TP-CASTT Poetry Analysis Understanding meaning and how technique enhances meaning Summary of TP-CASTT Analysis Title Ponder the title before reading the poem. Paraphrase Translate the poem into our own words. Connotation Contemplate the poem for meaning beyond the literal. Attitude Observe both the speaker’s and the poet’s attitude (tone). Shifts Note shifts in speaker and in attitudes Title Examine the title again, this time on an interpretive level. Theme Determine what the poet is saying. Title • Ponder the title before reading the poem. • Write your first impressions of the title. • Predict such elements as mood, tone, and theme, for example. Paraphrase • Translate the poem into your own words. • This is more difficult with modern poems that are more similar to your own diction and syntax. • For longer poems, work in stanzas, for shorter poems, work line by line. • Focus on the literal, denotative use of the words, not the deeper meaning. Connotation • Contemplate the poem for meaning beyond the literal. • What is the speaker actually conveying with their words? • You should note holistic connotations present in complete stanzas • Include specific choices of diction, idioms, punctuation, etc. Attitude • Observe both the speaker’s attitude (mood) and the poet’s attitude (tone). • Go beyond simply naming the tone and mood– explain how these are created. • Comment on specific words, phrases, poetic devices, punctuation, etc. that the poet employs to convey attitude. Shifts • Note shifts in speaker, point of view, attitude, time, diction, syntax, punctuation, etc. • Go beyond identifying the shift and its location in the poem: how is it created? • Be specific. Title • Examine the title again, this time on an interpretive level. • What new insights do you have on the title after reading the poem? • Note such elements as sarcasm, understatement, attitude, etc. Theme • Determine what the poet– not the speaker-is saying. • What affect does the poet want the poem to have on the reader? • A single word may be a symbol or a motif, but not a theme. • Themes are complete sentences, in the third person, stated as a universal truth.