CH 34 & 35 Ecology 34.1 The Biosphere is the Global Ecosystem Ecology = study of organisms and their environment Biotic Factors = living components of ecosystem Examples… Abiotic Factors = nonliving components of ecosystem Examples… 34.1 5 Levels of Study Individual Organisms Examples 34.1 5 Levels of Study Populations = group of same species living in the same area Examples 34.1 5 Levels of Study Communities = all of the organisms living in the same area Examples 34.1 5 Levels of Study Ecosystems = abiotic plus biotic factors Examples 34.1 5 Levels of Study Biosphere = sum of all ecosystems 34.1 Patchiness Uneven distribution of factors creates habitats Habitat = specific environment in which organisms live Examples Forests Marshes Ponds 34.1 Key Abiotic Factors Sunlight Water Temperature Soil Wind Severe Disturbances 34.1 Concept Check Questions 1. Draw a diagram showing the relationship among the five levels of ecological study. 1. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism 34.1 Concept Check Questions 2. Describe what is meant by the "patchiness" of the environment. 34.1 Concept Check Questions 3. Explain the importance of sunlight as an abiotic factor in terrestrial ecosystems. Controls: Temperature Humidity Photosynthesis rates Etc. 34.1 Concept Check Questions 4. Define biotic and abiotic factors and give an example of each for a particular ecosystem. Biotic- living factor Grass, bacteria, squirrel, tree Abiotic – nonliving factor Rock, water, air 34.1 Concept Check Questions 5. Explain why it is more accurate to define the biosphere as the global ecosystem than as the global community. The biosphere includes abiotic as well as biotic features… therefore the term ecosystem is more appropriate. 34.2 Climate determines patterns in the biosphere Sun’s rays produce 3 zones: Arctic Temperate Tropic 34.2 Difference in temperatures produces winds… adding to effect 34.2 Local Climate = daily weather for a small area (Sycamore vs. Chicago) Can be different due to… Lake Michigan Mississipi River Valley Microclimate = differences within area Due to shade, buildings, above/below ground Concept Check 34.2 1. Explain how the uneven heating of Earth's surface creates different temperature zones. 2. How do surface currents affect climate patterns? 3. Why might a town located on a large lake be cooler in the summer than a town 100 kilometers away from the lake? 4. Give an example of a microclimate 34.3 Biome = major type of terrestrial ecosystem that covers a large area of land Major Biomes tropical rain forest savanna desert chaparral temperate grassland temperate deciduous forest coniferous forest tundra Tropical Rainforest •Warm temps •Up to 350 cm of precipitation/yr •Diverse life forms •Tall trees •Poor soil quality Savanna Grassland with scattered shrubs and trees Wet and dry seasons Mainly warm Desert Less than 30cm of precip/yr Hot days/cold nights Can be all cold Chaparral Along coasts Evergreen shrubs Wet winters hot dry summers Temperate Grassland Warm summers Cold winters Occasional fires Deciduous Forest •Significant precipitation •Trees drop leaves each year •Warm summers, cold winters Coniferous Forest Dry and cold Evergreens Trees do NOT drop leaves AKA tiaga Tundra Permafrost Plants are low and shrubby Alpine or arctic Low light Concept Check 34.3 1. What factors determine the type of biome in an area? 2. Compare and contrast tropical rain forests, temperate deciduous forests, and coniferous forests. 3. Give an example of how a desert organism has adapted to the abiotic conditions there. 1. Climate (temperature & precipitation) and Latitude 34.4 Concept Check 34.4 1. Describe the abiotic factors that affect organisms in ponds, streams, and estuaries. 2. Compare and contrast the intertidal zone, neritic zone, and oceanic zone. 3. Discuss sunlight as an abiotic factor in coral reefs and vent communities.