than disturb it. Edward T. Hall defines three basic types of space: 1. Fixed-feature space consists of unmovable things such as walls and rooms. 2. Semifixed-feature space includes moveable objects such as furniture 3. Informal space is the personal territory around the body that travels with a person and determines the interpersonal distance between people. Haptics Haptics is the study of touching behavior in nonverbal communication. Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping, a pat on the shoulder, and brushing an arm. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of the situation, the relationship between communicators, and the manner of touch. Oculesics The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is referred to as oculesics. Eye contact can indicate interest, attention, and involvement. Gaze comprises the actions of looking while talking, looking while listening, amount of gaze, and frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate. Chronemics Chronemics is the study of the concepts and processes of human temporality, or connections with time, as they are bound to human communication interactions. Our notions of time, how we use it, the timing of events, our emotional responses to time, and even the length of our pauses contribute to the communicative effect of time. William Gudykunst and Stella Ting-Toomey identified two dominant time patterns: 1. Monochronic time schedule (M-time) refers to cultures and contexts in which time is seen as being very important. 2. Polychronic time schedule (P-time) where personal involvement is more important than schedules. Kinesics Kinesics is the study of bodily activity in nonverbal communication. Kinesics is also popularly known as body language. Kinesic behaviors include mutual gaze, smiling, facial warmth or pleasantness, childlike behaviors, direct body orientation, and the like. Physical EnvironmentAppearance Environmental factors such as furniture, architectural style, interior decorating, lighting conditions, colors, temperature, noise, and music affect the behavior of communicators during interaction. The physical appearance of the human body elements such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin color, gender, odors, and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. Paralanguage Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Vocalics is concerned with the use of the voice in communication. Vocalics consists of several features such as resonance, articulation, lip control, and rhythm control, intensity, tempo, pitch, fluency and vocal patterns. © 2011 cokyfauzialfi.wordpress.com What’s Your Message?