Unit 3, Lesson 2 Government Smart Start What is the absolute location of Mexico City? What is the absolute location of Rio de Janero? What is the relative location of Columbia? What is the relative location of Uruguay? Why is Latin America called a cultural region? Today’s Objectives SWBAT describe the cultural aspects of ancient civilizations in Latin America. SWBAT explain the lasting effects of the Mayan, Incan, and Aztecan cultures in Latin America. Keep in mind… In this lesson, scholars are going to need to teach their classmates’ the information that they need to know in the jigsaw activity. If they are not actively trying to be good COMMUNICATORS, then they will not learn everything they need to learn that day. What do they have in common? Cultural Diffusion Cultural diffusion is when the cultural aspects of one culture spread to other places/people. (Think “salad bowl.” Important Questions What is cultural definition in your own words? Big Thought What are examples of cultural diffusion? Individual Work You are going to fill an info page for each of the ancient Latin American civilizations. Draw pictures, write notes – these are your notes to study for the next text! MAYAN CULTURE Time Line Architecture 300s-900s A.D. Mayan cities were abandoned in the 900s for unknown reasons, perhaps due to war, disease, crop failure, or draughts. Mayans built great cities that were centers for culture and religion. Farmers grew maize (corn) in the fields surrounding the cities. They also grew beans, peppers, avocados, papayas, and squash. Great pyramids were built as temples to the gods. Miscellaneous The Mayan Civilization was located in southern Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula) and the northern Central American countries (Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador). MAYAN CULTURE Numbering system that included ZERO – a placeholder that means there is none of something. (EX: For 308, there are no tens.) Contributions Calendar (which we still use today) Pok-a-tok, a game similar to a basketball/soccer combo. This was the first spectator sport. AZTEC CULTURE Time Line 1100s-1500s A.D. Hernan Cortez, a Spanish conquistador, easily conquered the Aztecs who mistook him for a good-like figure. (Huge ships, horses, metal armor, white skin were all unknown and new to them.) Moctezuma, King of the Aztecs, showed Cortez the civilization’s gold, silver, and other riches; Cortez stole them for the King of Spain and claimed the land for Spain. War, disease, and harsh labor reduced the population of “New Spain” from 25 million to less than 3 million over the first 50 years of Spanish occupation. Architecture Aztecs built great cities that were centers for culture and religion. Farmers grew maize (corn) in the fields surrounding the cities. Miscellaneous The Mayan Civilization was located on the Central Mexican Plateau between the Sierra Madre Mountains to the east and west. The plateau was great for farming to feed a large population, and the mountains provided a natural barrier to invading forces. AZTEC CULTURE More than 1000 medicines were created from plants. Aztec astronomers predicted eclipses and the movement of the planets. Contributions Aztecs forced the tribes they conquered to pay tribute (taxes), making them the first tax collectors. Like the Mayans, they also created a system of letters and numbers (hieroglyphics) and a calendar. INCAN CULTURE Time Line Architecture 1200s-1500s A.D. Francisco Pizzaro, a Spanish conquistador with a small army of soldiers, easily conquered the Incas. Their roads allowed the conqueror easy access to all parts of the empire. Aztecs built great cities that were centers for culture and religion. The Incan Empire was 2500 miles along the west coast of South America, but it was covered with more than 19,000 miles of roads. The Incan’s built aqueducts to carry water from the Andes Mountains to irrigate their farmlands. Terraced farming allowed them to build Machu Picchu, a “city in the clouds” atop one of the taller Andes Mountains. Miscellaneous Descendants of the Mayan Civilization live in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Columbia, and still speak the Incan language of Quechua. INCAN CULTURE Incans were inventive architects and builders. They built: 19,000 miles of roads – from modern-day Ecuador through Peru, and Bolivia, Chile to Argentina – going over some of the most mountainous land in the world. Contributions Farmland was increased by building terraces into the side of steep slopes. Aqueducts (pipes or channels to carry water from a distant location) allowed the Incas to irrigate land to grow crops. MAYAN AZTEC 300s-900s AD Disappeared for unknown reasons • Calendar • Zero • Pok-a-tok was first spectator sport Civilizations located in southern Mexico and northern Central America 1100s-1500s AD Conquered by Hernan Cortez • 1000+ medicines • Predicted eclipses Built great cities for culture and • First to collect taxes religion Had their own hieroglyphics Farmed corn to feed people Left something important to Conquered by to the world Spanish conquistadors 1200s-1500s AD Conquered by Francisco Pizzaro • Architects: built 19,000 mi of roads • Aqueducts for irrigation • Machu Picchu (terraced farming) INCAN Are they really gone? Whether these cultures were killed (Aztec, Inca) or disappeared (Maya) doesn’t matter – they left a print on Latin America and you can still see their influences (farming, language, games, carvings, etc.) Group Work With a table partner, find examples of cultural diffusion from the three ancient cultures – what still exists today because the ancient civilizations spread their cultural traits? Put a star next to those areas on your worksheet. Independent Work Respond to the following questions: 1. What was on example of adaptation that you learned about today? 2. What was one example of modification that you learned about today? 3. What role did conflict play in these cultures? 4. What do you think is the most important contribution that these ancient cultures made to Latin America? Why? 5. Which cultural aspect has lasted the longest? Why? Big Thought What do you think is the most important contribution that these ancient cultures made to Latin America? Why?