Ancient Egypt and Nubia.

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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Introduction
Chapter Introduction
This chapter will introduce you to Ancient Egypt
and Nubia. You will learn all about the cultures of
those two regions, as well as the way geography
affected people’s lives.
Section 1: Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Section 2: Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Section 3: Egypt and Nubia
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Section 1
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Objective: Students will know how Egypt’s
geography shaped its civilization, that dynasties
of pharaohs ruled Egypt & that Egypt worshiped
many gods.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Key Ideas
Egypt’s unique geography helped shaped
its civilization and farming methods.
Pharaohs belonging to dynasties ruled Egypt
and were seen as gods.
Egyptians worshiped many gods.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Key Terms
cataract—group of rocky rapids
delta—a flat plain formed on a seabed where
a river deposits material over many years
artisan—skilled worker who practices a
handicraft
pharaoh—king of ancient Egypt
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Key Terms
dynasty—a series of rulers from the
same family
bureaucracy—a system of
government officials who carry out
government rules and regulations
mummy—a body that has been preserved
so it will not decompose
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
The Nile River Valley (pgs. 144 & 145)
At about 3,500 miles, the
is the world’s
longest river. Its sources are the Blue Nile and White Nile.
The Nile divides Egypt into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
separate the two parts.
Egyptians called the fertile area along the river “
.” Floods renewed “the Black Land” for farming.
Floods could also cause much destruction.
Egyptians called the deserts “
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.”
Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
The Nile River Valley, cont. (pgs. 144 & 145)
Where do the Blue Nile & White Nile meet to form the
Nile?
Why might it be significant that cataracts make traveling
upstream difficult on the Nile?
Which was more valuable to the Egyptians, the Black
Land or the Red Land?
How did the Nile influence the Egyptian food supply?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Civilization Develops (pg. 146)
How did technology aid Egypt’s food production?
How did increased food production
affect people’s livelihoods?
What are artisans?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
The Kingdoms of Egypt (pg. 147)
Egypt was first united in about
pharaoh then wore a
. The
.
The
lasted several hundred years.
The
lasted about 400 years and
ended in civil war. The
was the high
point of Egyptian power and prosperity. It was
destroyed by foreign invaders.
The Egyptian
handled government
business. It was a model for later governments.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Two Great Rulers (pg. 148)
How were the reigns of Hatshepsut and
Ramses II different from each other?
Hatshepsut
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Ramses II
Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Egyptian Society (pg. 149)
How was Egyptian society structured?
What does it mean that the pharaoh is
“at the top of the pyramid”?
Which social group was at
the bottom of the social pyramid?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Egyptian Religion (pgs. 150 & 151)
Some Egyptian Gods
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt Under the Pharaohs
Mummification (pgs. 150 & 151)
What was the significance of
mummification for the ancient Egyptians?
How did the process of mummification
advance the Egyptians’ knowledge of anatomy?
How did mummification
advance the arts in ancient Egypt?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Section 2
Arts, Architecture, & Learning in Egypt
Objective: Students will summarize ancient
Egypt’s main accomplishments & develop cultural
awareness about the role of mathematics in
building the pyramids.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Key Ideas
Egyptians developed one of the first systems
of writing and some of the world’s earliest
literature.
Egyptians built impressive pyramids and
produced beautiful works of art.
Egyptians were accomplished
mathematicians and scientists.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Key Terms
hieroglyphic—drawing or symbol that stands
for a word, idea, or sound
papyrus—a writing surface similar to paper
which ancient Egyptians made from reeds that
grew along the Nile
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Key Terms
pyramid—structure with triangular sides
sculpture—statue or other free-standing piece
of art made of clay, stone, or other materials
anatomy—study of the structure of the body
and its organs
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Writing and Literature (pgs. 152 & 153)
What is a hieroglyphic?
How does keeping records make
a complex civilization possible?
What is The Book of the Dead? (pg. 153)
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Papyrus (pg. 153)
Egyptians invented a material called
papyrus.
What material that we use today is similar
to papyrus?
List two qualities of papyrus that made it
better than clay for keeping records.
1.
2.
3.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Architecture (pgs. 154 & 155)
What figure stands near the pyramids at Giza?
Why do you think the Egyptian kings built large tombs?
Where did the pharaohs construct
their tombs after about 2200 B.C.?
What did Egyptians believe about
their spirits in the afterlife?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Painting and Sculpture (pg. 155)
We know about daily Egyptian life from
in tombs.
The tombs were decorated so the person buried
there could
the things shown
on the walls.
were placed in tombs so that if a
mummy were destroyed, the person’s spirit could
live in the
.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Egyptian Calendars (pgs. 156 & 157)
What were the two Egyptian calendars based on?
What was the lunar calendar used for?
What was the solar calendar used for?
How were Sirius & the Nile connected?
Why is a leap year needed in a solar calendar?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Mathematics (pg. 157)
How does the construction of the pyramids
prove the Egyptians were skilled
at mathematics?
.
List three other facts from the section
that prove the Egyptians had a good knowledge
of mathematics.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Science and Technology (pg. 157)
The Egyptians had an advanced knowledge of
astronomy. They used a
, a tool used
to observe the stars & planets by using its line &
weight to measure angles.
The Egyptians were masters of engineering,
developing the pyramids and
that
provided water to crops & relieved excess flooding.
The Egyptians invented
some
.
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,
, and
Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Art, Architecture, and Learning in Egypt
Egyptian Medicine (pg. 157)
What is anatomy?
How did Egyptian doctors gain such
a deep knowledge of the human body?
How did Egyptians use their knowledge
of the human body?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Section 3
Egypt & Nubia
Objective: Students will know that trade led to
diffusion between Egypt & its neighbors & how
the cultures of Egypt & Nubia were linked & yet
distinct.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Key Ideas
Trade led to cultural diffusion between Egypt
and neighboring lands.
Nubia had a close relationship with Egypt
and shared elements of its culture.
Nubia was also a unique African civilization
with its own accomplishments.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Key Terms
commerce—buying and selling of goods and
services
ivory—hard white material made from elephant
tusks
interdependence—dependence by each
country or group on the other
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Key Terms
Meroitic script—one of the world’s first
alphabets, invented in ancient Nubia
ebony—black wood from West Africa
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Trade in Ancient Egypt (pg. 158)
Why did Egypt need to trade
with other countries?
Which Middle Kingdom pharaoh
boosted trade with lands
on the Mediterranean coast?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Trade in the Nile Valley (pg. 159)
supplied Egypt with
.
,
supplied Nubia with
, and
.
and
,
,
This trade between the two nations created
.
Trade also brought closer contact and allowed the
two nations to influence each other. Nubians adopted
elements of Egyptian culture including
.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
The Land of Nubia (pg. 160)
Compare and contrast
the geography of Nubia and Egypt.
Egypt’s Geography
Nubia’s Geography
Both
•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
•
•
Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
The Land of Nubia (pg. 160)
made travel in Nubia difficult.
Nubia had less farming land than Egypt and traded
for
.
Nubia had closer contact with African peoples
south of the
than Egypt.
from Egypt and Nubia provide
most of the information we have about Nubia.
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Neighbors and Enemies (pg. 161)
Following which pharaoh’s rule did
the new Kingdom grow weak?
How did Piye conquer Egypt?
Why did Nubian control of Egypt
come to an end?
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
The Fall of Nubia (pg. 161)
End of Nubia
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Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Nubian Civilization (pg. 162)
After Egypt destroyed Napata, the Nubians
moved the capital city south to
. The city
was located near iron deposits for ironworking
and along trade routes, increasing Nubia’s
.
Nubian pyramids were
than Egyptian
ones but served the same purpose.
were powerful female rulers in Nubia.
The
alphabets.
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was one of the world’s first
Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Egypt and Nubia
Nubia’s Links to Africa and the World (pg. 163)
Where did Nubia’s ebony come from?
What effect did war with
the Roman empire have on Nubia?
According to the chapter text,
what was the main way Nubia was linked
to other countries?
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