National 5 Exam preparation Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation • Answering questions using your own words • Picking out and explaining why certain words have been used • Explaining why sentence types are effective including linking • Summarising points/ideas made by the writer • Explaining effective imagery and use of language • Identify and explain the tone/attitude of the writer This week – Sentence structure/link You need to explain how the sentence is put together and explain why it has been done in a certain way. In order to get the marks you should: Identify the feature of sentence structure Quote or give the line number Comment on the effect of the sentence Task One: Copy out this list of possible sentence structure features Short (minor) sentence Rhetorical question Parenthesis Use of list, climax/anti-climax Ellipsis Repetition Antithesis (balanced structure) If you don’t know what these words mean then ask! You won’t get marks for just mentioning the feature Now try a couple of examples The transaction seemed to fluster her, as if she might not have enough money to pay for the few things she’d bought. A tin of lentil soup. An individual chicken pie. One solitary tomato. Maybe she did need the avocados – or something else. Q: How does the writer emphasis that the woman had bought ‘few things’ through the use of sentence structure? A: To emphasise how little she bought the writer puts each item in a sentence of its own. The surreal plot emerged from bedtime stories Dahl told to daughters Tessa and Olivia. The hero, four-year-old James, is orphaned after his parents are killed by a rhinoceros. James is sent to live with his wicked aunts, the start of a traditional Dahl theme – the solitary child at the mercy of cruel adults. Q: Describe a feature of sentence structure in this paragraph and explain the purpose of this feature. A: Use of a dash. Used to introduce the traditional theme Here are some key punctuation features you should know … Ellipsis Dots used to tail off a sentence or to show gaps in speech or writing : Colon Often used to introduce a list, a quotation, an idea, information, an explanation or statement - Dash (parenthesis) Can be used like a pair of brackets to set aside information or singly to introduce a piece of information ‘‘ Inverted commas Go round exact words said when someone speaks or round the words quoted or can imply that something is just ‘so called’ () Brackets Used to separate off information which is interesting but not vital. The sentence would still make sense without the information in the brackets Linking questions You could be asked to explain how paragraphs (ideas) are linked together through the structure of a sentence. There are 4 things you should do in order to get full marks: • • • • What the idea is BEFORE the link QUOTE from the link sentence showing that idea What the idea is AFTER the link QUOTE from the link sentence showing the new idea The three witches in Macbeth, prancing and cackling round their cauldron, provide the accepted cliches of witch behaviour and taste. Alas the Macbeth witches have merely served to reinforce prejudice, rather than cast illumination. So does the witch deserve her poor image? It is probably that the Wiccan creed goes back to the dawn of religious belief, when cave dwellers peered out and saw wonder in the rhythm of the changing seasons. Early witchcraft was probably no more than a primitive attempt to make sense of the unknown. Q: In what way can the single sentence be regarded as a link of the ideas within this article? Answer 1. ‘her poor image’ 2. Refers back to the prejudiced ideas about withes mentioned already, such as those found in Macbeth. 3. The questions ‘Does the witch deserve…?’ 4. Introduces the next part of the passage, which is going to present a truer history of witchcraft.