CFL - IEA 4E - Standby Power Annex

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Characteristics & Issues for
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
(AS/NZS EL041 Meeting)
Neville R. Watson,
University of Canterbury
12 March 2008
Outline
1. Background
2. Types of CFLs
3. Direct Harmonic Penetration Study
4. Detailed Transient Simulations
5. Other Studies
6. Standards
7. Conclusions
Missing Components
Fuse on Input
Filter Capacitors missing
Same brand September 2007
Does have PTC
No Fuse
No place for Filter Capacitors
PTC missing
3rd Pro. Project 2008
Switching
Box
PC with Data Acquisition Card
Power-factor
Active power
Power-Factor 
Total Apparent Power
1 T
v.idt

0
T


VRMS I RMS
N
V I
n 1
n n
cos(n )
VRMS I RMS
V1 I1 cos(1 )
I1


 cos(1 )
V1 I RMS
I RMS
 Distortion-Factor×DPF
Types of CFL Ballasts
Types of CFL
 No Power-Factor Control
 Passive Power-Factor Control
 Valley-Filling (or equivalent)
 Active Power-Factor Control
Eclipse 20W CFL
Eclipse CFL Schematic
OSRAM DuluxStar 20W (2007)
+ve
OSRAM
DULUXSTAR 20W
2007
C3
R1
C
L1
D1
D3
C1
T1
R3
C4
B
D7
L4
E
R2
C2
C
B
L3
R5
L2
T2
D2
E
D4
R4
-ve
L5
PTC
E-Lite CFL (July 2007)
+ve
Elite
D5
D6
C4
R1
C
Fuse
L1
D1
D3
C6
C1
D7
T1
R3
C5
B
E
D8
L4
R2
C2
C3
C
B
L3
R5
L2
T2
D2
E
D4
R4
-ve
D9
L5
Eco-Bulb (2007)
+ve
Not fitted
C
D7
D1
B
Red
E
J1
R3
C9
RJ1
A
10uF
C2
C1
C
D6
J2
B
R2
T2
D2
PTC
C6
R1
D8
D3
C8
T1
E
D5
D4
-ve
C5
R4
RJ2
C7
Not fitted
Ecobulb 20W Schematic
P = 81.57
Main : Graphs
0.0001 [ohm]
1.0 [uF]
1.0 [uF]
1.0 [uF]
y (A)
0.0001 [ohm]
0.0001 [ohm]
y (A)
y (A)
y (A)
250 [ohm]
0.0001 [ohm]
D
D
Is_11
D
Is_10
220[ohm]
250 [ohm]
D
D
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
Is_10
Vs_10
250 [ohm]
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
180.0 [uF]
D
D
2.0 [uF]
D
180.0 [uF]
2.0 [uF]
Is_3
D
180.0 [uF]
Is4 VF
D V_doubler
1.00
Vs_9
Is_10
180.0 [uF]
A
V
D
Is_9
250 [ohm]
Vs_3
D
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
D
180.0 [uF]
D
2.0 [uF]
Is_3
D
2.0 [uF]
D
P = 57.3
0.80
D
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
-0.20
-0.40
-0.60
-0.80
D
2.0 [uF]
D
180.0 [uF]
D
D
Is improved VF V_doubler
Is_9
D
D
Is_8
Is9
180.0 [uF]
2.0 [uF]
Is_2
Vs_8
180.0 [uF]
A
V
Is VF V_doubler
250 [ohm]
Vs_2
D
180.0 [uF]
D
2.0 [uF]
Is_2
D
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
2.0 [uF]
D
P = 57.07
D
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
-0.25
-0.50
-0.75
-1.00
Is_8
2.0 [uF]
D
D
D
180.0 [uF]
D
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
-2.00
180.0 [uF]
2.0 [uF]
Is_oVF
D
Is8
2.0 [uF]
A
V
Is original VF
250 [ohm]
Vs_oVF
D
D
Is_7
180.0 [uF]
Is_oVF
2.0 [uF]
D
D
1.0 [uF]
P = 62.23
D
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
Vs_7
0.0001 [ohm]
D
0.0001 [ohm]
D
0.0001 [ohm]
y (A)
Is_1
Is7
Is_7
250 [ohm]
A
V
Is7
90.0 [uF]
Vs_1
Is simple
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
-4.0
250 [ohm]
Is_1
D
90.0 [uF]
0.0001 [ohm]
D
D
220[ohm]
D
1
Trig1
Trig1
Trig_IGBT
Idc_p2
D
D
0.950
Vs_6
0.960
0.970
D
1.0 [uF]
0.940
y (A)
0.0001 [ohm]
360.0 [uF]
0.930
D
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
0.980
0.990
Is_6
D
D
1.000
2.0 [uF]
Is_5
0.920
2
Trig_IGBT
0.910
D
Is_6
0.001 [H]
...
...
...
2
Trig_IGBT
250 [ohm]
A
V
180.0 [uF]
180.0 [uF]
1.0 [uF]
0.0001 [ohm]
0.4
Level
B Comparator
D
D
2.0 [uF]
0.0001 [ohm]
A
2.0 [uF]
Vs_5
Is6
0.0001[ohm]
10.0
7.5
5.0 Idc_p
2.5
0.0 [H]
0.001
-2.5
-5.0
-7.5
-10.0
D
250 [ohm]
Is_5
2.0 [uF]
D
Idc_p
D
D
D
P = 2971
220[ohm]
D
360.0 [uF]
D
D
Is5
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
D
-80
180.0 [uF]
y (A)
Is_12
y (A)
330 [ohm]
2.0 [uF]
0.0001 [ohm]
A
V
D
250 [ohm]
2.0 [uF]
Is_12
Vs_12
D
D
Is_11
250 [ohm]
D
Vs_11
180.0 [uF]
D
P = 64.02
220[ohm]
15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
Is_11
2.0 [uF]
D
D
D
180.0 [uF]
D
Is12
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
D
-1.00
-1.50
-2.00
2.0 [uF]
2.0 [uF]
Is_4
-1.00
250 [ohm]
Vs_4
A
V
180.0 [uF]
Is_4
2.0 [uF]
0.0001 [ohm]
P = 60.8
100
100
70
Simple
Orig VF
90
Improved VF
Active
80
Table 3
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
90
% Fundamental
80
0
0
10
20
30
Order
40
0
50
800
v
t
iMeasured(Osram)
600
iMeasured(Philips)
Current (mA)
400
Bad Brand
PSCAD/EMTDC Simple
200
0
-200
-400
-600
-800
0
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
400
i
Measured
vt
300
Orig VF +RFI
Current (mA)
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
0
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
100
PSCAD/EMTDC Simple
Osram
Philips
Bad Brand
90
80
70
50
h
I (%)
60
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
Harmonic Oder
25
30
What is possible for a CFL
400
300
CFL for North American Market
Current (mA)
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
0
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
What is possible for a CFL
250
Current (mA)
200
150
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
Harmonic order
25
30
35
400
Basic, no filtering
600
Active Power-Factor
Control
300
400
200
Current (mA)
Current (mA)
200
0
-200
-100
-300
-600
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
-400
0
Basic, with filtering
600
0.005
600
400
400
200
200
Current (mA)
Current (mA)
0
-200
-400
0
100
0
-200
-400
-400
-600
-600
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
0.015
0.02
Valley-fill or Equivalent
0
-200
0
0.01
Time (s)
0
0.005
0.01
Time (s)
0.015
0.02
250
90
Basic, no filtering
80
200
70
60
Current (mA)
RMS Current (mA)
Active Power-Factor
Control
50
40
150
100
30
20
50
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
Harmonic Oder
25
0
0
30
90
Basic, with filtering
80
70
70
60
60
RMS Current (mA)
RMS Current (mA)
10
15
20
Harmonic order
25
30
35
90
80
50
40
30
40
30
20
10
10
5
10
15
20
Harmonic Oder
25
30
Valley-fill or Equivalent
50
20
0
0
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
Harmonic Oder
25
30
180
Notice: form bands based on circuit type
160
I
THD (% fundamental)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
100
120
140
160
180
Voltage (Volts)
200
220
240
1
0.95
DPF
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
100
120
140
160
180
Voltage (Volts)
200
220
240
Analysis Methods
Frequency Domain
Advantages
- Can handle large systems
- Models frequency dependency
very well
Time Domain
Advantages
- Can model accurately interactions
(i.e. non-linear load <-> ac system
non-linear load <-> non-linear
load)
Disadvantages
- Harmonic Currents specified
Disadvantages
(No interaction between non-linear - Can only model a very small
device and AC System, No
system in this detail
interaction between non-linear
- Does not represent frequency
devices).
dependence of components well
Frequency Domain Analysis
Direct Harmonic Penetration
Study
CFL Characteristics
CFL Characteristics
AC System
Test System
1
Islington 220kV
100 MVA
X=10%
Islington 33kV
2
…..
x6
28,800 (15 4 10 8 6) customers modelled
33kV Feeder
Sockburn 33kV
3
Zone
Substation
10 MVA
X=8%
Sockburn 11kV
11kV Feeder
…..
x8
4
5
…..
x10
…..
x10
300 kVA
X=4%
6
LV Feeder
…..
x4
…..
x4
7
…..
x15
8
House
Load
Service
Mains
…..
x15
…..
x15
…..
x15
Breakdown of Losses into Branches
Branch
No.
Description
9
House Loads
8
Service Mains
7
LV Feeders
6
300 kVA Transformers
5
11 kV Feeders
4
33/11 kV Transformers
3
33 kV Feeders
2
33/220 kV
Transformers
1
220kV System
Breakdown of Harmonic Losses into
Frequencies
4
x 10
Difference in Active Power (kW)
2
1.5
P(incandescent)-P(CFL) for Underground System
This is like comparing apples and oranges
Good
Average
Poor
AS/NZS 61000-3-2
1
0.5
0
Loss_h
Loss_50
Loss_Total P_Load
Quantity
P_Diff
20
P (Watts)
15
10
5
100
120
140
160
180
Voltage (Volts)
200
220
240
Power Loss in Underground System
2500
Active Power (kW)
2000
Good
1500
Average
Poor
AS/NZS 61000-3-2
1000
500
0
Loss_50
Loss_h
Loss_Total
Power Loss in Overhead System
2500
Active Power (kW)
2000
Good
Average
Poor
AS/NZS 61000-3-2
1500
1000
500
0
Loss_50
Loss_h
Loss_Total
Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion
50
THDV 
V
i 2
V1
2
i
100 %
21st Harmonic (1050 Hz) Distortion Level
Detailed Transient Simulations
500
CFL 0 (domestic supply)
CFL 0 (sinewave)
SineWave
400
300
Current (mA)
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
0
Effect of voltage
distortion on current
waveform
0.005
0.01
Time
0.015
0.02
Harmonics
Very peaky current waveform rich in harmonics
80
Philips B1
Philips B2
Eco Bulb1 HPF
Eco Bulb2 HPF
500
Philips B1
Philips B2
Eco Bulb1 HPF
Eco Bulb2 HPF
400
70
300
60
200
Current (mA)
50
Current (mA)
100
0
-100
40
30
-200
20
-300
10
-400
-500
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
Time (sec.)
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
0
0
5
10
15
20
Harmonic order
25
30
35
100
CFL 0 (domestic supply)
CFL 0 (sinewave)
61000-3-2 limit
90
80
Current (mA)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
Order
20
25
30
Ecobulb
Magnitude of Current
5
4
3
2
1
330
0
0
st
21
Harmonic
Current
240
0.2
150
0.4
60
0.6
Level of V
0
Angle of V h
h
Elite
Osram
40
Magnitude of Current
Magnitude of Current
25
20
15
10
5
30
20
10
330
0
0
330
0
0
240
0.2
240
0.2
150
0.4
150
0.4
60
0.6
Level of V
h
0
Level of V
Angle of V h
60
0.6
h
0
Angle of V h
Ecobulb
90
60
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
3
120
30
90
2
60
120
30
Imaginary Part
1
90
150
120
150
180
180
30
0
0
150
0
180
330
0
-1
60
330
210
300
330
240 270
-2
210
300
240
210
-3
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Harmonic
Current
300
240
-4
st
21
270
270
1
Real Part
2
3
4
5
Osram
180
210
210
240
180
150
Imaginary Part
240
300
300
330
330
120
90
30
0
60
90
0
5
Real Part
60
90
-15
120
120
330
90
300
120
270
-20
150
-30
10
15
-20
300
270
240
180
180
-10
300
270
150
240
180210
150
60
30
-5
330
30 0
210
-30
30
-20
-10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
330
0
60
-25
90
60
0
-10
120
120
330
0
-15
150
270
0
30
90
210 180
300
-10
60
-5
270
270
0
150
240
-5
30
Imaginary Part
0
Elite
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
210
0
Real Part
240
10
20
4. Detailed Transient Simulations
Load Point 1
CFL 0
Load Point 2
CFL 1
CFL 2
Fixed Injection Model
CFL 0
Load Point 1
Load Point 2
CFL 1
CFL 2
PSCAD/EMTDC Study
SCR
System
Strength
Loading
0.1500 + j0.0750 pu
0.3000 + j0.1500 pu
0.4500 + j0.2250
pu
R=0.0075
L=8.0214e-5
Run 1
Load Point 1 =
5398.7378
Run 5
Load Point 1 =
2699.3689
Run 9
Load Point 1 =
1799.579
R=0.075
L=8.0214e-4
Run 2
Load Point 1 =
539.8738
Run 6
Load Point 1 =
269.9369
Run 10
Load Point 1 =
179.9579
R=0.75
L=8.0214e-3
Run 3
Load Point 1 =
53.9874
Run 7
Load Point 1 =
26.9937
Run 11
Load Point 1 =
17.9958
Run 8
Load Point 1 =
2.6994
Run 12
Load Point 1 =
1.7996
R=7.5
L=8.0214e-3
Run 4
Load Point 1 =
5.3987
CFL Current (Run 1)
Psn 0 (A)
0.5
0
-0.5
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
Time (s)
0.03
0.035
0.04
Psn 1 (A)
1
0
-1
0
Psn 2 (A)
1
0
-1
0
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 1)
Magnitude (A)
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
Note magnification of injection for CFLs
along feeder
0.02
0
0
Phase Angle (Degrees)
Psn 0
Psn 1
Psn 2
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
200
100
0
-100
-200
0
Magn. [Psn 0] (A)
Magn. [Psn 1] (A)
Magn. [Psn 2] (A)
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 1)
Detailed Model
Fixed Injection
0.05
0
0
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
0.05
0
0
0.05
0
0
Magn. [Psn 0] (V)
Magn. [Psn 1] (V)
Magn. [Psn 2] (V)
Harmonic Voltages (Run 1)
Detailed Model
Fixed Injection
0.05
0
0
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
80
100
0.05
0
0
0.1
Magnification of Voltage along feeder
0.05
0
0
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
CFL Current (Run 2)
Psn 0 (A)
0.5
0
-0.5
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.02
0.025
Time (s)
0.03
0.035
0.04
Psn 1 (A)
1
0
-1
0
Psn 2 (A)
1
Weaker system so oscillations
at lower frequency
0
-1
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 2)
Magnitude (A)
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
Phase Angle (Degrees)
Psn 0
Psn 1
Psn 2
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
20
40
60
Harmonic Order
80
100
200
100
0
-100
-200
0
Measurements made on a Domestic Supply
500
CFL 0 (domestic supply)
CFL 0 (sinewave)
SineWave
CFL 1 (domestic supply)
400
300
200
Oscillations
Current (mA)
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
0
0.005
0.01
Time
0.015
0.02
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 3)
0.5
Detailed Model
Fixed Injection
0
-0.5
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
Time (S)
0.035
0.04
0.5
0
-0.5
0.02
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0.02
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 4)
0.5
Detailed Model
Fixed Injection
0
-0.5
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
Time (S)
0.035
0.04
0.5
0
-0.5
0.02
0.5
0
-0.5
0.02
0.5
Detailed Model
Fixed Injection
0
-0.5
0.02
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Current (A)
CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 5)
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.025
0.03
Time (S)
0.035
0.04
1
0
-1
0.02
1
0
-1
0.02
For each harmonic there is a systemCFL Current (h=5)
strength and loading where a
maxima occurs
0.06
Magnitude (A)
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
4
3
3
2.5
Decreasing
2
2
1.5
System Strength
1
1
Increasing
System Loading
CFL Current (h=5)
Phase Angle (A)
200
100
0
-100
-200
4
3
3
2.5
Decreasing
2
2
1.5
System Strength
1
1
Increasing
System Loading
For each harmonic there is a systemCFL Current (h=7)
strength and loading where a
maxima occurs
0.04
Magnitude (A)
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
4
3
3
2.5
Decreasing
2
2
1.5
System Strength
1
1
Increasing
System Loading
THD (Voltage) Psn 2
3
Magnitude (%)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
4
3
3
2.5
Decreasing
2
2
1.5
System Strength
1
1
Increasing
System Loading
Other Studies
5. Other studies
Study 1: D.J. Pileggi, T.J. Gentile, A.E. Emanual,… et al, “The
Effect of Modern Compact Fluorescent Lights On Voltage
Distortion”, IEEE Trans. Of Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct.
1993, pp 2038-1042
Study 2: F.V. Topalis, “Efficiency Of Energy Saving Lamps And
Harmonic Distortion In Distribution Systems”, IEEE Trans. of
Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp 2038-1042
Study 3: T.-M. Zhou, X.-Y. Zhu, Y.-L. He, W. Cheng and J.
Schlejen, “Preliminary Investigation to the Effect of Harmonic
Distortion by CFL on Quality of Electric Power Systems”,
(Published?)
Study 4: N. Gothelf, Power Quality Effects of CFLs– A Field
Study, RIGHT LIGHT 4, 1997 VOLUME 2, pp. 77-81
Study 1
“Electronically ballasted fluorescent lights with highly
distorted current may jeopardize the reliability of the
distribution system and the “quality” of the electric
power delivered.”
D.J. Pileggi, T.J. Gentile, A.E. Emanual,… et al, “The
Effect of Modern Compact Fluorescent Lights On
Voltage Distortion”, IEEE Trans. Of Power Delivery,
Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp 2038-1042
Study 2
“These conclusions permit the formulation of the opinion
that the extensive future use of the energy efficient
lamps must be associated with simple and low cost
filtering and power factor correction techniques”
F.V. Topalis, “Efficiency Of Energy Saving Lamps And
Harmonic Distortion In Distribution Systems”, IEEE
Trans. of Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp
2038-1042
Study 3
T.-M. Zhou, X.-Y. Zhu, Y.-L. He, W. Cheng and J.
Schlejen, “Preliminary Investigation to the Effect of
Harmonic Distortion by CFL on Quality of Electric
Power Systems”
Four Cases:
Single Lamp
Home
Lab retrofit
Field Experiment
Study 3
“Our experiments show that for CFL THD according to
the new IEC 1000 proposal, in extremely high home
applications (5 CFLs per home), the contribution to
the V-THD is negligible, compared to TV and much
less than computer.”
Home Experiment
THDI
PC 120% (NZ 66.6%)
?
?
CFL 101-103% (NZ 120%)
TV 90% (NZ 120%)
Lab. Retrofit Test
V-THD variation
1.5-2%.
Experiment
repeated 8 times
Study 4
The test was divided in two phases:
Phase 1: Measurements in a one-family house. The
measurements were taken first without CFLs and then
after installing five CFLs.
Phase 2: Measurements in a residential district. The
measurements were taken in a residential district
consisting of 17 houses at existing load and then after
installing of three and six CFLs respectively in each
house.
Study 4
“The study shows that replacement of incandescent
lamps with CFLs is beneficial both for users and for
utilities. The main advantages of CFLs are:
- reduced energy consumption
- long lifetime
- released capacity of the distribution system
High harmonic distortion is the main reason that utilities
hesitate to advocate increased use of CFLs. They focus
mainly on the high relative current distortion. It is true
that for CFLs, the relative current distortion expressed in
percent of the fundamental may exceed 100%. However,
since fundamental current is very low …, the values of
harmonic currents are very low too.
Study 4
“The results indicate, that the harmonic generated by
the CFLs in residential districts have only a minor effect
on power quality of the supply network.”
N. Gothelf, Power Quality Effects of CFLs– A Field
Study, RIGHT LIGHT 4, 1997 VOLUME 2, pp. 77-81
This current
waveform is
significantly better
than most we see in
sold in New Zealand
Some of the Brands Tested
 Basix
 Marexim
 Canopower
 Mirabella
 Connection
 Nelson Lamps
 Dura Lamp
 No Frills
 Eclipse
 Osram
 Ecobulb
 Panasonic
 Elite
 Philips
 Everyhome
 Results
 GE
 Signature Range
 Kempthorne
 SmartLamp
 LuxTec
 Toshiba
 Wotan
Other Appliances
Current drawn by Electronic Equipment
1.5
PC
Scanner
TV
VCR
DVD
Stereo
CFL 1
CFL 2
1
Current (Amps)
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
0
0.005
0.01
Time (seconds)
0.015
0.02
Current Harmonics from Electronic Equipment
100
90
Current (% Fundamental)
80
70
60
PC
Scanner
TV
VCR
DVD
Stereo
CFL 1
CFL 2
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
Harmonic Order
Current drawn by Household Appliances
15
Microwave Oven
Washing Machine Pumping
Washing Machine3
10
Current (Amps)
5
0
-5
-10
-15
0
0.005
0.01
Time (seconds)
0.015
0.02
Washing Machine
8
Standard washing
6
1.9 Amps THDI = 132%
Current (Amps)
4
Spinning and Pumping
7.9 Amps THDI = 34%
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
0
0.005
0.01
Time (seconds)
0.015
0.02
Appliances Tested
 TV
 Microwave ovens
 VCR
 Mills
 DVD
 Halogen lights
 Stereo
 Fluorescent Lamps
 Clock/radio
 Fridge/freezers
 Home entertainment
systems
 Freezers
 PCs
 Dryers
 Monitors
 Plug packs
 Printers
 Scanners
 Washing machines
Heat-pump tests 2008
6. Conclusions
 The wide-spread use of CFLs can be expected to
reduce power quality.
 The weaker networks exhibit less correlation in the
harmonic current injection than stronger networks.
 Resonances between CFL and ac network
magnifies some frequency components (even for a
relatively strong ac network)
Acknowledgements
 Tas Scott & Stephen Hirsch, Orion N.Z. Ltd
 Vinod Kumar, Whisper Tech Limited
 Joseph Lawrence, EPE Centre Manager
 Lance Frater
 Ken Smart
 Geoff Neville, Enermet N.Z. Ltd.
The End
Any Questions?
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