Info for PSYC231 Lab report Please note that to do this lab report you need (a) TO THINK. One goal of the lab report is to help foster your thinking skills. (b) to WORK ON YOUR OWN (this is NOT a group project). Collaborative efforts will be regarded as academic fraud (cheating). Info for PSYC231 Lab report Steps (1 - 7) to the lab report: 1) Obtain the four critical readings (listed below) from Closed Reserve or office EA611. Bartlett, J. C., Hurry, S., & Thorley, W. (1984). Typicality and familiarity of faces. Memory & Cognition, 12, 219-228. Jones, T. C., & Atchley, P. (2002). Conjunction error rates on a continuous recognition memory test: Little evidence for recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 374-379. Rakover, S. S. (2002). Featural vs. configurational information in faces: A conceptual and empirical analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 93, 1-30. Reinitz, M. T., Morrisey, J., & Demb, J. (1994). Role of attention in face encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 161168. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 2) Read the papers A. Key aspects of the papers a) The Bartlett et al. (1984) paper may be the most difficult one to read. Just do your best. The bottom line: They suggest that familiarity is a process that underlies face processing/memory. b) Jones and Atchley (2002) consider familiarity and recollection as memory processes underlying word performance. They used a conjunction paradigm in a continuous recognition task to evaluate the role of familiarity and recollection in recognising compound words. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 2) Read the papers A. Key aspects of the papers (continued) c) Rakover (2002) reviews a number of manipulations and theories relevant to face processing and memory. d) Reinitz, Morrisey, and Demb (1994) used faces drawings in a standard study-test conjunction paradigm. Their theory appeals to the roles of features and configurations in recognition memory. Note that this approach is an alternative to theories that use familiarity, though the two approaches are not mutually exclusive. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 3) Think about the papers that you have read and consider how they relate to the experiment done for the lab report. A. Think some more. (We will not answer questions about the content of the readings until you have read the papers and done some thinking). B. In the lab report introduction, you will describe previous work and ideas on face memory, as well as on memory in general. You will then need to indicate the purpose of the current experiment (i.e., the one done for the lab report). Info for PSYC231 Lab report 4) Analyse the data for the lab report. A. The data are available via Blackboard, Pavlov, and the computers in EA402. Calculate the means and standard deviations (or standard error) for the different conditions (for each lag). B. Make a table or figure using the means. (You can include this table or figure in the lab report.) Figures can be done by hand as long as they are done neatly. Look at the data and think about them. Describe the data to yourself. (You should describe the data in the lab report.) Think about how they related to theory. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 4) Analyse the data for the lab report. (continued) C. YOU need to decide what statistical comparisons should be made. (We will not tell you which comparisons you should make.) You can calculate 10 within-subject (i.e., dependent) t-tests either by hand or with SPSS (available in EA402) or with another software package, if you like. If you know how to conduct the appropriate 2 x 4 Repeated Measures ANOVA, with post-hoc tests (if necessary), then you can do that analysis instead of the multiple t-tests. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 4) Analyse the data for the lab report. (continued) D. You can do the statistics by hand and submit the written out steps of the statistics for extra credit. Each correct t-test written out by hand will earn .5% of an extra mark (total possible extra = 5%). Just attach the written out work to the end of the lab report. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 5) Write the lab report. A. See the useful writing tips document to help you. B. See the Lab Manual for the components of the lab report and formatting. a) Method section: Information for the methods appears in the slides below. C. Use the lab on semantic priming as a template for many aspects of the lab report. 6) Proofread the lab report and fix errors. Info for PSYC231 Lab report 7) Submit the lab report by 26 September 2005, 5 p.m. Location: Assignment box labelled PSYC231 on the 4th floor of Easterfield. Late assignments will incur a reduction in marks as described in the PSYC231 Course Outline (25% off for the first day late, with an additional 12.5% off for each day late, thereafter). In the slides to follow you will see information presented in lecture and some new information on the methods. New information appears in the aqua colour. Recognition memory Conjunction paradigm (Underwood & Zimmerman, 1973; Reinitz, Lammers, & Cochran, 1992) Components of studied items rearranged to form test lures Study (parents): blackmail AND jailbird Test (conjunction): blackbird Conjunction paradigm Typical pattern of “old” responses: old > conjunction > new hit false alarms (FA) Conjunction effect Conjunction – new (baseline) Dual-process theory for conjunction errors Jones & Atchley (2002), Jones & Jacoby (2001) Familiarity – fast, relatively automatic Recollection – relatively slow, consciously controlled Old (hit) familiarity or recollection Conjunction (false alarm) familiarity in the absence of recollection Conjunction lures Familiarity: can induce an error Recollection: can prevent an error Recollection-based rejection e.g., Remember: black in blackmail, not blackbird bird in jailbird, not blackbird Jones & Atchley (2002) Continuous recognition; lag manipulation Lag # of words intervening 2nd parent and conjunction Reasoning shorter lags, more recollection-based rejection Jones & Atchley (2002) Continuous recognition; lag manipulation Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 . . . . . . . blackmail showboat showboat jailbird blackbird crewcut crossbow shortcake crossbow shortcut parent 1st presentation (new) Old parent Conjunction parent 1st presentation (new) parent Old Conjunction Jones & Atchley (2002) Continuous recognition; lag manipulation Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 . . . . . . . blackmail showboat showboat jailbird blackbird crewcut crossbow shortcake crossbow shortcut parent 1st presentation (new) Old parent Conjunction parent 1st presentation (new) parent Old Conjunction Jones & Atchley (2002) 1.0 0.9 P ("old") 0.8 0.7 0.6 Conjunction Errors 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 1 5 20 Lag Jones & Atchley (2002) 1.0 0.9 P ("old") 0.8 Conjunction Correct Rejections 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Conjunction Errors 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 1 5 20 Lag Jones & Atchley (in press) 1.0 0.9 Old (Hit) P ("old") 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Conjunction (FA) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 1 5 10 Lag 20 Differences for other materials? Faces The Hawkeye (1963) The Hawkeye (1963) The following methodological info needs to be worked into complete sentences. (Some bits may be in sentences already; other bits you will need to write into complete sentences). Materials & Equipment. Number of stimuli = 180: 80 original photographs, 80 constructed photos, which were made by combining features of two other faces, and 20 filler photographs. The stimuli were electronic grey-scale bitmap files. The following methodological info needs to be worked into complete sentences. (Some bits may be in sentences already; other bits you will need to write into complete sentences). Source of originals: The Hawkeye (1963). The original and constructed faces were used by Jones, Bartlett, and Wade (2005). Size: 10.8 cm in height, 7.9 cm in width; Subject of photographs: (all) Caucasion male--clean shaven, and no spectacles; Photo: torso (cutting across or just below the shoulders) and head; Pose: Either directly facing the camera or with the head slightly angled to the left or to the right (For many photographs, both ears of a subject were visible); Attire: dark sport coats, light-coloured shirt, and neckties. Computer programmes were composed with E-prime software (Schneider, Eschman, & Zuccolotto, 2002a, 2002b). Fifteen PCcomputers were used. Participants were run in groups of up to 15. The following methodological info needs to be worked into complete sentences. (Some bits may be in sentences already; other bits you will need to write into complete sentences). Adobe Photoshop® was used for all editing of the photographs and to create conjunction stimuli. For the construction of conjunction faces, photographs of individuals with similar poses and, where possible, somewhat similar appearance, were put into pairs. These pairs were used to construct faces by combining the the inner features (eyes, eyebrows, nose, mouth) and outer features (forehead, hair, ears, cheeks, jaw, and chin) from a pair of faces. Design 2 (Condition: Old, Conjunction) x 4 (Lag: 0, 1, 5, 20) fully within-participants design. Procedure Continuous recognition; lag manipulation Face photographs Lag # of trials intervening 1st and 2nd presentation (old) # of trials intervening 2nd parent and conjunction lags: 0, 1, 5, 20 Jones & Bartlett # of trials: 200--100 new, 60 old (40 critical, 20 fillers), 40 conjunctions # of critical old faces = 40, 10 per lag # of conjunction faces = 40, 10 per lag Items counterbalanced such that each critical test face appeared in each condition (old or conjunction x lag) equally often across participants. Forty parent faces (all constructions) for the later conjunction lures were seen by any one participant. The 80 constructed parent faces were presented equally often across participants. Jones & Bartlett Some subjects not told about conjunctions Some subjects informed of the conjunctions For the lab report, only the informed subjects will be considered (though there appear to be only slight differences between the two groups) Events in a trial 1 Face appears: duration--1500 ms 2 Screen goes blank: duration—150 ms 3 Confidence scale appears: present up to 2500 ms 1=very sure new, 2=somewhat sure new, 3=unsure new 4=unsure old, 5=somewhat sure old, 6=very sure old If response made before 2500-ms time limit, confidence scale disappears and computer waits for the remainder of the time. If a response was not entered in time, the programme continued to the next trial. 4 Intertrial interval (blank screen): 250 ms DATA The data for 16 subjects are in an SPSS file and an Excel file on the computers in EA402, Blackboard, and PAVLOV. For the sake of simplicity, only the proportions of “very sure old” responses (out of the total within a condition) will be considered. Again, You will need to (a) Read the assigned papers (b) Think about the relationship of the previous work to the new work (c) Conduct statistical comparisons for what you think are the best comparisons (either multiple t-tests or a Repeated Measures ANOVA or MANOVA with follow-up comparisons, if necesseary) (d) Write up the work Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results (including a table or a figure) and Discussion, References (e) Submit the lab report References for The Hawkeye, Jones et al. (2005), and the software programme appear below. These references should appear in your Reference section. Jones, T. C., Bartlett, J.C., & Wade, K. A. (2005). Nonverbal conjunction errors in recognition memory: Support for familiarity but not for feature bundling. Manuscript submitted for publication. Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002a). E-Prime User’s Guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools, Inc. Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002b). E-Prime Reference Guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools, Inc. The Hawkeye (1963). Iowa City, IA: State University of Iowa. Have fun THINKING & FIGURING THINGS OUT (FOR YOURSELF)!