A morpheme (It has a meaning). Also called an affix. We call it a prefix. A base morpheme A word that can make sense on its own. It gives the word a meaning. A morpheme (It has a meaning). Also called an affix. We call it a suffix. un circum trans re un like able like less selfish navigate global submit brand care able ness able ly ment able less https://www.learnthat.org/pages/view/roots.html#p ROOT MEANINGS Suffixes are word endings that add a certain meaning to the word. Click on the icon to the left and add the suffix list to your LearnThatWord profile for personalized review. If you don't have an account yet, you can start one in a few seconds. It's free! To jump to a word's listing, please click on its first letter: a-d e-h i-m n-r s-z Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -able able to be excitable, portable, preventable -ac pertaining to cardiac, hemophiliac, maniac -acity (-ocity) quality of perspicacity, sagacity, velocity Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -ade act, action or process, product blockade, cavalcade, promenade, -age action or process passage, pilgrimage, voyage -aholic (-oholic) one with an obsession for workaholic, shopaholic, alcoholic -al relating to bacterial, theatrical, natural -algia pain neuralgia, nostalgia, -an (-ian) relating to, belonging to Italian, urban, African -ance state or quality of brilliance, defiance, annoyance -ant a person who applicant, immigrant, servant inclined to, tending to brilliant, defiant, vigilant of or relating to, being lunar, molecular, solar a person who beggar, burglar, liar -ard a person who does an action coward, sluggard, wizard -arian a person who disciplinarian, vegetarian, librarian -arium (orium) a place for terrarium, aquarium, solarium -ary of or relating to literary, military, budgetary -ate state or quality of (adj.) affectionate, desolate, obstinate makes the word a verb (different pronunciation) activate, evaporate, medicate -ation action or process creation, narration, emancipation -ative tending to (adj.) creative, preservative, talkative -cide act of killing homicide, suicide, genocide -ar Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -cracy rule, government, power bureaucracy, aristocracy, theocracy -crat someone who has power aristocrat, bureaucrat, technocrat -cule diminutive (making something small) molecule, ridicule, -cy state, condition or quality efficiency, privacy, belligerency -cycle circle, wheel bicycle, recycle, tricycle -dom condition of, state, realm boredom, freedom, wisdom -dox belief, praise orthodox, paradox -ectomy surgical removal of appendectomy, hysterectomy -ed past tense called, hammered, laughed -ee receiver, performer nominee, employee, devotee -eer associated with/engaged in engineer, volunteer -emia blood condition anemia, hypoglycemia, leukemia -en makes the word a verb awaken, fasten, strengthen -ence state or condition, action absence, dependence, negligence -ency condition or quality clemency, dependency, efficiency -ent inclined to performing/causing, or one who performs/causes competent, correspondent, absorbent -er more bigger, faster, happier action or process flutter, ponder, stutter a person who does an action announcer, barber, teacher state or quality of eastern, northern, western -ern Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -escence state or process adolescence, convalescence -ese relating to a place Chinese, Congolese, Vietnamese -esque in the style of Kafkaesque, grotesque, burlesque -ess female actress, heiress, lioness -est most funniest, hottest, silliest -etic relating to (makes the word an adj.) athletic, energetic, poetic -ette diminutive (makes something smaller) cigarette, diskette, kitchenette -ful full of helpful, thankful, cheerful -fy make, cause (makes the word a verb) amplify, falsify, terrify -gam/gamy marriage, union monogam, polygamy -gon/gonic angle hexagon, polygonic, pentagon -hood state, condition, or quality childhood, neighborhood, motherhood -ial relating to celestial, editorial, martial -ian relating to Martian, utopian, pediatrician -iasis diseased condition elephantiasis, psoriasis -iatric healing practice pediatric, psychiatric, -ible able to be audible, plausible, legible -ic/ical relating to, characterized by analytic/al, comic/al, organic -ile relating to, capable of agile, docile, volatile Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -ily in what manner sloppily, steadily, zanily -ine relating to canine, feminine, masculine -ing materials bedding, frosting, roofing action or process dancing, seeing, writing -ion action or process celebration, completion, navigation -ious having the qualities of, full of ambitious, cautious, gracious -ish relating to, characteristic apish, brutish, childish -ism state or quality altruism, despotism, heroism -ist a person, one who does an action artist, linguist, pianist -ite resident of, follower, product of suburbanite, luddite, dynamite -itis inflammation, preoccupation appendicitis, tonsillitis, frontrunneritis -ity state, condition, or quality abnormality, civility, necessity -ive inclined to; quality of; that which attractive, expensive, repulsive -ization act or process of making colonization, fertilization, modernization -ize cause, treat, become antagonize, authorize, popularize -less without fearless, helpless, homeless -let version of booklet, droplet, inlet -like resembling, characteristic childlike, homelike, lifelike -ling younger or inferior duckling, underling Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -loger/logist one who does astrologer, cardiologist, chronologer -log speech dialog, monolog, -ly in what manner badly, courageously, happily -ment action, result movement, placement, shipment -ness state or quality (makes a noun) kindness, shyness, weakness -oid resembling humanoid, tabloid, hemorrhoid -ology study of, science of anthropology, archaeology, biology -oma tumor, swelling carcinoma, osteoma, hematoma -onym name, word synonym, antonym, homonym -opia eye defect myopia, nyctalopia, hyperopia -opsy examination biopsy, autopsy, necropsy -or a person who inventor, legislator, translator -ory relating to armory, dormitory, laboratory -osis process, diseased condition diagnosis, prognosis, neurosis, psychosis -ostomy/otomy surgical colostomy, lobotomy, craniotomy -ous full of hazardous, humorous, wondrous -path one who engages in homeopath, naturopath, psychopath -pathy feeling, diseased sympathy, apathy, neuropathy -phile one who loves bibliophile, audiophile, pyrophile Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -phobia abnormal fear of acrophobia, claustrophobia, xenophobia -phone sound homophone, telephone, microphone -phyte plant, to grow zoophyte, cryptophyte, epiphyte -plegia paralysis paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia -plegic one who is paralyzed paraplegic, technoplegic, quadriplegic -pnea air, spirit apnea, hyperpnea, orthopnea -scopy/scope visual exam arthroscopy, gastroscopy, microscope -scribe/script to write transcript, describe, manuscript -sect to cut dissect, insect, bisect -ship state or condition of, skill of authorship, citizenship, friendship -sion state or quality confusion, depression, tension -some characterized by, group of cumbersome, quarrelsome, foursome -sophy/sophic wisdom, knowledge philosophy, theosophy, anthroposophic -th state or quality depth, length, strength -tion state or quality attention, caution, fascination -tome/tomy to cut hysterectomy, epitome, tonsillotome -trophy nourishment, growth atrophy, hypertrophy, dystrophy -tude state, condition or quality fortitude, gratitude, magnitude -ty state, condition or quality ability, honesty, loyalty -ular relating to or resembling cellular, circular, muscular Suffix Meanings Sample Words and Definitions -uous state or quality of arduous, tumultuous, virtuous -ure action, condition closure, erasure, failure -ward specifies direction backward, eastward, homeward -ware things of the same type or material hardware, software, kitchenware -wise in what manner of direction clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise -y made up of, characterized brainy, fruity, gooey Are you feeling gruntled? SEPTEMBER 6TH, 2007 Q: Is there a name for a word like “gruntled” (as in “disgruntled”) or “ruth” (as in “ruthless”) that exists only within another word? A: The term you’re looking for is a “cranberry morpheme.” A morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit. A bound morpheme (a prefix or a suffix, for example) must be attached to another linguistic unit. A free or unbound morpheme (a word like “cat,” “got,” or “yes”) makes sense on its own. A cranberry morpheme (also known as a fossilized term) is a kind of bound morpheme. In theory, it doesn’t mean anything by itself, but many were once legitimate words and some have become words again, often used for comic effect. The verb “gruntle,” for example, meant to grunt like a pig as far back as 1400, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. By the 16th century, it meant to grumble or complain. A century later, the prefix “dis,” meaning very, joined in, giving us our modern words “disgruntle” and “disgruntled.” You rarely hear “gruntle” or “gruntled” used alone now, except in humor, as in this quote from P.G. Wodehouse: “He spoke with a certain what-is-it in his voice, and I could see that, if not actually disgruntled, he was far from being gruntled.” The words “ruth,” meaning compassion or pity, and “ruthless,” meaning pitiless, have been around since the days of Chaucer, but the OED doesn’t have any published references for plain old “ruth” since the 19th century. Many cranberry morphemes appear in only one form. The “cran” of “cranberry” used to be one of them (excluding a few obscure terms like the one denoting the capacity of a herring barrel). But in recent years Ocean Spray has used “cran” (the ur-cranberry morpheme) in the names of new juices like Cran-Apple, Cran-Cherry, Cran-Grape, and Cran-Mango. Now, where did “cran” come from? There are two theories: One is that cranes used to visit bogs and eat the berries. The other is that the stem, calyx, and petals of a cranberry flower resemble the neck, head, and bill of a crane. Note: If you google “Jack Winter” and “New Yorker,” you should find a story written about a dozen years ago called “How I Met My Wife.” Every sentence has at least one cranberry morpheme. Buy Pat’s books at a local store or Amazon.com.