* By: John Mathis * Content Area: Social Studies * Grade Level: 8th * Summary: The purpose of this instructional PowerPoint is to inform social studies students of Westward expansion in the United States * Learning Objective: Students analyze the social, political, and economic transformation of America as a result of westward expansion. * TN State standard(s): 8.92, 8.93, 8.95, 8.96, 8.97, 8.98 * ISTE standard(s): 2. Communication and collaboration, 3. Research and information fluency, 4. Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making , 6. Technology operations and concepts * After the civil war, the United States began expanding west. * * While moving west, lands previously owned by Native Americans were forcively taken the Native American people were relocated to other areas. * Relocating was not done easily and thousands of Native Americans lost their lives in battles or while moving. * * Notable battles between Indians and settlelers are: Little Bighorn and Wounded Knee * Prominent American Indian leaders were Chief Joseph, Geronimo, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse * Attempting to Americanize the Indians, the Dawes Act was passed in 1887. * Sitting Bull, Geronimo, Crazy Horse and Chief Joseph were each prominent figures in Native American resistance against American government. * Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull were the final two Sioux leaders to surrender; both suffered controversial deaths on reservations. * Chief Joseph and Geronimo were each leaders of their armies. * * Expansion to the west created new and revolutionary inventions which greatly assisted western life. * Inventions include: windmill, barbwire, six- shooter pistol, sod housing, and the steel plow among others. * * Barb wire greatly assisted cowboys in retaining their livestock (and keeping unwanted predators out) * In the dry west, steel plows and windmills were life-sustaining inventions which settlers utilized to survive. *Western Inventions * The country needed a transportation system that was faster than any previous to connect both coasts. * Built between 1863-1869, the railroad spans 1,907 miles. * Not only passengers, but goods and resources were transported by the new railroad. *Transcontinental Railroad * Though popularized, the American Cowboy endured a tough life being underpaid, underthanked but highly valuable laborer. * Cowboy skills include herding, horseback riding, and maintaining expansive ranches. * Clothes worn by cowboys are chaps, boots, hat, spurs, bandana and always a gun(s) * * Cow Towns were towns whose almost entire economy was derived from trading free-range cattle. * These towns were usually laid at the junction of railroad and livestock trail. * Cow towns were in prime location to ship cattle to meatpackers in urban settings. * For visual, please click arrow to see Cow trails. * * Westward expansion (1865-1890) in the United States brought about much change with helped shaped the modern country. * * Tell a partner something you learned about Western Expansion. * Feel free to share your new knowledge with the classroom.