Respiratory System Bryce Hennings & Brooke Taylor Function To

Bryce Hennings & Brooke Taylor
To supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
from the blood as it circulates through the
Upper Respiratory Tract
• Consists primarily of the nose (nostrils and
nasal passages)
• Mouth
• Nasopharynx
• Oropharynx
• Laryngopharynx
• Larynx
• These structures filter, warm, and humidify
inspired air.
• Detects taste, smell, chewing and swallowing
of food.
Nostrils and Nasal Passages
• Air enters through your nostrils where small
hairs and mucus filter out dust and foreign
• Air passes into two nasal passageways,
separated by what is called the septum.
Nose Continued…
• Sinuses and nasopharynx: located in the
frontal, sphenoid, and maxillary bones
• Sinuses provide speech resonance
• Nasopharynx located behind nose and above
Oropharynx and
• Oropharynx posterior wall of mouth
• It connects nasopharynx and laryngopharynx
• Laryngopharynx extends to the esophagus
and larynx
• Contains the vocal cords and connects the
pharynx with the trachea.
Lower Respiratory Tract
• Consists of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
• These structures contain a mucous
membrane with hair like cilia which lines the
lower tract.
• Cilia cleans the tract.
• Extends from the cricoid cartilage
• C shaped cartilage rings that protect and
prevent it from collapsing
• The primary bronchi begin at the carina.
• Right mainstream delivers air to the right
lung, left mainstream to the left.
• Secondary bronchi enter the pleural cavities
and the lungs at the hilum and located
behind the heart.
• Respiratory bronchioles eventually become
alveolar ducts, which terminate in clusters of
capillary-swathed alveoli.
• Type 1 cells are the most abundant. They are thin,
flat, squamous cells that gas exchange occurs.
• Type 2 cells secrete surfactant, which is a substance
that coats alveolus and promotes gas exchange by
lowering surface tension.
• Cone shaped, straddle the heart, anchored by
root and pulmonary ligaments.
• Right lung is shorter, broader and larger.
• 3 lobes (right) & handles 55% of gas exchange
• 2 lobes (left)
Pleura and Pleural Cavities
• Pleura – membrane that totally encloses lung
& composed of a visceral layer and parietal
• Visceral pleura hugs entire lung surface.
Serous Fluid & Functions
• Pleural cavity - space between visceral and
parietal layers contains a thin film of serous
fluid which…
• Lubricates pleural surfaces
• Creates a bond between the layers that
causes the lungs to move the chest wall when
Thoracic Cavity
• Area surrounded by diaphragm, the scalene
muscles and fascia of the neck and ribs,
intercostal muscles, vertebrae, sternum, and
ligaments (around the circumference)
• This is the space between the lungs which
contains the…
• Heart and pericardium
• Thoracic aorta
• Pulmonary artery and veins
• Venae cavae and azygos veins
• Thymus, lymph nodes and vessels
• Trachea, esophagus and thoracic duct
• Vagus, cardiac, and phrenic nerves
Thoracic Cage
• It is composed of bone and cartilage which
supports and protects the lungs, allowing
them to expand and contract
• Posterior & anterior
How You Breathe
Inspiration and Expiration
• Breathing simply involves inspiration and
• Both actions rely on respiratory muscle
functions and effects of pressure
• Rising of the diaphragm and relaxation of the
intercostal muscles causes and increase in
intrapleural pressure, resulting in expiration
• External intercostal muscles aid the
• Diaphragm descends to lengthen the chest
cavity while intercostal muscles contract
• This causes a reduction in intrapleural
pressure, resulting in inspiration
What Affects Breathing?
• Exercise is a major factor of determining
breathing because when you exercise your
body requires more oxygen
• Forced inspiration: when all of your muscles
involved in breathing contract while trying to
let in more oxygen for the lungs
• Active Expiration: internal intercostal muscles
contract to shorten the chest’s diameter and
depressing the ribs
Nervous System
• Involuntary breathing results from
stimulation of the respiratory center in the
medulla and the pons of the brain
• Monitors amounts of carbon dioxide in the
blood (involuntarily)
• When carbon dioxide levels rise, the rate and
depth of breathing increases to eliminate
excess carbon dioxide
• Medulla also controls the contraction of the
diaphragm which produce intrapulmonary
pressure which causes inspiration.
• When the workload of your body is
increased, efficiency is decreased.
Gas Exchange
• Occurs rapidly in millions of tiny alveoli.
• Inside these air sacs, oxygen inhaled diffuses
into the blood while carbon dioxide diffuses
from the blood into the air (exhaled).
• Then blood circulates throughout the body,
delivering oxygen and picking up carbon
• Finally blood returns to lungs to be
oxygenated again.
Acid-Base Balance
• Oxygen taken up into the lungs is transported
to the tissues by circulatory system
• Is then exchanged for carbon dioxide
produced by metabolism in body cells
• Carbon dioxide can dissolve in blood which
forms bicarbonate (base) and smaller
amounts of carbonic acid (acid).
Most Common Forms of Lung
• Asthma.
• Bronchitis.
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
• Emphysema.
• Lung cancer.
• Pneumonia.
• Pulmonary edema.
Respiration Changes With Aging
• Structural – lungs become more rigid, alveoli
number decreases as well as size.
• 30% reduction in respiratory fluids which
heightens the risk of pulmonary infection and
mucus plugs.
• Closes airways due to poor ventilation
• Lung tissue degeneration
Works Cited
“Anatomy & Physiology made Incredibly Easy!” Fourth Edition.
Google Images (Diagrams).
Norris, Maggie and Siegfried Rae Donna. “Anatomy & Physiology for Dummies.”
"Organs Involved in the Respiratory System." Organs Involved in the Respiratory
System. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
"Respiratory System | MyVMC." MyVMC. 26 June 2006. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
"Respiratory System - Breathing; Inspiration (inhalation) and Expiration (exhalation)."
YouTube. YouTube. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
"Structure of the Respiratory System." Structure of the Respiratory System. Web. 29 Apr.
"What Controls Your Breathing?" - NHLBI, NIH. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.