# Learning Outcome #3: Study Information OUTCOME #3: Investigate

```Learning Outcome #3: Study Information
OUTCOME #3: Investigate and compare the properties of gases and liquids; and
relate variation in their viscosity, density, buoyancy and compressibility to the particle model of
matter.
a• investigate and compare fluids, based on their viscosity and flow rate, and describe the
effects of temperature change on liquid flow
b• observe the mass and volume of a liquid, and calculate its density using the formula d = m/v
c• compare densities of materials; and explain differences in the density of solids, liquids and
gases, using the particle model of matter
d• describe methods of altering the density of a fluid, and identify and interpret related practical
applications
e• describe pressure as a force per unit area by using the formula p = F/A, and describe
applications of pressure in fluids and everyday situations
f• investigate and compare the compressibility of liquids and gases
1. Fluids are ______________________________________________________________________.
2. Four properties of fluids are….and properties allow us to identify an unknown substance.
a. Viscosity means _______________________________________________________.
-Viscosity of a fluid is measured by _____________________. The formula
is__________________________ .
-Explain the reason for a fluids viscosity using the particle model.
-Explain how temperature affect flow rate (viscosity) of a fluid.
b. Density is _____________________________________________________________.
-The formula for Density is ___________________________.
-units for solids are ________ units for fluids are ________.
-be able to calculate density (lab) of a liquid and a solid
-what are two ways to change the density of a solution?
-how is density and concentration similar?
c) Buoyancy is ________________________________________________________________.
-how can you use density of a substance to identify its buoyancy?
-what is buoyant force?
d) Pressure is __________________________________________________________________.
-formula is __________________________________.
-how is pressure affected by different depths (altitude)?
-Hydraulics use ___________________ under pressure (ex: _________________) and
pneumatics use _____________________ under pressure (ex: ________________________)
-how do hydraulics work? Formula________________________________________
USE THE FOLLOWING CHART TO HELP ANSWER QUESTIONS
Fluid
Hydrogen
Helium
Air
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Ethyl alcohol
Machine oil
Water
Seawater
Glycerol
Mercury
Density (g/mL)
0.00009
0.0002
0.0013
0.0014
0.002
0.79
0.90
1.00
1.03
1.26
13.55
Solid
Styrofoam
Cork
Oak
Sugar
Salt
Aluminum
Iron
Nickel
Copper
gold
Density (g/cm3 )
0.005
0.24
0.70
1.59
2.16
2.70
7.87
8.90
8.92
11.34
19.32
1. Using the chart above which substance is denser, oxygen or carbon dioxide?
a. Oxygen
b. Carbon dioxide
2. Using the
a.
b.
c.
c.
chart above What solid(s), if any, would float on air?
None
Styrofoam, cork and oak
Gold, lead, copper, nickel, iron and aluminum
Styrofoam
3. Four different candy solutions have a hydrometer placed in them. Arrange the four solutions
in order from LOWEST density to HIGHEST density.
a. 4, 2, 1, 3
b. 1, 2, 3, 4
c. 3, 1, 2, 4
1
2
3
4
4. When Kayla walked across the lake one winter, the ice began to crack. She
immediately lay flat on the ice and then slowly crawled out of danger. Which statement
BEST explains why Kayla would lay flat on the ice?
a. She wanted to minimize her fall through the ice.
b. She wanted to distribute her mass (force) closer to the ice to increase the pressure.
c. She wanted to distribute her mass (force) over an increased area to reduce the
pressure.
d. She
wanted to
minimize her
force, thus
increasing
pressure
A student designed an experiment to determine the time required for identical sugar cubes to
dissolve in equal amounts of water at different temperatures. The experiment design is
shown above.
5.
Two variables that the student kept constant were the
a. Mass of the sugar cubes, and the amount of water used
b. Size of the beakers and the time required to dissolve the sugar cubes
c. Mass of the sugar cubes and the time required to dissolve the sugar cubes.
6.
The manipulated variable in the experiment above would be
a. the sugar cube
b. the amount of water used
c. the temperature of the water
d. the size of the beakers
7. A mechanic measured the flow rate of two different motor oils. He found that the flow rate for
type A oil was 1.5L/min and type B oil was 1.75L/min. Which oil has the highest viscosity?
8. Using the chart at the start of this test; if you had 1cm3 of gold what would the mass be?
a. 38.64g
b. 9.66g
c. 19.32g
d. unable to calculate
9. The buoyant force on the balloon is less than the
gravitational force when the
balloon is
a. rising from the ground
b. descending to the ground (landing)
c. floating in the air at 6:30p.m.
10. Calculate the pressure within the following hydraulic lift. Show formula, substitution in and
185N
5 m2
142 m2
11. From the hydraulic system above, calculate how much force the large piston would exert on the
object they want to lift. Show formula, substitution in and answer with units.
12. A mechanic noticed that if a truck engine runs a few minutes before he changed the oil (took
out the old and put in new) the oil drained quicker from the truck and it took less time. Using
the particle theory explain why letting the engine run for a few minutes allow the oil to drain
quicker.
13. a) Calculate the density of fluid A and
fluid B shown in the graph below. Which fluid has
the highest density? Show formula, substitution in
b) Using the chart at the beginning of the test, name fluid A? ________________
14. a) You are planning a water holiday. You want to float on the water with less effort, meaning
you have high buoyancy. Would book your holiday at a resort that is beside a fresh water
lake or an ocean (salt water)?
b) Explain why your choice of resort (fresh or salt water) would allow you to float on the
water with less effort, meaning you have a high buoyancy. (Hint: Use the particle theory to
explain)
15. a) You just had your lessons in scuba diving. The instructor had you to dive 30m down into the
lake. When you got to the bottom your ears were hurting some. The next day you climbed
30m up the mountain behind your house and your ears hurt again!
Explain why your ears hurt in both activities compared to sitting in your kitchen at home.
b. Would your ears hurt more when you dove into the water or climbed the mountain?
Explain why using the particle theory.
16. Based on the diagram below, rank the three objects from least
dense to most dense.
17. Fill in the blank: An object is most likely to sink in water if _________________.
A. it has a large mass
B. it has a large volume
C. it has a high density
18.
D. it has a low density
A ball has a mass of 33.6 grams and a volume of 14.0 cubic centimeters (cc). What is its
density?
A. 0.42 g/cm3
B. 2.4 g/ cm3
C. 19.6 g/ cm3
D. 470.4 g/ cm3
19. Three balls were measured and placed in a liquid. Based on the following data, what could
be the density of the liquid?
o
o
A. 1.1 g/mL
B. 1.0 g/mL
C. 0.9 g/mL
D. 0.8 g/mL
20. &quot;That's just the tip of the iceberg&quot; is a popular expression you may have heard. It means that
what you can see is only a small part of the overall problem. As the diagram shows, most of
an iceberg is actually out of sight, below the water level. Based on this diagram, what is the
most likely density of the iceberg? (Assume a density of 1.03 g/mL for seawater.)
A. 0.88 g/cc
B. 1.23 g/cc
C. 0.23 g/cc
D. 4.14 g/cc
1. You begin pouring sodium chloride into a glass of water. For a long time, the sodium chloride
just dissolves in the water, but suddenly it begins to pile up at the bottom of the glass. Which
statement is true?
o
A. The sodium chloride has increased the temperature of the water.
o
B. The sodium chloride has decreased the temperature of the water.
o
C. The water is unsaturated.
o
o
D. The water is saturated.
2. Imagine you have two beakers. Both beakers are filled with the same amount of water. The
water in both beakers is the same temperature as well. You add 50 g of Substance A to the
first beaker, and 50 g of Substance B to the second beaker. After stirring both beakers, there
is a small pile of Substance A at the bottom of the first beaker. None of Substance B is visible
in the second beaker. Which of the following statements is true?
o
A. Substance A is less soluble in water than Substance B.
o
B. Substance A is more soluble in water than Substance B.
o
C. Substance A is not soluble in water.
o
o
D. Substance B is not soluble in water.
3. Which one of the following graphs best describes the solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO3)in
water at different temperatures?
o
A. Graph A
o
B. Graph B
o
C. Graph C
o
D. Graph D
o
o
o
4. Comparing potassium nitrate (KNO3) and sodium chloride (NaCl), which chemical's solubility
(in water) is most affected by change in temperature?
o
A. potassium nitrate
o
B. sodium chloride
o
C. same variation
o
D. impossible to tell
5. Which of the charts below is most likely to represent a saturated solution?
o
A. Chart A
o
B. Chart B
o
C. Chart C
o
D. Chart D
```