Electrical Systems

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Technology in Architecture
Lecture 12
Electrical Equipment
Electrical Power Management
Fire Protection Systems
Electrical Equipment
Power Supply
M: F. 27.1 p. 1246
Electrical
Equipment
Switchgear
M: F.27.2 p.1247
Electrical Equipment
Switchgear Space Requirements
M: F.26.28 p.1209
M: F.27.12 p.1257
Electrical
Equipment
Distribution Networks
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Cable/Conduit
Busduct
Busway
Underfloor systems
Raised floor systems
M: F.27.9 p.1255
M: F.27.32 p.1271
Electrical Equipment
Safety Considerations
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National Electrical Code
Fuses and Circuit Breakers
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI, GFI)
Battery Backup
Emergency Generator
Armored Cable vs Metal Clad
Electrical Equipment
Electrical Closets
M: F.28.14 p.1300
Electrical
Equipment
Electrical Plans


Lighting
Power
M: F.28.21 p.1315
M: F.28.22 p.1316
Fire Protection Systems
Sources of Ignition
Chemicals: spontaneous combustion
Electrical: resistance, overloaded wiring,
lightning
Mechanical: sparks and friction
Products of Combustion
Fire/Heat
Smoke
Gases  toxic, displace oxygen
carbon monoxide
cyanide  foam rubber
hydrogen chloride  PVC
hydrogen sulfide
sulfur dioxide
ammonia
Fire & Life Safety Objectives
Protection of Life
Protection of Property
Continuity of Operation
Codes specify minimum acceptable
level of performance
Protection of Life
Evacuation: clear pathways, smoke free,
minimum 32” entrance width, 2 hour
walls/doors
Physical limits
2-way travel
on stairs
Do not include
elevators
M: p.1092,
Property Protection
Access for fire/life safety vehicles
Increased reliability of internal systems
Estimated time of arrival of fire fighters
Adequate water volume and pressure
Exposure protection from surrounding context
Compartmentation
Automatic detection/
suppression systems
Structural Protection
M: p.1098, F.24.7
Continuity of Operations
Fire detection/suppression systems in critical
areas
Smoke purging systems
Waterproof/water containment
M: p. 1102, F.24.11
Building System Requirements
Enhance Fire/Life Safety
High thermal mass
Adequate water pressure
Overhangs on windows
Reduce Fire/Life Safety
Open plan
Forced air systems
Electric lighting only
Sunscreens
Non-operable windows
Insulation
Acoustical materials
Smoke Management Strategies
Confinement
Fire walls
Smoke barriers
Dilution
Pressurized stairwells
Exhaust
Large atria
HVAC
Pressurize building
Automated Ventilating Hatches
Water Management Strategies
Water
+
cools
smothers fire
removes heat/oxygen
-
damages contents
conducts electricity
dilutes oil
changes to steam
Water Management Strategies
Water Sources
Standpipes  siamese connection to outside
Hose Cabinets  siamese connection or
house tank
Sprinkler Systems  siamese connection or
house tank
Water Management
Strategies
Sprinkler Head Types
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Semi-Recessed
Recessed
Pendant
Upright
Sidewall
Water Management
Strategies
Hazard levels
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Light
Ordinary
Extra-hazard
M: p. 1112, T.24.8
Water Management Strategies
Sprinkler spacing
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orientation
sprinkler type
hazard level
M: p. 1084, T.24.9
Water Management Strategies
Sprinkler System Types
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Wet-pipe
Dry-pipe
Preaction
Deluge
Wet-pipe Systems
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Water in pipe
Sprinkler activated
Sprinklers closed
Used in areas with
temperature> 40ºF
M: p. 1118, F.24.18
Dry-pipe Systems
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Compressed air or
nitrogen in pipe
Sprinkler activated
Sprinkler closed
Used in unheated
areas
Valve in heated
enclosure
M: p. 1123, F.24.23
Preaction System
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Air in pipe
Minimal air pressure
Separate detectors
Sprinklers closed
Used in water-damage
sensitive areas
Delay in filling allows
time to find/fight fire
M: p. 1124, F.24.24
Deluge System
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Air in pipe
Separate detectors
Sprinklers open
Used where
extremely rapid fire
spread expected
M: p. 1125, F.24.25
Non-Water Suppression
Systems
Halogenated Gases  now illegal
Foams
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Clean Agent Gases
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Design
Considerations
Head location/type
Uniform coverage
Symmetry
Connectivity
M: p. 1119, F.24.19
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